Results for 'Chimpanzee'

139 found
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  1. Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind?David Premack & G. Woodruff - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 4 (4):515-629.
    An individual has a theory of mind if he imputes mental states to himself and others. A system of inferences of this kind is properly viewed as a theory because such states are not directly observable, and the system can be used to make predictions about the behavior of others. As to the mental states the chimpanzee may infer, consider those inferred by our own species, for example, purpose or intention, as well as knowledge, belief, thinking, doubt, guessing, pretending, (...)
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  2. We Don't Need a Microscope to Explore the Chimpanzee's Mind.Daniel J. Povinelli & Jennifer Vonk - 2004 - Mind and Language 19 (1):1-28.
    The question of whether chimpanzees, like humans, reason about unobservable mental states remains highly controversial. On one account, chimpanzees are seen as possessing a psychological system for social cognition that represents and reasons about behaviors alone. A competing account allows that the chimpanzee's social cognition system additionally construes the behaviors it represents in terms of mental states. Because the range of behaviors that each of the two systems can generate is not currently known, and because the latter system depends (...)
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  3. Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places?Kristin Andrews - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
    I respond to an argument presented by Daniel Povinelli and Jennifer Vonk that the current generation of experiments on chimpanzee theory of mind cannot decide whether chimpanzees have the ability to reason about mental states. I argue that Povinelli and Vonk’s proposed experiment is subject to their own criticisms and that there should be a more radical shift away from experiments that ask subjects to predict behavior. Further, I argue that Povinelli and Vonk’s theoretical commitments should lead them to (...)
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  4.  28
    Snipping or Editing? Parsimony in the Chimpanzee Mind-Reading Debate.Kristin Andrews - 2016 - Metascience 25 (3):377-386.
    on ). -/- Advice about how to move forward on the mindreading debate, particularly when it comes to overcoming the logical problem, is much needed in comparative psychology. In chapter 4 of his book Ockham’s Razors, Elliott Sober takes on the task by suggesting how we might uncover the mechanism that mediates between the environmental stimuli that is visible to all, and chimpanzee social behavior. I argue that Sober's proposed method for deciding between the behaivor-reading and mindreading hypotheses fails (...)
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  5.  26
    Chimpanzee Mind Reading: Don't Stop Believing.Kristin Andrews - 2017 - Philosophy Compass 12 (1):e12394.
    Since the question “Do chimpanzees have a theory of mind?” was raised in 1978, scientists have attempted to answer it, and philosophers have attempted to clarify what the question means and whether it has been, or could be, answered. Mindreading or theory of mind refers to the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. Some versions of the question focus on whether chimpanzees engage in belief reasoning or can think about false belief, and chimpanzees have been given nonverbal versions (...)
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  6.  16
    The Magnitude of Simultaneous Color Contrast and Simultaneous Brightness Contrast for Chimpanzee and Man.W. F. Grether - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 30 (1):69.
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  7.  3
    A Comparison of Human and Chimpanzee Spectral Hue Discrimination Curves.W. F. Grether - 1940 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 26 (4):394.
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  8.  3
    Spectral Saturation Curves for Chimpanzee and Man.W. F. Grether - 1941 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 28 (5):419.
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  9.  57
    How to Learn Language Like a Chimpanzee.Christopher Gauker - 1990 - Philosophical Psychology 4 (1):139-46.
    This paper develops the hypothesis that languages may be learned by means of a kind of cause-effect analysis. This hypothesis is developed through an examination of E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh's research on the abilities of chimpanzees to learn to use symbols. Savage-Rumbaugh herself tends to conceive of her work as aiming to demonstrate that chimpanzees are able to learn the "referential function" of symbols. Thus the paper begins with a critique of this way of viewing the chimpanzee's achievements. The hypothesis (...)
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  10.  26
    Chimpanzee Mindreading and the Value of Parsimonious Mental Models.Hayley Clatterbuck - 2015 - Mind and Language 30 (4):414-436.
    I analyze two recent parsimony arguments that have been offered to break the current impasse in the chimpanzee mindreading controversy, the ‘logical problem’ argument from Povinelli, Penn, and Vonk, and Sober's attempt to apply model selection criteria in support of the mindreading hypothesis. I argue that Sober's approach fails to adequately rebut the ‘logical problem’. However, applying model selection criteria to chimpanzees' own mental models of behavior does yield a response to the ‘logical problem’ and reveals an adaptive advantage (...)
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  11.  15
    Can a Chimp Say "No"? Reenvisioning Chimpanzee Dissent in Harmful Research.Andrew Fenton - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (2):130-139.
    Among the "hard cases" of captive animal research is the continued use of chimpanzees in harmful experimental science. In a recent article I contend that contemporary animal welfare science and chimpanzee behavioral studies permit, if not require, a reappraisal of the moral significance of chimpanzee dissent from participation in certain experiments. In what follows, I outline my earlier argument, provide a brief survey of some central concepts in pediatric research ethics, and use these to enrich an understanding of (...)
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  12.  67
    Human Social Evolution: A Comparison of Hunter-Gatherer and Chimpanzee Social Organization.Robert Layton & Sean O'Hara - 2010 - In Social Brain, Distributed Mind. pp. 83.
    This chapter compares the social behaviour of human hunter-gatherers with that of the better-studied chimpanzee species, Pan troglodytes, in an attempt to pinpoint the unique features of human social evolution. Although hunter-gatherers and chimpanzees living in central Africa have similar body weights, humans live at much lower population densities due to their greater dependence on predation. Human foraging parties have longer duration than those of chimpanzees, lasting hours rather than minutes, and a higher level of mutual dependence, through the (...)
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  13.  30
    The Beginning of the End for Chimpanzee Experiments?Andrew Knight - 2008 - Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3:16-.
    The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive (...) experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments – particularly within the US – therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of chimpanzees, and other research fields presently deprived of funding, but would also increase the compliance of US animal researchers with internationally-accepted animal welfare and bioethical standards. It could even result in the first global moratorium on invasive research, for any non-human species, unless conducted in the best interests of the individual or species. (shrink)
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  14. Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Looking in All the Wrong Places?Kristin Andrews - 2005 - Mind and Language 20 (5):521-536.
    : I respond to an argument presented by Daniel Povinelli and Jennifer Vonk that the current generation of experiments on chimpanzee theory of mind cannot decide whether chimpanzees have the ability to reason about mental states. I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's proposed experiment is subject to their own criticisms and that there should be a more radical shift away from experiments that ask subjects to predict behavior. Further, I argue that Povinelli and Vonk's theoretical commitments should lead them (...)
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  15.  24
    The Yerkish Language: From Operational Methodology to Chimpanzee Communication.M. C. Bettoni - 2007 - Constructivist Foundations 2 (2-3):32-38.
    Purpose: Yerkish is an artificial language created in 1971 for the specific purpose of exploring the linguistic potential of nonhuman primates. The aim of this paper is to remind the research community of some important issues and concepts related to Yerkish that seem to have been forgotten or appear to be distorted. These are, particularly, its success, its promising aspects for future research and last but not least that it was Ernst von Glasersfeld who invented Yerkish: he coined the term (...)
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  16.  19
    Is Human Conversation More Efficient Than Chimpanzee Grooming?Michio Nakamura - 2000 - Human Nature 11 (3):281-297.
    Clique sizes for chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) grooming and for human conversation are compared in order to test Robin Dunbar’s hypothesis that human language is almost three times as efficient a bonding mechanism as primate grooming. Recalculation of the data provided by Dunbar et al. (1995) reveals that the average clique size for human conversation is 2.72 whereas that of chimpanzee grooming is shown to be 2.18. The efficiency of human conversation and actual chimpanzee grooming over Dunbar’s primate (...)
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  17.  33
    Why Not Ask “Does the Chimpanzee Have a Soul?”.William M. Baum - 1998 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):116-116.
    The question, “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?” is logically identical to the question, “Does the chimpanzee have a soul?” It is a peculiarity of our culture that we talk about anyone having a mind, and such talk is unhelpful for a science of behavior. The label “killjoy hypothesis” is an ad hominem attack.
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  18.  24
    Caregiver–Chimpanzee Interactions with Species-Specific Behaviors.Mary Lee A. Jensvold, Jacquelyn C. Buckner & Gina B. Stadtner - 2010 - Interaction Studies 11 (3):396-409.
    The relationships between captive primates and their caregivers are critical ones and can affect animal welfare. This study tested the effect of caregivers using chimpanzee behaviors or not, in daily interactions with captive chimpanzees. In the Chimpanzee Behavior condition the caregiver presented chimpanzee behaviors. In the Human Behavior condition the caregiver avoided using chimpanzee behaviors. The chimpanzees had individual patterns of response and had significant differences in their responses to each condition. These data are compared to (...)
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  19.  8
    “Magical Number 5” in a Chimpanzee.Nobuyuki Kawai & Tetsuro Matsuzawa - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):127-128.
    One of our recent studies has revealed that a numerically trained chimpanzee can memorize a correct sequence of five numbers shown on a monitor. Comparative investigations with humans show very similar patterns of errors in the two species, suggesting humans and chimpanzee share homologous memory processes. Whether or not 5 is a pure capacity limit for the chimpanzee remains an empirical question.
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  20. Chimpanzee Rights: The Philosophers' Brief.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, G. K. D. Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David M. Pena-Guzman & Jeff Sebo - forthcoming - London: Routledge.
    In December 2013, the Nonhuman Rights Project (NhRP) filed a petition for a common law writ of habeas corpus in the New York State Supreme Court on behalf of Tommy, a chimpanzee living alone in a cage in a shed in rural New York (Barlow, 2017). Under animal welfare laws, Tommy’s owners, the Laverys, were doing nothing illegal by keeping him in those conditions. Nonetheless, the NhRP argued that given the cognitive, social, and emotional capacities of chimpanzees, Tommy’s confinement (...)
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  21. Infant Chimpanzee and Human Child: A Classic 1935 Comparative Study of Ape Emotions and Intelligence.N. N. Ladygina-Kohts - 2001 - Oxford University Press USA.
    This edition presents the first complete English translation of N.N. Ladygina-Kohts' journal chronicling her pioneering work with the chimpanzee, Joni. The journal entries describe and compare the instincts, emotions, play, and habits of her son Rudy and Joni as each develops.
     
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  22. Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind? 30 Years Later.Josep Call & Michael Tomasello - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (5):187-192.
  23.  21
    Intentional Communication in the Chimpanzee: The Development of Deception.Guy Woodruff & David Premack - 1979 - Cognition 7 (4):333-362.
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  24. The Philosophers' Brief on Chimpanzee Personhood.Kristin Andrews, Gary Comstock, Gillian Crozier, Sue Donaldson, Andrew Fenton, Tyler John, L. Syd M. Johnson, Robert Jones, Will Kymlicka, Letitia Meynell, Nathan Nobis, David Pena-Guzman, James Rocha, Bernard Rollin, Jeff Sebo, Adam Shriver & Rebecca Walker - 2018 - Proposed Brief by Amici Curiae Philosophers in Support of the Petitioner-Appelllant Court of Appeals, State of New York,.
    In this brief, we argue that there is a diversity of ways in which humans (Homo sapiens) are ‘persons’ and there are no non-arbitrary conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can include all humans and exclude all nonhuman animals. To do so we describe and assess the four most prominent conceptions of ‘personhood’ that can be found in the rulings concerning Kiko and Tommy, with particular focus on the most recent decision, Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc v Lavery.
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  25.  42
    Chimpanzee Minds: Suspiciously Human?Daniel J. Povinelli & Jennifer Vonk - 2003 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):157-160.
  26. Folk Physics for Apes: The Chimpanzee's Theory of How the World Works.Daniel Povinelli - 2000 - Oxford University Press.
    From an early age, humans know a surprising amount about basic physical principles, such as gravity, force, mass, and shape. We can see this in the way that young children play, and manipulate objects around them. The same behaviour has long been observed in primates - chimpanzees have been shown to possess a remarkable ability to make and use simple tools. But what does this tell us about their inner mental state - do they therefore share the same understanding to (...)
     
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  27.  80
    We Don't Need a Microscope to Explore the Chimpanzee's Mind.Daniel J. Povinelli & Jennifer Vonk - 2006 - In Susan L. Hurley & Matthew Nudds (eds.), Rational Animals? Oxford University Press. pp. 1-28.
  28.  10
    Can a Chimpanzee Make a Statement?E. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, James L. Pate, Janet Lawson, S. Tom Smith & Steven Rosenbaum - 1983 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 112 (4):457-492.
  29.  7
    18 Chimpanzee Theory of Mind? The Long Road to Strong Inference.Daniel Povinelli - 1996 - In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press. pp. 293.
  30.  25
    Studying the Chimpanzee's Theory of Mind.Gilbert Harman - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):576.
  31. Self-Awareness in Human and Chimpanzee Infants: What is Measured and What is Meant by the Mark and Mirror Test?Kim A. Bard, Brenda K. Todd, Chris Bernier, Jennifer Love & David A. Leavens - 2006 - Infancy 9 (2):191-219.
  32.  1
    Evidence for Sentence Constitutents in the Early Utterances of Child and Chimpanzee.Beatrice T. Gardner & R. Allen Gardner - 1975 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 104 (3):244-267.
  33. Chimpanzee Ai and Her Son Ayumu: An Episode of Education by Master-Apprenticeship.Tetsuro Matsuzawa - 2002 - In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press. pp. 189--195.
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  34. Chimpanzee Signing: Darwinian Realities and Cartesian Delusions.Roger S. Fouts, Mary Lee A. Jensvold & Deborah H. Fouts - 2002 - In Marc Bekoff, Colin Allen & Gordon M. Burghardt (eds.), The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. MIT Press.
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  35.  25
    Chimpanzee Social Cognition.Josep Call - 2001 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (9):388-393.
  36.  5
    From Sign to Action: Studies in Chimpanzee Pictorial Competence.Josep Call, Alenka Hribar & Göran Sonesson - 2014 - Semiotica 2014 (198):205-240.
    Journal Name: Semiotica - Journal of the International Association for Semiotic Studies / Revue de l'Association Internationale de Sémiotique Volume: 2014 Issue: 198 Pages: 205-240.
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  37.  19
    Chimpanzee Theory of Mind: Part I. Perception of Causality and Purpose in the Child and Chimpanzee.David Premack & Guy Woodruff - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):616.
  38.  7
    The Limits of Chimpanzee-Human Comparisons for Understanding Human Cognition.Simon M. Reader & Steven M. Hrotic - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):238-239.
    Evolutionary questions require specialized approaches, part of which are comparisons between close relatives. However, to understand the origins of human tool behavior, comparisons with solely chimpanzees are insufficient, lacking the power to identify derived traits. Moreover, tool use is unlikely a unitary phenomenon. Large-scale comparative analyses provide an alternative and suggest that tool use co-evolves with a suite of cognitive traits.
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  39. The Chimpanzee's Tool.Barry Allen - 1997 - Common Knowledge 6:34-51.
  40.  7
    BIZARRE Chimpanzees Do Not Represent “the Chimpanzee”.David A. Leavens, Kim A. Bard & William D. Hopkins - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):100-101.
    Henrich et al. convincingly caution against the overgeneralization of findings from particular human populations, but fail to apply their own compelling reasoning to our nearest living relatives, the great apes. Here we argue that rearing history is every bit as important for understanding cognition in other species as it is in humans.
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  41.  10
    Sex Differences in Chimpanzee (and Human) Behavior: A Maner of Social Values?Frans Bm de Waal - 1993 - In R. Michod, L. Nadel & M. Hechter (eds.), The Origin of Values. Aldine de Gruyer.
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  42.  8
    The Chimpanzee's Mind: How Noble in Reason? How Absent of Ethics.Daniel J. Povinelli & Laurie R. Godfrey - 1993 - In Matthew Nitecki & Doris Nitecki (eds.), Evolutionary Ethics. Suny Press. pp. 227--324.
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  43. Self-Recognition in Chimpanzee and Orangutans, but Not Gorillas.S. D. Suarez & G. G. Gallup - 1981 - Journal of Human Evolution 10:175-88.
     
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  44. Progress in the Study of Chimpanzee Recall and Episodic Memory.Charles Menzel - 2005 - In Herbert S. Terrace & Janet Metcalfe (eds.), The Missing Link in Cognition: Origins of Self-Reflective Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
     
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  45. Patterns of Chimpanzee's Intergroup Violence.Christophe Boesch - 2010 - In Henrik Høgh-Olesen (ed.), Human Morality and Sociality: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives. Palgrave-Macmillan.
     
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  46.  11
    Who Cares If the Chimpanzee has a Theory of Mind?Howard Rachlin - 1978 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):593.
  47.  3
    Three Approaches for Assessing Chimpanzee Culture.Christophe Boesch - 1996 - In A. Russon, Kim A. Bard & S. Parkers (eds.), Reaching Into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 404--429.
  48.  2
    Comparison of Chimpanzee Material Culture Between Bossou and Nimba, West Africa.Tetsuro Matsuzawa & Gen Yamakoshi - 1996 - In A. Russon, Kim A. Bard & S. Parkers (eds.), Reaching Into Thought: The Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 211--232.
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  49.  2
    Human Enculturation, Chimpanzee Enculturation and the Nature of Imitation.Andrew Whiten - 1993 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (3):538.
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  50.  17
    A Conventional Approach to Chimpanzee Cognition.Nobuyuki Kawai & Tetsuro Matsuzawa - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4):128-129.
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