The attentional blink (AB) is an impairment of attention, which occurs when subjects have to report a target stimulus (T2) following a previous target (T1) with a short delay (up to 600 ms). Theories explaining the AB assume that processing of T2 is more vulnerable to decay or substitution, as long as attention is allocated to T1. Existing models of the AB, however, do not account for the fact that T2 detection accuracy reaches the minimum when T2 is presented after (...) about 300 ms and not immediately following T1. Therefore, a new model is suggested, which is based on chronometrical considerations together with recent neurophysiological findings concerning the relation between the P3 event-related potential and the AB, the interaction between P3 and gamma oscillations, and the significance of the early evoked gamma band response. We hypothesize that suppression of the early gamma response to T2, accompanying the P3 related to T1, causes the AB. (shrink)
If the explanatory gap between phenomenal consciousness () and the brain cannot be closed by current naturalistic theories of mind, one might instead try to dissolve the explanatory gap problem. We hold that such a dissolution can start from the notion of consciousness as a social construction. In his target article, however, Block (1995) argues that the thesis that consciousness is a social construction is trivially false if it is construed to be about phenomenal consciousness. He ridicules the idea that (...) the occurrence of p-consciousness requires that the subject of p-consciousness already have the concept of p-consciousness. This idea is not as ridiculous as Block supposes. To see this, one must accept that in a unique sense, p-consciousness is what we as the subjects of consciousness takeit to be. Furthermore, the notion of consciousness as a social construction does not depend on the view that the concept of consciousness somehow precedes the occurrence of consciousness as such. In sum, consciousness can plausibly be seen as a social construction, and this view can promote a dissolution of the explanatory gap problem. (shrink)
An action-oriented theory of embodied memory is favorable for many reasons, but it will not provide a quick yet clean solution to the grounding problem in the way Glenberg (1997t) envisages. Although structural mapping via analogical representations may be an adequate mechanism of cognitive representation, it will not suffice to explain representation as such.
Fourteen essays by former pupils of Calhoun, including G. A. Lindbeck, W. A. Christian, N. C. Nielsen, Jr., R. P. Ramsey, and A. C. Outler. The depth of scholarship that these former students have achieved as well as the generally high calibre of all the essays are ample evidence of Calhoun's pedagogical prowess. Most of the contributions are of theological import, and most are historically oriented as the title of the book suggests. Lindbeck's essay, however, "The A Priori in (...) St. Thomas' Theory of Knowledge," has direct philosophical relevance for those concerned over the "Transcendental" interpretation of Thomas' epistemology and metaphysics. Nothing is advanced over the arguments of Maréchal, Lonergan, and Rahner in favor of this interpretation, but this additional support in a new context lends strength to the thesis.—E. A. R. (shrink)
Though he specifically disavows any intention of providing an answer to the question of whether philosophy in a Christian context can have a theoretical independence from revelation and faith, Tresmontant does offer what he considers to be empirical support for the thesis that metaphysics, when it has developed within the Christian community, has been considerably shaped in its adopted form by the recognized, spiritually authoritative sources of that community. Specifically, Tresmontant reviews the pronouncements of the various Councils of (...) the Church, and to some extent Scripture, and sketches on the basis of these sources what he considers to be a continuously developing and consistently maintained metaphysical perspective on the issues of Creation, God's transcendence, the non-dualistic character of human nature and human destiny, and the completional relation that exists between faith and reason. The value of the book is difficult to assess because it is precisely when one goes beyond the sketch that the author has provided that one encounters all the objections that have been put forth to defeat a thesis such as the one offered in this book.—E. A. R. (shrink)
Ferm's expanded Christian Theology makes Christianity scarcely distinguishable from the best of all possible ethical systems—and nothing more. But Christianity has always claimed to be much more, as have most religions. This claim can be challenged of course, but not by Ferm's uncritical and outdated use of biblical scholarship and criticism. He is careful to state that most of what he says about the historical status of Christianity is his opinion, and we can leave it at that.—E. A. R.
This is number 18 in Herder's Quaestiones Disputatae series. It is made up of four chapters from Rahner's Schriften zur Theologie, VI. The first and fourth essays, "The Changing Church" and "The Teaching of Vatican II on the Church and the Future Reality of Christian Life," complement one another, in a rough sort of way, in their treatment of the issue of continuity and change within the Church. The former tackles the problem from the limited point of view of (...) the authoritative and magisterial church. The latter has the more plenary notion of the Church as the solidarity of the faithful and consequently offers a more satisfying treatment of the theme. The second essay covers the topic "Situation Ethics in Ecumenical Perspective" in a non-surprising but quite elegant fashion. Rahner's characteristic sense of proportion is most evident in the essay "The Church's Limits Against Clerical Triumphalists and Lay Defeatists." He resists the all-or-nothing logic which says the Church must completely overlap and transform--at least in intention--the secular domain or be condemned to impotence and irrelevance. The true role of the Church, for Rahner, is found rather in witness: the Church as the sign of the salvation of the world.--E. A. R. (shrink)
The book is designed as an introductory text in the history of pre-Christian religion. The religions are examined in their socio-historical context and are treated as religions in the broad sense in which they provided total frameworks of meaning for a particular culture. The religions treated are the standard ones: Sumerian, Babylonian, Egyptian, Hebraic, and Greek. Loew's technique is to examine in detail the literature of each culture and to reconstruct from it the sacred space in which the people (...) of that culture must have moved. His categories of myth, sacred history, and philosophy are meant to be more or less adequate characterizations of the shape of the expression of the sacred in the Sumero-Babylonian and Egyptian, Hebraic, and Greek cultures respectively. Of course there is overlap, e.g., the obviously mythic roots of Greek literature. Loew is best on the Sumero-Babylonian and Egyptian religions. When he comes to the Hebraic religions he oversimplifies the picture to a considerable degree, as is the case also with his treatment of the Greeks. But this is perhaps a justifiable procedure in an introductory text. Each chapter concludes with a brief but helpfully annotated bibliography.--E. A. R. (shrink)
The author has organized Maritain's writings on man into three categories, man as 1) rational, 2) free, and 3) social, with appropriate quotations and running commentary. The French selections are not translated. Includes an intellectual biography of Maritain, with particular attention to the influence of Bergson.--E. T.
This book is the result of a series of discussions among Cambridge theologians on the general topic of the relevance of established religion and theology to the problems and values of the mid-twentieth century. A wide range of problems is treated: the methodology and importance of natural theology, the effect of recent philosophies of science on theology, the analogical use of the notion of the transcendent, Freudian analysis, and moral theology, the authority of scriptures and the church, prayer, the grounds (...) of moral judgments and the role of the established church in society. The essays reflect the varied interests and capabilities of the writers and should be of interest to a quite varied audience. Most of the essays reveal fresh viewpoints, perspicuous analysis, and rigorous thought.--W. G. E. (shrink)
After an opening chapter, in which he defends an objectivist theory of moral discourse against various forms of emotivism and pragmatism by locating the ordinary import of moral ascriptions in their reference to persons rather than situations, Owen proceeds to generalize this requirement so that moral imperatives are regarded as making sense only if they issue from a personal source. "Making sense" admittedly does not mean that there is any logical contradiction involved in denying that a relation of persons is (...) presupposed by moral conduct and implied by moral discourse; negatively put, stoicism is the only consistent alternative to theism: but stoicism neglects evidence for the existence of God that it need not. Thus, while there is a "gap" between the premisses and the conclusion of the moral argument which can only be bridged by a "leap," this "leap" of faith is far from being blind. While most of this book amounts simply to an incisive and extremely well-ordered restatement of the Kantian moral argument for the existence of God, the author's use of the notion of person and pari passu community as integral features of the argument revise it sufficiently to give it a prima facie better based cognitive appeal than Kant's.—E. A. R. (shrink)
An exposition of John 17 and Ephesians 4, the two Biblical texts that have served as the locus classicus for much recent ecumenical discussion. The book intends to reject a superficial ecumenism which remains doctrinally indifferent or subordinates doctrinal unity to evangelical effort. The author shows that the Johannine and, especially, the Pauline notions of unity presuppose a prior unity of faith with a determinate Scripturally-determined content. This unity in faith must never be sacrificed to the "quantitative, visible, inclusivist, hierarchical, (...) institutional" unity characteristic of the solution by absorption.—E. A. R. (shrink)
In these three Riddell Memorial Lectures for 1965 Ramsey views religious discourse as an instrument for expressing or stimulating "cosmic disclosure." RD must invariably work through the medium of "models," systems of concepts drawn from human experience and applied only by way of metaphor to the presumably transcendent object of RD. No single model is wholly adequate to exhaust a cosmic disclosure, and the danger lies in interpreting them in too literal a fashion and creating the false, and eventually inconsistent, (...) idea that all or most of the elements of the model are isomorphic with the reality of the object of the disclosure. This danger was succumbed to in the past, according to Ramsey, by most explanations of the doctrine of Atonement. Love, Ramsey concludes, is the best model upon which to express Atonement, and the model of the person is most appropriately used to express the disclosure of God. Having detailed this theory of RD, Ramsey attempts to show how it can be used successfully in resolving some of the difficulties raised in the "Honest to God" debate.—E. A. R. (shrink)
If the author has for his purpose clarifying the hitherto obscured history of seventeenth century Hermetic and Cabalistic teachings on universal salvation, he is to be commended for his painstakingly accurate summaries. If he has wanted to raise theological and philosophical issues concerning the Christian doctrine of Hell—as the title and first part of the book indicate—his spokesmen were poorly chosen and his logic is inadequate.—E. A. R.
These are the first works of Blondel to be translated into English. Blondel has been called the French Newman; but this is misleading, as Blondel was a disciplined and professional philosopher, while it would not be fair to Newman to judge him exclusively or even largely as a philosopher. In this country Blondel has tended to be overshadowed by Maritain, Gilson, and the neo-Thomists generally, to whose camp Blondel emphatically did not belong. The first of the works contained in this (...) volume is concerned with the question of the possibility of a Christian philosophy, i.e., a philosophy that is Christian in its tendency but philosophical, not theological, in its substance. The second work is Blondel's answer to the specific problem of Modernism which raged in Catholic philosophical and theological circles at the beginning of this century, but its importance may now be gauged equally in terms of its being an attempt to incorporate the core of truth included in historicism and relativism without giving up the objectivity of perspective that has always characterized the perennial philosophy. Dru and Trethowan have provided an excellent general introduction of over one hundred pages which covers the necessary biographical details of Blondel's life, as well as giving the intellectual and cultural setting of his thought. Added to this are briefer historical introductions for each of the works contained herein. A bibliography of Blondel's principal works is included.—E A. R. (shrink)
This volume, the latest in the project of publishing the complete works of Teilhard in English, exhibits Teilhard's cosmic vision breaking into cosmic prayer and the near-mystical desire "to proclaim... the innumerable prolongations of your [Christ's] incarnate Being in the world of matter". Along with "The Mass on the World," "Christ in the World of Matter," and "The Spiritual Power of Matter" are a collection of "Pensées" drawn from both published and as yet unpublished sources. Most akin to The Divine (...) Milieu, these essays and selections raise acutely, once again, the question of what is traditional and developmental, and what is revolutionary in Teilhard's conception of Christian spirituality—E. A. R. (shrink)
"Did you ever practice eutrapelia?" So begins the final chapter of this slim volume on play. Eutrapelia is the name Aristotle gave to the virtue that is the mean between buffoonery and boorishness and it seems sufficiently aligned with the spirit of play for a treatment of it to be included in a book which deals primarily with the latter notion. As for play, Rahner gives it psycho-cosmic interpretation. Thus, play is the archetype that symbolizes the free spontaneity characteristic of (...) the Judaeo-Christian idea of God as creator. Similarly, it is the intermittent archetype for man of his lost-but-ultimately-to-be-recaptured paradisic state. One of Rahner's more interesting theses about play is his claim that the dance is the core phenomenon permeating all art and play; he extends this theory about the dance to religion also, at least so far as the latter is liturgical. The chief drawback of the book is that it does not give a critical development of the concept of play, i.e., it does not really consider possible alternative interpretations of the phenomenon of play, e.g., a Freudian interpretation of play. But the book does give a suggestive historical account of the notion of play, where the historical sources are the pre-Christian Greek and Latin writers, the Fathers of the Church, and the mystics and the Doctors of the Church of the Medieval period.--E. A. R. (shrink)
In what is at the very least a tour de force, one of the most important contemporary Italian philosophers, Michele Sciacca, has given a critical exposition of literally hundreds of philosophical writers who share in common the tradition of Western philosophy from Kant and Hegel back through Descartes, on the one hand, and back through Augustine, Aristotle, and Plato, on the other. Treatment ranges from a paragraph or two to nineteen pages in the case of Kierkegaard. For those not sharing (...) Sciacca's preference for an integral Christian philosophy which can successfully incorporate all the positive values of humanism, his "criticisms" will frequently seem polemical and unsupported by the exposition he has provided. This is particularly the case in his treatment of scientifically oriented, analytical and linguistic philosophy which he discusses in a chapter with the somewhat unflattering title, "'Physicalism' and the New 'Scientific' Barbarity." But the book is obviously intended more as an act of philosophical reflection than as a history of contemporary philosophy, and is, in this respect, to be assessed more by the criterion of philosophical soundness used to judge, e.g., Aristotle's handling of his predecessors, and Hegel's reading of the history of philosophy, than by considerations of historical scholarship. And, as philosophy, Sciacca's Christian Spiritualism is imposing.—E. A. R. (shrink)
Along with other complete selections this volume contains the complete text of the Praise of Folly, The Handbook of the Militant Christian, and The Complaint of Peace. Dolan's translation achieves a freshness that recaptures the spirit that Erasmus' original texts must have had when he first published them. The commentary by Dolan is sympathetic and scholarly. This is by far the best inexpensive introduction to the thought of Erasmus.—E. A. R.
Edelstein's death in 1965 came when he had completed only four of eight projected chapters on the idea of progress in antiquity, and these four chapters in the history of this idea take us from Xenophanes to the start of the Augustan Age. What the book is best in is scholarship of the footnote sort. Edelstein's major thesis is that the ancients exhibited something more than an isolated or peripheral interest in progress, and that, consequently, the supposed antithesis between the (...) pagan, cyclic notion of time and the Christian, linear and progressive notion of time is a misguided oversimplification. But in his introduction, in which he discusses the notion of progress in general, Edelstein has failed to give an account of the relation of the notion of progress to the notion of historical time which would provide the critically justified ground for saying that emphasis on progress requires similar conceptions of time. Progressivism, after all, is, and in antiquity often was, compatible with catastrophism; and the latter is, at least in its ancient garb, out of step with the eschatological notion of history which finds expression in the Judaeo-Christian tradition. What Edelstein has done is to draw our attention to the polymorphous and detailed thought on progress in antiquity—often despite his own attempts to force a unity or organicism on the phenomena where there appears to be none. But when we go in search of the wider context, the conviction persists that the repeated forms and instances of progressivism in antiquity strain at but do not break free from the hegemony of moira and eternal return—even though it be not eternal return of the same.—E. A. R. (shrink)
This book is the second part of the second volume of Ricœur's projected three volume work, La Philosophie de la Volonté. The first volume has already been translated as The Voluntary and the Involuntary and the first part of the second volume, which is titled generally Finitude et Culpabilité, has been translated as Fallible Man. The third part of the second volume has been projected as an Empirics of the Will, while the third volume has been broadcast as a Poetics (...) of the Will. The entire project moves from phenomenology to thought, in an attempt to give an account of man from the standpoint of Will, or more dramatically put, from the standpoint of human freedom and all the vicissitudes of existence that come with this freedom. Evil is one of the more portentous consequences of human freedom, and this book is concerned to explore it in a fashion which is initially phenomenological. But it moves toward the reflective thought that will emerge full blown in the Empirics. There Ricœur will offer a transcendental validation of the hermeneutic he has adopted to explain man through interpreting the way man presents himself to himself in his prereflective language and comportment with the world. In the first part of the book Ricœur picks up the leading symbols of evil, given through the phenomenon of confession, and follows them in their dialectical progression from evil as defilement, through evil as sin, to evil as guilt. His discussions of the Sumerian, Babylonian, and Hebrew writings, as they witness to these stages in the symbolization of evil, are exceptionally sensitive and thoroughly informed by the scholarship. Ricœur then turns his attention to the systematization of these symbols in the various archaic myths, giving first a typology of these myths and, finally, a dynamics of the myths. In the latter his Christian as well as his hermeneutical standpoints begin to assert themselves more explicitly. The preferred myth on evil, for Ricœur, is the Adamic myth, and he moves outward from there to the tragic myth, as expressed in the Greek dramatists, to the theogonic myth as expressed in Hesiod and the Sumerian and Babylonian literature, and finally to the orphic myth of the exiled soul. In addition to sustaining the development of the main thesis about the way in which a phenomenology of the symbols of evil gives rise to thought, Ricœur has many individual analyses and insights that are extremely exciting. His consideration of Plato's supposed dualism, which he interprets along the lines of Pauline dualism, which is to say, as not being an ontological dualism, is one of the more striking of these analyses. The combined rigor of argument and richness of material in this book signal a high place for it in the recent philosophical literature in general.--E. A. R. (shrink)
A collection of six addresses on such questions as the emptiness and despair of nihilism and materialism vs. the richness and hope of Christian life, the use of evil in literature, and the task of the Catholic intellectual.--E. E.
In this Swarthmore Lecture for 1965 a noted philosopher engages in a disciplined philosophical attempt 1) to locate the essence of religion as the ultimate integrating principle among "persons in relation," and 2) to show how religion has been beset by a constant temptation throughout its history to assume dualistic attitudes and practices. Such attitudes and practices invariably lead to an idealism which denies rather than faces the real conflict in the world, the conflict that it is the task of (...) the progressively realized Christian community to overcome. The autobiographical material which Macmurray includes is enough in itself to establish the value of this book; his reflections on the nature, present condition, and future task of Christianity are so much more frosting added to the cake—E. A. R. (shrink)
The basic theme is the development of the Platonic notion of Eros and its relation to the soul from the Platonic texts through the neo-Platonic and early Christian writers. Rist is concerned to modify Nygren's thesis that Eros is situated as a radically upward movement, while the downward movement of love is to be assigned exclusively to the Christian notion of Agape. He tries to show how Plato, and even more Plotinus, and finally Origen associated a downward movement (...) with Eros and attributed it to the Good, the One, or to God, as the case might be. Some other suggestive contributions are his criticism of J. Gould's attempt to apply the Rylean distinction between "knowing how" and "knowing that" to an interpretation of the Socratic dictum that "Virtue is knowledge"; and his pointing out of the hyperintellectualization of the notion of virtue beginning with Aristotle's sharp distinction between theoria and praxis, continuing into the neo-Platonic tradition, until its eventual disintegration, under the partial influence of Gnosticism, into anti-nominianism.—E. A. R. (shrink)
This volume of Teilhardiana contains twenty-one essays and notes written between 1921 and 1955, some of which Teilhard published in journals and some of which were not published until after his death in 1955. Though the essays are on different topics, the constantly recurring theme is Teilhard's defense of evolution, or, more specifically, transformism, as a necessary framework principle for biological science, and in particular for that offshoot science of biology which Teilhard regards as the natural history of the origin (...) and development of thought, or the science of the phenomenon of man. Teilhard is willing to extend his genetic and teleologically informed method below the level of the life sciences to geology and eventually to the whole material-cum-radial-energy universe. At the same time as he is trying to overcome the objections of his fellow scientists to transformism on the basis of the paleontological record, Teilhard is constantly arguing the non-opposition between his evolutionism and the Christian doctrine of Creation. These are all familiar Chardinian themes, but what one gets in this volume that is lacking to a large extent even in The Phenomenon of Man is a more detailed account of Teilhard's philosophy of science. The critics have demanded this of Teilhard, and though it takes some piecing together, one can, on the basis of The Vision of the Past, sketch a portrait of Teilhard the critic of positivism and, particularly, instrumentalism. This is the ninth volume in Harper and Row's continuing translation of Teilhard's books and papers.—E. A. R. (shrink)
An authoritative first translation into English of a group of essays relating such topics as the place of authority and revelation in the Christian Church, the role of the exceptional individual, and the difference between the apostle and the genius, to the political and intellectual situation of Kierkegaard's time.--E. E.
This is the second of the seven volumes of Bréhier's History to appear in translation. Though supplanted in most areas by more comprehensive studies which have appeared since its original publication in 1931, this particular volume still remains useful and is to be consulted on the relation of Hellenism and Christian philosophy. The bibliographies have been updated.—E. A. R.
The introductory revised essay, "Horses of Wrath: Recent Critical Lessons," followed by nine reprinted essays, pits the Christian Rationalist, Wimsatt, an aroused Horse of Instruction, against the Tigers of Wrath, Blakean Myth critics led by Northrop Frye. Their battleground is the relation of poetry to life: what for the Blakeans is the fearful symmetry of poetry as the apocalypse of life is for Wimsatt the hateful siege of contraries, both an anarchy of life and a confusion of poetic limits. (...) Wimsatt supports the classical and Christian notion that harmony comes "in spite of" the conflict of good and evil, not "because of" that conflict, as the Blakeans would claim. For Wimsatt, poetry's unique kind of cognition is the analogous perspective it establishes toward contraries, namely the perspective of drama and metaphor in which is created a mock substance of the human condition. But after Wimsatt's analysis, we are left with a dualism which can be itself a hateful contrary: the more poetry performs its perspective function, the more it destroys its subject matter. It is also to the credit of Wimsatt's theoretic hesitancy that he will not let us forget these contraries.—E. S. T. (shrink)
Twenty-five excerpts from books and articles, arranged under four headings: The Human Person, Man and Political Society, The Gospel and Human Society, and The New Socio-temporal Order. The selections have been chosen to represent their author's standpoint concerning the validity of the Christian "ought" in the reality of worldly affairs.--L. H. E.
The book is divided into two parts, the shorter of which documents and discusses the authoritative and Biblical sources for the Christian, and specifically Catholic, notion of natural law. The second section is taken up with conceptual analyses of such notions as the relation between nature and grace, nature and historical situation, and primary and secondary determinations of the natural law. A final chapter considers the possibility and scope of a Christian Sociology. The, in principle, complete integration of (...) nature and grace is maintained throughout in opposition to what Fuchs types as the postulated antinomy between these two orders that characterizes most Protestant theologies. The major confrontation between the Catholic and Protestant positions takes place in the footnotes, which are consequently of extensive bibliographical value.—E. A. R. (shrink)
Background Studies have shown that medical students and residents believe that their ethics preparation has been inadequate for handling ethical conflicts. The objective of this study was to determine the self-perceived comfort level of medical students and residents in confronting clinical ethics issues. Methods Clinical medical students and residents at the University of Maryland School of Medicine completed a web-based survey between September 2009 and February 2010. The survey consisted of a demographic section, questions regarding the respondents’ sense of comfort (...) in handling a variety of clinical ethics issues, and a set of knowledge-type questions in ethics. Results Survey respondents included 129 medical students (response rate of 40.7%) and 207 residents (response rate of 52.7%). There were only a few clinical ethics issues with which more than 70% of the respondents felt comfortable in addressing. Only a slight majority (60.8%) felt prepared, in general, to handle clinical situations involving ethics issues, and only 44.1% and 53.2% agreed that medical school and residency training, respectively, helped prepare them to handle such issues. Prior ethics training was not associated with these responses, but there was an association between the level of training (medical students vs residents) and the comfort level with many of the clinical ethics issues. Conclusions Medical educators should include ethics educational methods within the context of real-time exposure to medical ethics dilemmas experienced by physicians-in-training. (shrink)
A utilização de um texto bíblico por um senador para justificar sua oposição a medidas de proteção ambiental é pretexto para uma série de considerações acerca da Teologia cristã sobre o meio-ambiente, e a relação entre religião e sociedade. Três questões são levantadas: a pretensa separação dos humanos da natureza, a pretensa homogeneização do "ser humano", e a pretensa simplicidade da interpretação teológica de um texto sagrado. O emprego dos verbos hebraicos KABASH e RADAHA abre uma discussão sobre o sentido (...) da dominação na teologia cristã, a partir do princípio hermenêutico básico de que o todo das Escrituras Sagradas deve ser interpretado à luz da revelação maior em Cristo. A partir daí, o artigo propõe uma articulação de parlamentos, como seria o caso de um parlamento teológico, para tratar de argumentos desse tipo, promovida a partir do Senado Federal para nortear decisões que afetam o bem-estar da sociedade como um todo. Palavras-chave : Ser humano; Natureza; Teologia cristã; Religião; Sociedade.The use of a biblical text by a Senator to justify his opposition to environmental protection measures works as a pretext for a series of considerations about Christian theology on environment, as well as the relationship between religion and society. Three questions are to put: the alleged separation of humans from nature, the alleged homogeneity of the "human being", and the assumed simplicity of the theological interpretation of a sacred text. The use of following Hebrew verbs KABASH and RADAHA opens a discussion about the meaning of domination in Christian theology, from the basic hermeneutic principle that Sacred Scriptures must be interpreted in the ligh of Christ Revelation. Thereafter, this article proposes an articulation of parliaments, as in the case of a theological parliament happen to deal with these kind of arguments, to be promoted from the Senate in order to guide decisions that affect the welfare of society as a whole. Key words: Human beings; Nature; Christian Theology; Religion; Society. (shrink)
This paper deals with the interrelation between mystique and prophecy in the Christian spirituality. It intends to face dualisms, observed in the past and also in the current Christianity, between these terms. It presents Saint Teresa of Avila’s testimony as a way for overcoming the dichotomy between mystique and prophecy by means of a procedural integration. The foundation for the needed relation between the terms concerned is the existence of Jesus of Nazareth itself, which may be regarded as prophetic-mystic. (...) It means that there’s an interrelation between prayer and action, contemplation and mission. However, the modern and postmodern subject has difficulties in this integration, such as letting himself be transformed by prayer, overcoming the tendency to control and effectiveness. Saint Teresa of Jesus, in this context, is a testimony to mystique and prophecy, mediated by a discretion which goes through daily perceptions. The book Foundations contributes to illustrate this discretion. Keywords : Mystique. Prophecy. Discretion. Saint Teresa of Jesus. Resumo Este artigo trata da inter-relação entre mística e profecia na espiritualidade cristã. Pretende enfrentar dualismos, observados no passado e também no presente do cristianismo, entre esses termos. Apresenta o testemunho de Santa Teresa de Ávila como caminho de superação da dicotomia entre mística e profecia através de uma integração processual. O fundamento da necessária relação entre os termos em questão é a própria existência de Jesus de Nazaré, que pode ser considerada profético-mística. Isso significa que há uma inter-relação entre oração e ação, contemplação e missão. No entanto, o sujeito moderno e pós-moderno apresenta dificuldades nessa integração, como o deixar-se transformar pela oração, superando a tendência ao controle e à eficácia. Santa Teresa de Jesus, nesse contexto, é testemunho de mística e profecia, mediadas por um discernimento que passa por percepções cotidianas. O livro Fundações contribui para ilustrar esse discernimento. Palavras-chave : Mística. Profecia. Discernimento. Santa Teresa de Jesus. (shrink)
A relação entre o corpo e a alma do ser humano na teologia cristã: uma aproximação histórica e contemporânea. (The relation between body and soul of human being in Christian Theology: A historical and contemporary approach) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n31p1081 O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar como se deu, no plano histórico, e se dá, atualmente, na contemporaneidade, as relações entre o corpo e a alma, no âmbito da antropologia cristã. Historicamente, primeiro se constatou a existência do corpo e da (...) alma para depois se ocupar do tipo de relação que há entre ambos os princípios. Do ponto de vista histórico, houve um primado e uma supremacia da alma sobre o corpo. Entre ambos os princípios metafísicos, ora vigorava uma unidade acidental (provisória e dualista), ora uma unidade substancial (permanente e recíproca). Atualmente, a reflexão teológica defende uma unidade mútua e recíproca entre o corpo e a alma, de modo que cada princípio está ordenado para o outro. O ser humano é uma unitotalidade psicofísica e anímico-corpórea. Atualmente, há autores filósofos (X. Zubiri, M. Bunge) e teológos (J. Moltmann, Flick-Alszechy), que defendem como alternativa ao hilemorfismo aristótelico-tomista, novas formas de compreender a relação entre o corpo/matéria e alma/espírito. Também, nos dias de hoje, a relação corpo-alma está presente nas novas antropologias, mas com um novo verniz: a relação mente-cérebro. Palavras-chave : Antropologia. Corpo. Alma. Mente. Cérebro.The scope of this paper is to present how occurred in historical level, and occurs in the contemporary world, the relation between body and soul in the context of Christian anthropology. Historically, in a first moment, it was identified the existence of the body and the soul, and afterwards, the type of relation between these two ontological principles. From a historical point of view, there was a primacy and supremacy of the soul over the body. Between these principles, sometimes prevailed an accidental unity (provisional and dualistic), sometimes a substantial unity (permanent and reciprocal). Nowadays, the theological reflection defends a mutual and reciprocal unity between body and soul, so that each principle is ordained one to the other. Human being is a psychophysical “unit-totality” constituted of body and soul. Currently, there are philosophers (X. Zubiri, M. Bunge) and theologians (J. Moltmann, Flick-Alszeghy), who defend, as alternative to the Aristotelian-Thomistic hylemorphism, new forms of understanding the relation between body/matter and soul/spirit. Also, nowadays, the relation body-soul is present in new anthropologies, but with a new varnish through relation between mind-brain. Key-words : Anthropology. Body. Soul. Mind. Brain. (shrink)
O marxismo aparece insistentemente na teologia e no magistério de Joseph Ratzinger-Bento XVI como um inimigo permanente ao qual o cristianismo deve se contrapor, sem possibilidades de conciliação entre ambos. Mas qual concepção subjaz essa rejeição tão peremptória, tão decidida? Para alcançarmos a resposta a tal questão, aprofundamos a visão de Joseph Ratzinger a partir de alguns de seus escritos teológicos (anteriores ao pontificado) e, em seguida, nas suas três encíclicas, o ponto alto de seu magistério papal ( Deus caritas (...) est, Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate ). Defendemos que a crítica de Bento XVI, antes de ser exclusivamente teológica (ou doutrinária), é filosófica, baseada na racionalidade e não na fé professada pela Igreja, que lhe permite tratar o marxismo não simplesmente como um programa político que vai contra alguns valores cristãos, mas como uma escatologia judaico-cristã secularizada, um messianismo político, portanto, como uma religião , como uma fé , que nega e esvazia o núcleo essencial da fé cristã. E aqui está a raiz da sua oposição. Palavras-chave: Marxismo. Bento XVI. Messianismo. Escatologia política.: Marxism appears repeatedly in Pope Benedict’s theology and teaching as a permanent enemy that Christianity must oppose without any possibilities of conciliation between them. However, what underlies this decisive rejection? To answer this question we look further into Joseph Ratzinger’s perspective starting with some of his theological writings (before the pontificate) followed by three of his encyclicals, the high point of his papal teaching ( Deus caritas est , Spe salvi e Caritas in veritate ). We argue that Benedict XVI's criticism, prior to being purely theological (or doctrinal), is philosophical, based on rationality and not in the faith professed by the Church, allowing him to treat marxism not simply as a political program that goes against some Christian values, but as a secularized Judeo-Christian eschatology, as a political messianism, therefore, as a religion, as a faith , that denies and empties the essential core of the Christian faith. And here is the root of his opposition. Keywords: Marxism. Benedict XVI. Messianism. Political eschatology. (shrink)
A tradição bíblica tem inspirado leituras e interpretações ecológicas por parte de teólogos de vertentes cristãs diversas, dentre os quais podemos destacar: Carriker, Reimer, Schaeffer e Stott. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar alguns textos das Escrituras Sagradas judaico-cristãs e o modo como estes têm sido interpretados por teólogos cristãos vinculados à vertente reformada à luz de uma leitura ecológica. Um corte epistemológico foi feito reconhecendo nestes teólogos posições ideológicas heterogêneas a fim de preservar a re(leitura) dos textos bíblicos escolhidos (...) sob a perspectiva ecológica. White Júnior (1967), historiador americano, escreveu um artigo em que responsabilizava o Cristianismo pela crise ambiental. Este discurso tem sido confrontado ao longo das últimas décadas por várias vertentes cristãs e os teólogos escolhidos para o diálogo neste artigo defendem posições contrárias ao que foi declarado por White Júnior, à época. O caminho para o diálogo entre estes teólogos foi buscado a partir da concepção de que o discurso é uma construção social (Foucault, 2009). A partir da análise dos diálogos estabelecidos entre os teólogos escolhidos e suas re(leituras) dos textos bíblicos é possível concluir que esta nova teologia tem o papel de conscientização, como resposta à crise ambiental, no âmbito das igrejas evangélicas. Palavras-Chave : Discurso. Ecologia. Bíblia. Teologia.: The biblical tradition has inspired environmental readings and interpretations by Christian theologians of various aspects, among which we highlight: Carriker, Reimer, Schaeffer and Stott. The aim of this paper is to present a brief overview of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures and how they have been interpreted by Christian theologians linked to strand reformed in the light of an ecological reading. An epistemological cut was made recognizing these theologians and their heterogeneous ideological positions in order to preserve the re(read) of the biblical texts chosen under the ecological perspective. White Jr. (1967), American historian, wrote an article that blamed Christianity for the environmental crisis. This speech has been confronted over the past several decades by the Christian spectrum and the theologians chosen for dialogue in this article advocate contrary positions to what was stated by White Jr., at the time. The path to the dialogue between these theologians was sought from the idea that speech is a social construction (Foucault, 2009). From the analysis of the dialogue established between the theologians and their chosen re(readings) biblical texts is possible to conclude that this new theology has the role of awareness in response to environmental crisis within the evangelical churches. Key-words: Speech. Ecology. Bible. Theology. (shrink)
Resumo Pergunta-se pelo elo de ligação entre as concepções de corpo e de sexualidade presentes em diferentes momentos da história do cristianismo-catolicismo e o lugar ocupado pelo corpo e pela sexualidade na cultura mais ampla, em períodos históricos paralelos. Descobriu-se, então, alguns elos de ligação que, por sua vez, estão fortemente interligados entre si: vida, morte, medo, pecado. Para realizar a análise de tal fenômeno, utilizou-se o pensamento de autores que tinham apresentado os significados do corpo e da sexualidade como (...) construções culturais; buscou-se verificar, a partir da literatura disponível: como o medo da morte, que é um dado da natureza humana, se expressa nas concepções de corpo e de sexualidade apresentadas pela tradição cristã-católica; como se percebe esse medo hoje e como ele repercute nas concepções de corpo e de sexualidade na atualidade. A investigação apontou para a conclusão de que um dos possíveis motivos pelos quais o cristianismo-catolicismo investe tanta energia no controle da sexualidade e do corpo é que este representa um espaço de enfrentamento do medo da morte. Tal concepção encontra eco na cultura mais ampla, levando as pessoas a aderirem, ainda que parcialmente, por tanto tempo, o ideário cristão-católico de controle da sexualidade e do corpo. Palavras-chave: corpo; sexualidade; medo; catolicismo.Our questions refer to the connection among existing body and sexuality conceptions in different moments of Christian-catholic history as well as to the place occupied by those conceptions within a broader culture, establishing a parallel to historic periods. We face a few connected links that remain strongly interacted among themselves such as: life, death, fear and sin. In order to accomplish our analyses we rely on the thoughts of authors that have shown the meanings of body and sexuality as cultural constructions. Through the available literature we search to verify how fear of death, recognized as a characteristic of human nature, is expressed in the conceptions of body and sexuality shown by Christian-catholic tradition; also how this fear is perceived today and how it reflects upon the conceptions of body and sexuality nowadays. The research pointed to the conclusion that one of the possible reasons why Christianity-Catholicism invests so much energy in the control of sexuality and the body is that this represents an area of confrontation of fear of death. Such design is echoed in the wider culture, leading people to join, albeit partially, for so long, the ideal Christian-Catholic control of sexuality and the body. Key words: body; sexuality; fear; Catholicism. (shrink)
RESUMO O presente artigo discute o papel de Christian Thomasius como pioneiro da Aufklärung, bem como a especificidade desta no contexto mais amplo do Iluminismo. A partir de uma discussão sobre os recentes estudos acerca do Iluminismo, será extraída uma diretriz interpretativa para avaliar a peculiaridade política e filosófica da Aufklärung. ABSTRACT This paper discusses the role of Christian Thomasius as a pioneer of the Aufklärung and the specific position of the latter in the broader context of the (...) Enlightenment. Departing from a review of recent studies on the Enlightenment, this paper will draw an interpretative guideline to assess the political and philosophical peculiarity of the Aufklärung. (shrink)