Search results for 'Division of labor' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael R. Dietrich & Brandi H. Tambasco (2007). Beyond the Boss and the Boys: Women and the Division of Labor in Drosophila Genetics in the United States, 1934-1970. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 40 (3):509 - 528.score: 549.0
    The vast network of Drosophila geneticists spawned by Thomas Hunt Morgan's fly room in the early 20th century has justifiably received a significant amount of scholarly attention. However, most accounts of the history of Drosophila genetics focus heavily on the "boss and the boys," rather than the many other laboratory groups which also included large numbers of women. Using demographic information extracted from the Drosophila Information Service directories from 1934 to 1970, we offer a profile of the gendered division (...)
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  2. Frans Jacobs (2005). Reasonable Partiality in Professional Ethics: The Moral Division of Labour. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 8 (1-2):141 - 154.score: 540.0
    Attention is given to a background idea that is often invoked in discussions about reasonable partiality: the idea of a moral division of labour. It is not only a right, but also a duty for professionals to attend (almost) exclusively to the interests of their own clients, because their partial activities are part of an impartial scheme providing for an allocation of professional help to all clients. To clarify that idea, a difference is made between two kinds of (...) of labour, a technical one and a social one. In order to assess the applicability of the idea of a moral division of labour to professional ethics, journalism is contrasted with other professions. (shrink)
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  3. Peter Dickens (1996). Reconstructing Nature: Alienation, Emancipation, and the Division of Labour. Routledge.score: 540.0
    One of the main features of the contemporary environmental crisis is that no one has a clear picture of what is taking place. Environmental problems are real enough but they bring home the inadequacy of our knowledge. How does the natural world relate to the social world? Why do we continue to have such a poor understanding? How can ecological knowledge be made to relate to our understanding of human society? Reconstructing Nature argues that the division of labor (...)
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  4. Michael Gurven, Jeffrey Winking, Hillard Kaplan, Christopher von Rueden & Lisa McAllister (2009). A Bioeconomic Approach to Marriage and the Sexual Division of Labor. Human Nature 20 (2):151-183.score: 540.0
    Children may be viewed as public goods whereby both parents receive equal genetic benefits yet one parent often invests more heavily than the other. We introduce a microeconomic framework for understanding household investment decisions to address questions concerning conflicts of interest over types and amount of work effort among married men and women. Although gains and costs of marriage may not be spread equally among marriage partners, marriage is still a favorable, efficient outcome under a wide range of conditions. This (...)
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  5. Emmanuel D'hombres (2012). The 'Division of Physiological Labour': The Birth, Life and Death of a Concept. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 45 (1):3 - 31.score: 534.0
    The notion of the ‘division of physiological labour’ is today an outdated relic in the history of science. This contrasts with the fate of another notion, which was so frequently paired with the division of physiological labour, which is the concept of ‘morphological differentiation.’ This is one of the elementary modal concepts of ontogenesis. In this paper, we intend to target the problems and causes that gradually led biologists to combine these two notions during the 19th century, and (...)
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  6. Joseph Shieber (2013). Toward a Truly Social Epistemology: Babbage, the Division of Mental Labor, and the Possibility of Socially Distributed Warrant. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 86 (2):266-294.score: 522.0
    In what follows, I appeal to Charles Babbage’s discussion of the division of mental labor to provide evidence that—at least with respect to the social acquisition, storage, retrieval, and transmission of knowledge—epistemologists have, for a broad range of phenomena of crucial importance to actual knowers in their epistemic practices in everyday life, failed adequately to appreciate the significance of socially distributed cognition. If the discussion here is successful, I will have demonstrated that a particular presumption widely held within (...)
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  7. Kevin Hetherington & Rolland Munro (eds.) (1997). Ideas of Difference: Social Spaces and the Labour of Division. Blackwell Publishers/the Sociological Review.score: 504.0
    This book introduces contemporary writing about difference through the idea of the labour of division.
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  8. Peter Dietsch (2008). Distributive Lessons From Division of Labour. Journal of Moral Philosophy 5 (1):96-117.score: 459.0
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  9. Isidor Wallimann (1981). Estrangement: Marx's Conception of Human Nature and the Division of Labor. Greenwood Press.score: 450.0
  10. Rogier de Langhe (2010). The Division of Labour in Science: The Tradeoff Between Specialisation and Diversity. Journal of Economic Methodology 17 (1):37-51.score: 369.0
    Economics is a typical resource for social epistemology and the division of labour is a common theme for economics. As such it should come as no surprise that the present paper turns to economics to formulate a view on the dynamics of scientific communities, with precursors such as Kitcher (1990), Goldman and Shaked (1991) and Hull (1988). But although the approach is similar to theirs, the view defended is different. Mäki (2005) points out that the lessons philosophers draw from (...)
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  11. Jeroen Van Bouwel (2005). The Division of Labour in the Social Sciences Versus the Politics of Metaphysics. Questioning Critical Realism's Interdisciplinarity. Graduate Journal of Social Science 2 (2):32-39.score: 369.0
    Some scholars claim that Critical Realism promises well for the unification of the social sciences, e.g., "Unifying social science: A critical realist approach" in this volume. I will first show briefly how Critical Realism might unify social science. Secondly, I focus on the relation between the ontology and methodology of Critical Realism, and unveil the politics of metaphysics. Subsequently, it is argued that the division of labour between social scientific disciplines should not be metaphysics-driven, but rather question-driven. In conclusion, (...)
     
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  12. Ulrich Krause & Rainer Hegselmann (2009). Deliberative Exchange, Truth, and Cognitive Division of Labour: A Low-Resolution Modeling Approach. Episteme 6 (2):130-144.score: 360.0
    This paper develops a formal framework to model a process in which the formation of individual opinions is embedded in a deliberative exchange with others. The paper opts for a low-resolution modeling approach and abstracts away from most of the details of the social-epistemic process. Taking a bird's eye view allows us to analyze the chances for the truth to be found and broadly accepted under conditions of cognitive division of labour combined with a social exchange process. Cognitive (...) of labour means that only some individuals are active truth seekers, possibly with different capacities. Both mathematical tools and computer simulations are used to investigate the model. As an analytical result, the Funnel Theorem states that under rather weak conditions on the social process, a consensus on the truth will be reached if all individuals possess an arbitrarily small capacity to go for the truth. The Leading the pack Theorem states that under certain conditions even a single truth seeker may lead all individuals to the truth. Systematic simulations analyze how close agents can get to the truth depending upon the frequency of truth seekers, their capacities as truth seekers, the position of the truth (more to the extreme or more in the centre of an opinion space), and the willingness to take into account the opinions of others when exchanging and updating opinions. (shrink)
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  13. Mathias Thaler (2012). Deep Contextualism and Radical Criticism: The Argument for a Division of Labour in Contemporary Political Theory. In José Maria Castro Caldas & Vítor Neves (eds.), Facts, Values and Objectivity in Economics. Routledge.score: 360.0
    This paper sheds light on the main issue of this book by affording a side look at a discipline other than economics, namely political theory. It is argued that the contemporary debate in political theory hinges on the question of 'realism'. Through a discussion of Raymond Geuss's work, the paper seeks to show that political theory remains caught between the conflicting requirements of deep contextual analysis and radically critical engagement with the world 'as it is'. Finally, the idea of a (...)
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  14. Jack P. Gibbs (2003). A Formal Restatement of Durkheim's "Division of Labor" Theory. Sociological Theory 21 (2):103-127.score: 360.0
    Despite frequent references in the sociological literature to Durkheim's theory about the division of labor, sociologists have made few attempts to test it. The paucity of attempts and the very debatable outcomes thereof are due largely to Durkheim's use of the traditional discursive mode of theory construction. A discursively stated theory's logical structure is likely to be obscure, and for that reason alone tests of it are difficult and controversial. Rather than perpetuate the exegetical tradition in sociological treatments (...)
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  15. David C. Geary (1998). Sexual Selection, the Division of Labor, and the Evolution of Sex Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (3):444-447.score: 360.0
    Sexual selection traditionally involves male-male competition and female choice, but in some species, including humans, sexual selection can also involve female-female competition and male choice. The degree to which one aspect of sexual selection or another is manifest in human populations will be influenced by a host of social and ecological variables, including the operational sex ratio. These variables are discussed in connection with the relative contribution of sexual selection and the division of labor to the evolution of (...)
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  16. Deng K. Niu, Jia-Kuan Chen & Yong-Ding Liu (2001). Margulis' Theory on Division of Labour in Cells Revisited. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (1).score: 360.0
    Division of labour is a marked feature of multicellular organisms. Margulis proposed that the ancestors of metazoans had only one microtubule organizing center (MTOC), so they could not move and divide simultaneously. Selection for simultaneous movement and cell division had driven the division of labour between cells. However, no evidence or explanation for this assumption was provided. Why could the unicellular ancetors not have multiple MTOCs? The gain and loss of three possible strategies are discussed. It was (...)
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  17. Hiroaki Izumi (forthcoming). Local Division of Labor in Rehabilitation Team Conferences. Human Studies:1-38.score: 360.0
    This study investigates rehabilitation team members’ interactive accomplishments of their domains of work and responsibility in rehabilitation team conferences in Japan. A combination of membership categorization analysis and sequential analysis is adopted to systematically illustrate the situated productions of professional sense-making practices. Analysis focuses on the segment in which a physician asks a series of questions regarding a patient’s functional status and disability coded in the functional assessment record (FAR). A close examination of data shows that a physician does not (...)
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  18. Michael Weisberg & Ryan Muldoon (2009). Epistemic Landscapes and the Division of Cognitive Labor. Philosophy of Science 76 (2):225-252.score: 357.0
    Because of its complexity, contemporary scientific research is almost always tackled by groups of scientists, each of which works in a different part of a given research domain. We believe that understanding scientific progress thus requires understanding this division of cognitive labor. To this end, we present a novel agent-based model of scientific research in which scientists divide their labor to explore an unknown epistemic landscape. Scientists aim to climb uphill in this landscape, where elevation represents the (...)
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  19. Christopher Gauker (1991). Mental Content and the Division of Epistemic Labour. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 69 (September):302-18.score: 357.0
    Tyler Burge's critique of individualistic conceptions of mental content is well known.This paper employs a novel strategy to defend a strong form of Burge's conclusion. The division of epistemic labor rests on the possibility of language-mediated transactions, such as asking for something in a store and getting it. The paper shows that any individualistic conception of content will render such transactions unintelligible.
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  20. Fred D'Agostino (2009). From the Organization to the Division of Cognitive Labor. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (1):101-129.score: 351.0
    Discussion of the cognitive division of labor has usually made very little contact with relevant materials from other disciplines, including theoretical biology, management science, and design theory. This article draws on these materials to consider some unavoidable conundrums faced by any attempt to present a particular way of dividing tasks among a labor team as the uniquely rational way of doing this, given the interdependence of the underlying evaluative standards by which the products of a system of (...)
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  21. Samuel Scheffler & Véronique Munoz-Dardé (2005). The Division of Moral Labour. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 79:229 - 284.score: 351.0
    [Samuel Scheffler] Some egalitarian liberals have proposed a division of moral labour between social institutions and individual agents, but the division-of-labour metaphor has been understood in different ways. This paper aims to disentangle some of these different understandings, with an eye to clarifying the appeal of the egalitarian-liberal project and the challenges that it faces. The idea of a division of moral labour is best understood as the expression of a strategy for accommodating diverse values. It (...)
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  22. Rogier De Langhe (forthcoming). A Unified Model of the Division of Cognitive Labor. .score: 351.0
    Current theories of the division of cognitive labor are confined to the “context of justification,” assuming exogenous theories. But new theories are made from the same labor that is used for developing existing theories, and if none of this labor is ever allocated to create new alternatives, then scientific progress is impossible. A unified model is proposed in which theories are no longer given but a function of the division of labor in the model (...)
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  23. Thomas Porter (2009). The Division of Moral Labour and the Basic Structure Restriction. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (2):173-199.score: 348.0
    Justice makes demands upon us. But these demands, important though they may be, are not the only moral demands that we face. Our lives ought to be responsive to other values too. However, some philosophers have identified an apparent tension between those values and norms, such as justice, that seem to transcend the arena of small-scale interpersonal relations and those that are most at home in precisely that arena. How, then, are we to engage with all of the values and (...)
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  24. Luca Ferrero (2010). Decisions, Diachronic Autonomy, and the Division of Deliberative Labor. Philosophers' Imprint 10 (2).score: 348.0
    It is often argued that future-directed decisions are effective at shaping our future conduct because they give rise, at the time of action, to a decisive reason to act as originally decided. In this paper, I argue that standard accounts of decision-based reasons are unsatisfactory. For they focus either on tie-breaking scenarios or cases of self-directed distal manipulation. I argue that future-directed decisions are better understood as tools for the non-manipulative, intrapersonal division of deliberative labor over time. A (...)
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  25. Sandy Goldberg (2011). The Division of Epistemic Labor. Episteme 8 (1):112-125.score: 348.0
    In this paper I formulate the thesis of the Division of Epistemic Labor as a thesis of epistemic dependence, illustrate several ways in which individual subjects are epistemically dependent on one or more of the members of their community in the process of knowledge acquisition, and draw conclusions about the cognitively distributed nature of some knowledge acquisition.
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  26. Frank Keil, Early Understanding of the Division of Cognitive Labor.score: 348.0
    Two studies with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N 104) examined whether young children can differentiate expertise in the minds of others. Study 1 revealed that all children in the sample could correctly attribute observable knowledge to familiar experts (i.e., a doctor and a car mechanic). Further, 4- and 5-year-olds could correctly attribute knowledge of underlying scientific principles to the appropriate experts. In contrast, Study 2 demonstrated that 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds have difficulty making attributions of knowledge of scientific principles to (...)
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  27. Renzo Carriero & Lorenzo Todesco (2011). Division of Domestic Labour: Do Parents Offer an Example? A Study in Turin. Polis 25 (1):37-64.score: 345.0
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  28. Rogier De Langhe & Matthias Greiff, Standards and the Distribution of Cognitive Labour.score: 324.0
    We present a model of the distribution of labour in science. Such models tend to rely on the mechanism of the invisible hand (e.g. Hull 1988, Goldman & Shaked 1991 and Kitcher 1990). Our analysis starts from the necessity of standards in distributed processes and the possibility of multiple standards in science. Invisible hand models turn out to have only limited scope because they are restricted to describing the atypical single-standard case. Our model is a generalisation of these models to (...)
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  29. Joanna E. Latimer (1997). Older People in Hospital : The Labour of Division, Affirmation and the Stop. In Kevin Hetherington & Rolland Munro (eds.), Ideas of Difference: Social Spaces and the Labour of Division. Blackwell Publishers/the Sociological Review.score: 324.0
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  30. Rolland Munro (1997). Ideas of Difference : Stability, Social Spaces and the Labour of Division. In Kevin Hetherington & Rolland Munro (eds.), Ideas of Difference: Social Spaces and the Labour of Division. Blackwell Publishers/the Sociological Review.score: 324.0
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  31. Tony J. Watson (1997). The Labour of Division : The Manager as 'Self' and 'Other'. In Kevin Hetherington & Rolland Munro (eds.), Ideas of Difference: Social Spaces and the Labour of Division. Blackwell Publishers/the Sociological Review.score: 324.0
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  32. James A. Anderson & Jonathan Kimmelman (2014). Are Phase 1 Trials Therapeutic? Risk, Ethics, and Division of Labor. Bioethics 28 (3):138-146.score: 306.0
    Despite their crucial role in the translation of pre-clinical research into new clinical applications, phase 1 trials involving patients continue to prompt ethical debate. At the heart of the controversy is the question of whether risks of administering experimental drugs are therapeutically justified. We suggest that prior attempts to address this question have been muddled, in part because it cannot be answered adequately without first attending to the way labor is divided in managing risk in clinical trials. In what (...)
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  33. Lynn K. Nyhart & Scott Lidgard (2011). Individuals at the Center of Biology: Rudolf Leuckart's "Polymorphismus der Individuen" and the Ongoing Narrative of Parts and Wholes. With an Annotated Translation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 44 (3):373 - 443.score: 306.0
    Rudolf Leuckart's 1851 pamphlet Ueber den Polymorphismus der Individuen (On the polymorphism of individuals) stood at the heart of naturalists' discussions on biological individuals, parts and wholes in mid-nineteenth-century Britain and Europe. Our analysis, which accompanies the first translation of this pamphlet into English, situates Leuckart's contribution to these discussions in two ways. First, we present it as part of a complex conceptual knot involving not only individuality and the understanding of compound organisms, but also the alternation of generations, the (...)
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  34. Tereza Ximenes (2001). Division of Labor and Resource Management in Eastern Pará, Brazil. Agriculture and Human Values 18 (1):49-56.score: 306.0
    Peasants of the northeastern Pará cultivate cassava (manioc esculenta) using shifting cultivation. This paper discusses some factors in support of cassava production, even though it has some negative environmental impacts. These factors are the importance of cassava in the region's history, dietary traditions, and the cooperative labor systems employed in its cultivation and processing.
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  35. Josh Weisberg (2008). Same Old, Same Old: The Same-Order Representational Theory of Consciousness and the Division of Phenomenal Labor. Synthese 160 (2):161-181.score: 297.0
    The same-order representation theory of consciousness holds that conscious mental states represent both the world and themselves. This complex representational structure is posited in part to avoid a powerful objection to the more traditional higher-order representation theory of consciousness. The objection contends that the higher-order theory fails to account for the intimate relationship that holds between conscious states and our awareness of them--the theory 'divides the phenomenal labor' in an illicit fashion. This 'failure of intimacy' is exposed by the (...)
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  36. Jean-Philippe Deranty (2013). Marx, Honneth and the Tasks of a Contemporary Critical Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (4):745-758.score: 297.0
    In this paper, I consider succinctly the main Marxist objections to Honneth’s model of critical social theory, and Honneth’s key objections to Marx-inspired models. I then seek to outline a rapprochement between the two positions, by showing how Honneth’s normative concept of recognition is not antithetical to functionalist arguments, but in fact contains a social-theoretical dimension, the idea that social reproduction and social evolution revolve around struggles around the interpretation of core societal norms. By highlighting the social theoretical side of (...)
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  37. Carlo Vercellone (2007). From Formal Subsumption to General Intellect: Elements for a Marxist Reading of the Thesis of Cognitive Capitalism. Historical Materialism 15 (1):13-36.score: 297.0
    Since the crisis of Fordism, capitalism has been characterised by the ever more central role of knowledge and the rise of the cognitive dimensions of labour. This is not to say that the centrality of knowledge to capitalism is new per se. Rather, the question we must ask is to what extent we can speak of a new role for knowledge and, more importantly, its relationship with transformations in the capital/labour relation. From this perspective, the paper highlights the continuing validity (...)
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  38. Robert Boyd & Joseph Henrich, Division of Labor, Economic Specialization, and the Evolution of Social Stratification.score: 290.0
    This paper presents a simple mathematical model that shows how economic inequality between social groups can arise and be maintained even when the only adaptive learning process driving cultural evolution increases individuals’ economic gains. The key assumptions are that human populations are structured into groups and that cultural learning is more likely to occur within than between groups. Then, if groups are sufficiently isolated and there are potential gains from specialization and exchange, stable stratification can sometimes result. This model predicts (...)
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  39. Adam Morton (forthcoming). Shared Knowledge From Individual Vice: The Role of Unworthy Epistemic Emotions. Philosophical Inquiries.score: 288.0
    This paper begins with a discussion the role of less-than-admirable epistemic emotions in our respectable, indeed admirable inquiries: nosiness, obsessiveness, wishful thinking, denial, partisanship. The explanation for their desirable effect is Mandevillian: because of the division of epistemic labour individual epistemic vices can lead to shared knowledge. In fact it is sometimes essential to it.
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  40. Clare Shelley-Egan (2010). The Ambivalence of Promising Technology. Nanoethics 4 (2):183-189.score: 288.0
    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors’ actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with (...)
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  41. Raman Selden (1975). Aesthetics an D Criticism: Against a Division of Labour. British Journal of Aesthetics 15 (1):69-80.score: 288.0
    Every art…needs its own critical organisation, and poetics will form a part of aesthetics as soon as aesthetics becomes the unified criticism of all of the arts instead of whatever it is now.1.
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  42. Chiara Cordelli (2011). The Institutional Division of Labor and the Egalitarian Obligations of Nonprofits. Journal of Political Philosophy 20 (2):131-155.score: 279.0
  43. William Tammone (1995). Competition, the Division of Labor, and Darwin's Principle of Divergence. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):109 - 131.score: 279.0
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  44. Norbert Waszek (1983). The Division of Labor. The Owl of Minerva 15 (1):51-75.score: 279.0
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  45. Todd Jones (2012). Do Customs Compete with Conditioning? Turf Battles and Division of Labor in Social Explanation. Synthese 184 (3):407-430.score: 279.0
    We often face a bewildering array of different explanations for the same social facts (e.g. biological, psychological, economic, and historical accounts). But we have few guidelines for whether and when we should think of different accounts as competing or compatible. In this paper, I offer some guidelines for understanding when custom or norm accounts do and don’t compete with other types of accounts. I describe two families of non-competing accounts: (1) explanations of different (but similarly described) facts, and (2) accounts (...)
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  46. Frank C. Keil, Courtney Stein, Lisa Webb, Van Dyke Billings & Leonid Rozenblit (2008). Discerning the Division of Cognitive Labor: An Emerging Understanding of How Knowledge Is Clustered in Other Minds. Cognitive Science 32 (2):259-300.score: 279.0
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  47. Stjepan G. Meštrovi (1989). The Theme of Civilization and its Discontents in Durkheim's Division of Labor: Philosophical Assumptions and Practical Consequences. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (4):443–456.score: 279.0
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  48. Mike Hawkins (1996). Durkheim,The Division of Labour, and Social Darwinism. History of European Ideas 22 (1):19-31.score: 279.0
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  49. Saul A. Kripke (1986). A Problem in the Theory of Reference: The Linguistic Division of Labor and the Social Character of Naming. In Philosophy and Culture, Proceedings of the XVIIth World Congress of Philosophy. Editions Montmorency.score: 279.0
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  50. James Bohman (1999). Democracy as Inquiry, Inquiry as Democratic: Pragmatism, Social Science, and the Cognitive Division of Labor. American Journal of Political Science 43 (2):590--607.score: 279.0
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