Results for 'Karla Fischer'

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  1.  10
    Do Authorship Policies Impact Students' Judgments of Perceived Wrongdoing?Mary R. Rose & Karla Fischer - 1998 - Ethics and Behavior 8 (1):59 – 79.
    Although authorship policies exist, researchers understand little about their impact on perceptions of authorship scenarios. Graduate students (N = 277) at a large university read 1 of 3 vignettes about a graduate student-faculty collaboration. One half of the surveys included the American Psychological Association's statement on authorship. Participants rated (a) the ethics of the professor as first author and (b) the likelihood of a dissatisfied student reporting the authorship result, as well as the effectiveness and negative consequences of reporting. Work (...)
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  2.  29
    Policies and Perspectives on Authorship.Mary Rose & Karla Fischer - 1995 - Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (4):361-370.
    Authorship on publications has been described as a “meal ticket” for researchers in academic settings. Given the importance of authorship, inappropriate publication credit is a pertinent ethical issue. This paper presents an overview of authorship problems and policies intended to address them. Previous work has identified three types of inappropriate authorship practices: plagiarism, giving unwarranted credit and failure to give expected credit. Guidelines from universities, journals and professional organizations provide standards about requirements of authors and may describe inappropriate practices; to (...)
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  3. Die Philosophie Im Beginn des Zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts Festschrift Für Kuno Fischer.Kuno Fischer & W. Windelband - 1907 - C. Winter.
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  4. In Fischer, Kane Et Al.J. M. Fischer - 2007 - In John Martin Fischer (ed.), Four Views on Free Will. Blackwell.
     
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  5.  33
    Fischer and Ravizza on Moral Responsibility and HistoryResponsibility and Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility.Michael E. Bratman, John Martin Fischer & Mark Ravizza - 2000 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (2):453.
  6.  57
    Excerpts From John Martin Fischer's Discussion with Members of the Audience.Scott MacDonald, John Martin Fischer, Carl Ginet, Joseph Margolis, Mark Case, Elie Noujain, Robert Kane & Derk Pereboom - 2000 - The Journal of Ethics 4 (4):408 - 417.
  7.  18
    Soft Facts and Harsh Realities: Reply to William Craig: John Martin Fischer.John Martin Fischer - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (4):523-539.
    . In a number of papers I have sought to discuss and cast some doubt on a certain strategy of response to an argument that purports to show that God's foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom. This argument proceeds from the alleged ‘fixity of the past’ to the conclusion that God's foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom. William Lane Craig has criticized my approach to these issues. Here I should like to respond to some of Craig's claims. My goal is (...)
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  8. Wozu Ethnologie? Festschrift Für Hans Fischer.Dorle Dracklé, Hans Fischer & Waltraud Kokot - 1999
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  9. Das Wagnis des Neuen: Kontexte Und Restriktionen der Wissenschaft: Festschrift für Klaus Fischer Zum 60. Geburtstag.Klaus Fischer, Ḥamīd Riz̤ā Yūsufī, Christiane Dick & Corinna Jenal (eds.) - 2009 - Traugott Bautz.
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  10. Ferrari, GRF 92 Ferry, L. And Renaut, A. 33, 219 Ffrench, P. 226 Fischer, F. Et Al. 18–19.H. R. Fischer, G. D. Atkins, M. L. Johnson, J. L. Austin, P. Baker, T. Ballauff, E. Behler, D. Benner, R. J. Bernstein & L. E. Beyer - 2001 - In Gert Biesta & Denise Egéa-Kuehne (eds.), Derrida & Education. Routledge.
  11. Philosophie, Psychoanalyse, Emigration Festschrift Für Kurt Rudolf Fischer Zum 70. Geburtstag.Kurt Rudolf Fischer, Peter Muhr, Paul K. Feyerabend & Cornelia Wegeler - 1992
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  12.  17
    Rechtsphilosophie: Vom Grundlagenfach Zur Transdisziplinarität in den Rechts-, Wirtschafts- Und Sozialwissenschaften: Festschrift für Michael Fischer.Michael W. Fischer, Claudia B. Wöhle, Silvia Augeneder & Sabine Urnik (eds.) - 2010 - P. Lang.
    Die Einordnung der Rechtsphilosophie als akademische Disziplin reicht vom reinen Grundlagenfach mit «Service-Funktion» für die praktischen Rechtswissenschaften über ein interdisziplinäres Verständnis, das die Bezüge zu anderen ...
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  13.  42
    Responsibility and Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility.Alison McIntyre, John Martin Fischer & Mark Ravizza - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):267.
    John Fischer and Mark Ravizza defend in this book a painstakingly constructed analysis of what they take to be a core condition of moral responsibility: the notion of guidance control. The volume usefully collects in one place ideas and arguments the authors have previously published in singly or jointly authored works on this and related topics, as well as various refinements to those views and some suggestive discussions that aim to show how their account of guidance control might fit (...)
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  14. My Way: Essays on Moral Responsibility.John Martin Fischer - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    This is a selection of essays on moral responsibility that represent the major components of John Martin Fischer's overall approach to freedom of the will and moral responsibility. The collection exhibits the overall structure of Fischer's view and shows how the various elements fit together to form a comprehensive framework for analyzing free will and moral responsibility. The topics include deliberation and practical reasoning, freedom of the will, freedom of action, various notions of control, and moral accountability. The (...)
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  15.  22
    Deep Control: Essays on Free Will and Value.John Martin Fischer - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Fischer here defends the contention that moral responsibility is associated with "deep control", which is "in-between" two untenable extreme positions: "superficial control" and "total control". He defends this "middle way" against the proponents of more--and less--robust notions of the freedom required for moral responsibility. Fischer offers a new solution to the Luck Problem, as well as providing a defense of the compatibility of causal determinism and moral responsibility.
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  16. Responsibility and Manipulation.John Martin Fischer - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (2):145-177.
    I address various critiques of the approach to moral responsibility sketched in previous work by Ravizza and Fischer. I especially focus on the key issues pertaining to manipulation.
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  17. Our Stories: Essays on Life, Death, and Free Will.John Martin Fischer - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    Introduction: "meaning in life and death : our stories" -- John Martin Fischer and Anthony B rueckner, "Why is death bad?", Philosophical studies, vol. 50, no. 2 (September 1986) -- "Death, badness, and the impossibility of experience," Journal of ethics -- John Martin Fischer and Daniel Speak, "Death and the psychological conception of personal identity," Midwest studies in philosophy, vol. 24 -- "Earlier birth and later death : symmetry through thick and thin," Richard Feldman, Kris McDaniel, Jason R. (...)
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  18. Personality, Values, Culture: An Evolutionary Approach.Ronald Fischer - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    Humans are complex social beings. To understand human behaviour, an integrated perspective is required - one which considers both what we regularly do and what motivates us. Personality, Values, Culture uses an evolutionary perspective to look at the similarities and differences in personality and values across modern societies. Integrating research on personality and human values into a functional framework that highlights their underlying compatibilities, Fischer describes how personality is shaped by the complex interplay between genes and the environment, both (...)
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  19.  8
    The Metaphysics of Free Will: An Essay on Control. [REVIEW]Randolph Clarke & John Martin Fischer - 1997 - Philosophical Review 106 (3):450.
    The first, the Transfer Version, employs an inference principle concerning the transfer of one's powerlessness with respect to certain facts. The principle says, roughly, "If a person is powerless over one thing, and powerless over that thing's leading to another, then the person is powerless over the second thing". The key premises are the Fixity of the Past and the Fixity of the Laws. Fischer defends the transfer principle against objections that have been raised by Anthony Kenny and Michael (...)
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  20.  37
    Accommodating Counterfactual Attitudes: A Further Reply to Johansson.John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (1):19-21.
    Here we respond to Johansson’s main worry, as laid out in his, “Actual and Counterfactual Attitudes: Reply to Fischer and Brueckner.” We show how our principle BF*(dd*) can be adjusted to address this concern compatibly with our fundamental approach to responding to Lucretius.
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  21.  11
    Our Stories: Essays on Life, Death, and Free Will. [REVIEW]John Fischer - 2010 - Analysis 70 (1):196-198.
    In Our Stories, John Martin Fischer offers readers a characteristically thoughtful and engaging presentation of his views on a variety of topics, most notably death, immortality and self-expression. Having come to this collection familiar primarily with Fischer's work on freedom and responsibility, I was impressed with the range of issues treated in this latest volume. While each essay is independently appealing, perhaps the most compelling aspect of Our Stories is its cohesiveness. Fischer discerns a variety of subtle (...)
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  22. Our Fate: Essays on God and Free Will.John Martin Fischer - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Our Fate is a collection of John Martin Fischer's previously published articles on the relationship between God's foreknowledge and human freedom. The book contains a new introductory essay that places all of the chapters in the book into a cohesive framework. The introductory essay also provides some new views about the issues treated in the book, including a bold and original account of God's foreknowledge of free actions in a causally indeterministic world. The focus of the book is a (...)
     
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  23.  99
    God, Foreknowledge, and Freedom.John Martin Fischer - 1991 - Stanford University Press.
    Introduction: God and Freedom John Martin Fischer Imagine that in some remote part of Connecticut there is a computer that has stored in its memory all truths about your life — past, present, and future. The computer contains all the ...
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  24.  33
    Cardinal Characteristics, Projective Wellorders and Large Continuum.Vera Fischer, Sy David Friedman & Lyubomyr Zdomskyy - 2013 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 164 (7-8):763-770.
    We extend the work of Fischer et al. [6] by presenting a method for controlling cardinal characteristics in the presence of a projective wellorder and 2ℵ0>ℵ2. This also answers a question of Harrington [9] by showing that the existence of a Δ31 wellorder of the reals is consistent with Martinʼs axiom and 2ℵ0=ℵ3.
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  25.  65
    Replies to Critics. [REVIEW]John Martin Fischer - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 158 (3):529-540.
    Replies to critics Content Type Journal Article DOI 10.1007/s11098-010-9669-y Authors John Martin Fischer, University of California, Riverside, CA USA Journal Philosophical Studies Online ISSN 1573-0883 Print ISSN 0031-8116.
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  26.  43
    Gendered Readings of Change: A Feminist-Pragmatist Approach.Clara Fischer - 2014 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    In Gendered Readings of Change, Clara Fischer develops a unique theory of change by drawing on American philosophy and contemporary feminist thought. Via a select history of ancient Greek and Pragmatist philosophies of change, she argues for a reconstruction of transformation that is inclusive of women's experiences and thought. With wide-ranging analysis, this book addresses ontological, moral, epistemological, and political questions, and includes an insightful exploration of the philosophies of Parmenides, Aristotle, John Dewey, Iris Young, and Jane Addams.
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  27.  35
    Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice.Michael M. J. Fischer - 2003 - Duke University Press.
    Now, in Emergent Forms of Life and the Anthropological Voice, path-breaking scholar Michael M. J. Fischer moves the discussion to a consideration of the ...
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  28.  50
    The Evil of Death: A Reply to Yi.John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (3):741-748.
    In previous work we have presented a reply to the Lucretian Symmetry, which has it that it is rational to have symmetric attitudes toward prenatal and posthumous nonexistence. Our reply relies on Parfit-style thought-experiments. Here we reply to a critique of our approach by Huiyuhl Yi, which appears in this journal: Brueckner and Fischer on the evil of death. We argue that this critique fails to attend to the specific nature of the thought-experiments (and our associated argument). More specifically, (...)
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  29. Well-Ordered License: On the Unity of Machiavelli's Thought.Markus Fischer - 2000 - Lexington Books.
    Interpreters of Machiavelli easily agree that his political writings have profoundly influenced our fundamental ideas of state and society, yet these interpreters rarely agree on what Machiavelli really thought. Did Machiavelli seek to recover classical republicanism in the Aristotelian tradition, or did he aspire to usher in modernity? Was he a cynic who assumed human beings to be inescapably wicked and offered technical advice to tyrants, or did he aim at some version of "the good life"? Did he create a (...)
     
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  30.  35
    Stanley Cavell and Literary Skepticism.Michael Fischer - 1989 - University of Chicago Press.
    Stanley Cavell's work is distinctive not only in its importance to philosophy but also for its remarkable interdisciplinary range. Cavell is read avidly by students of film, photography, painting, and music, but especially by students of literature, for whom Cavell offers major readings of Thoreau, Emerson, Shakespeare, and others. In this first book-length study of Cavell's writings, Michael Fischer examines Cavell's relevance to the controversies surrounding poststructuralist literary theory, particularly works by Jacques Derrida, J. Hillis Miller, Paul de Man, (...)
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  31.  4
    Rationalität Als Offene Ordnung. Zur Logik Und Evolution Neuer Sprachspiele.Hans Rudi Fischer - 1999 - In Matthias Kross & Hans Julius Schneider (eds.), Mit Sprache Spielen: Die Ordnung Und Das Offene Nach Wittgenstein. Akademie Verlag. pp. 149-168.
    "Rationalität" respektive "rationale" gehören zu den Prädikaten, die wir Personen bzw. deren Einstellungen, Entscheidungen und Handlungen zuschreiben. Die Handlung einer Person beschreiben wir als "rational", wenn das Mittel, ein angestrebtes Ziel zu erreichen, den Erfolg der Handlung garantiert oder zumindest unter normalen Umständen wahrscheinlich macht. Die Zweck-Mittel-Relation lässt sich in einem "praktischen Syllogismus§ (von Wright 1984, Fischer 1987) formalisieren. Eine Meinung, ein Glaube (präpositionale Einstellung), dass p, gilt dann als rational, wenn er auf Prämissen beruht, die diese Meinung "begründen", (...)
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  32.  27
    The UN Anti-Terror Sanctions Regime Under Pressure.Helen Keller & Andreas Fischer - 2009 - Keller, Helen; Fischer, Andreas . The Un Anti-Terror Sanctions Regime Under Pressure. Human Rights Law Review, 9:257-266.
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  33.  25
    Erratum To: The Evil of Death: A Reply to Yi.John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (4):1169-1169.
    Erratum to: Philosophia 42:741–748DOI 10.1007/s11406-014-9543-9The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. There were two slight text errors. The correct text information are given below.In the second line of the last paragraph in section "Reply to Yi" right before the "Conclusion", the text should read as:“atypical or, as Yi suggests, are more typical than we appear to suppose”.andIn the middle of the same paragraph, the text should read as:“…Note that a proponent of the Brueckner/Fischer approach can accept (...)
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  34. Sprache und Lebensform: Wittgenstein über Freud und die Geisteskrankheiten.Hans Rudi Fischer - 1987 - Monographien zur philosophischen Forschung Bd. 242, 367 S. Athenäum. Frankfurt 1987. 2. verbesserte Auflage 1991, Heidelberg, Carl-Auer.
    Hans Rudi Fischer eröffnet vom Standpunkt einer philosophischen Analyse her einen neuen Zugang zu bestimmten Formen der Geisteskrankheit und damit zu ihrer psychotherapeutischen Analyse und Behandlung. Die Studie ist daher im Zwischenbereich zwischen Philosophie, Sprachtheorie und Psychologie bzw. Psychotherapie angesiedelt und somit für alle drei Bereiche von Interesse. Ihre Zielrichtung ist deshalb eine doppelte: Zum einen sollen Wittgensteins verstreute Bemerkungen zur Psychologie, zum Wahnsinn und zur Psychoanalyse in einer systematischen Interpretation ihres (bisher, wenn diese Bemerkungen überhaupt beachtet wurden, meist (...)
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  35.  19
    Rehabilitating Reference: Charles Altieri's "Presence and Reference in a Literary Text".Michael Fischer - 1979 - Critical Inquiry 6 (2):343-345.
    Like many readers, I sympathize with Charles Altieri's attempt in "Presence and Reference in a Literary Text"1 to correct Derrida's assimilation of poetry to linguistic "freeplay without origin." But Altieri's "middle ground" solution is at best a stopgap measure, delaying the deconstructionist project but not finally answering it. Altieri agrees with Derrida that "language is not primarily a set of pictures ideally mirroring a world" . But he resists the conclusion that for Derrida follows from this premise, namely, that poems (...)
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  36.  6
    Ein Bild – Ohne Betrachter – Hielt Uns Gefangen. Wittgensteins Ambivalenter Abschied Vom Realismus.Hans Rudi Fischer - 2017 - In Katharina Neges, Josef Mitterer, Sebastian Kletzl & Christian Kanzian (eds.), Realism - Relativism - Constructivism: Proceedings of the 38th International Wittgenstein Symposium in Kirchberg. De Gruyter. pp. 167-186.
    Wittgenstein vergleicht seine Arbeitsweise häufig mit der eines Malers, wobei er Denken (und Sprechen) mit dem Zeichnen von Bildern analogisiert. Der Begriff des Bildes ist ein Schlüssel zu seinem Sprachdenken und wird in der Bildtheorie des Tractatus (T) enfaltet. Die Klärung, wie ein Bild (bzw. Satz) Wirklichkeit abzubilden vermag, ist das Paradigma, anhand dessen Wittgenstein die Abbildbarkeit von Wirklichkeit klären möchte. Abbildung im bildlichen bzw. sprachlichen Sinne ist im Tractatus explizit ein Konstruktionsprozess, der Satz ist „Projektionsmethode“. Die Methode sichtbare Dinge (...)
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  37.  67
    Deep Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility.John Martin Fischer - 2012 - Oup Usa.
    Fischer here defends the contention that moral responsibility is associated with "deep control", which is "in-between" two untenable extreme positions: "superficial control" and "total control". He defends this "middle way" against the proponents of more--and less--robust notions of the freedom required for moral responsibility. Fischer offers a new solution to the Luck Problem, as well as providing a defense of the compatibility of causal determinism and moral responsibility.
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  38. Near-Death Experiences: Understanding Visions of the Afterlife.John Martin Fischer & Benjamin Mitchell-Yellin - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Near-death experiences offer a glimpse not only into the nature of death but also into the meaning of life. They are not only useful tools to aid in the human quest to understand death but are also deeply meaningful, transformative experiences for the people who have them. In a unique contribution to the growing and popular literature on the subject, philosophers John Martin Fischer and Benjamin Mitchell-Yellin examine prominent near-death experiences, such as those of Pam Reynolds, Eben Alexander and (...)
     
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  39. Shizi: China's First Syncretist.Paul Fischer - 2012 - Columbia University Press.
    By blending multiple strands of thought into one ideology, Chinese Syncretists of the pre-imperial period created an essential guide to contemporary ideas about self, society, and government. Merging traditions such as Ruism, Mohism, Daoism, Legalism, and Yin-Yang naturalism into their work, Syncretists created an integrated intellectual approach that contrasts with other, more specific philosophies. Presenting the first full English translation of the earliest example of a Syncretist text, this volume introduces Western scholars to both the brilliance of the syncretic method (...)
     
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  40. Recent Work on Moral Responsibility.John Martin Fischer - 1999 - Ethics 110 (1):93–139.
  41. The Truth About Tracing.John Martin Fischer & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2009 - Noûs 43 (3):531-556.
    Control-based models of moral responsibility typically employ a notion of "tracing," according to which moral responsibility requires an exercise of control either immediately prior to the behavior in question or at some suitable point prior to the behavior. Responsibility, on this view, requires tracing back to control. But various philosophers, including Manuel Vargas and Angela Smith, have presented cases in which the plausibility of tracing is challenged. In this paper we discuss the examples and we argue that they do not (...)
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  42. The Physiognomy of Responsibility.John Martin Fischer & Neal A. Tognazzini - 2011 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (2):381-417.
    Our aim in this paper is to put the concept of moral responsibility under a microscope. At the lowest level of magnification, it appears unified. But Gary Watson has taught us that if we zoom in, we will find that moral responsibility has two faces: attributability and accountability. Or, to describe the two faces in different terms, there is a difference between being responsible and holding responsible. It is one thing to talk about the connection the agent has with her (...)
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  43. The Frankfurt Cases: The Moral of the Stories.John Martin Fischer - 2010 - Philosophical Review 119 (3):315-336.
    The Frankfurt cases have been thought by some philosophers to show that moral responsibility does not require genuine metaphysical access to alternative possibilities. But various philosophers have rejected this putative "lesson" of the cases, and they have put forward a powerful "Dilemma Defense." In the last decade or so, many philosophers have been persuaded by the Dilemma Defense that the Frankfurt cases do not show what Frankfurt (and others) thought they show. This essay presents a template for a general strategy (...)
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  44. Philosophical Intuitions , Heuristics , and Metaphors.Eugen Fischer - 2014 - Synthese 191 (3):569-606.
    : Psychological explanations of philosophical intuitions can help us assess their evidentiary value, and our warrant for accepting them. To explain and assess conceptual or classificatory intuitions about specific situations, some philosophers have suggested explanations which invoke heuristic rules proposed by cognitive psychologists. The present paper extends this approach of intuition assessment by heuristics-based explanation, in two ways: It motivates the proposal of a new heuristic, and shows that this metaphor heuristic helps explain important but neglected intuitions: general factual intuitions (...)
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  45. The Evil of Death and the Lucretian Symmetry: A Reply to Feldman.John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 163 (3):783-789.
    In previous work we have defended the deprivation account of death’s badness against worries stemming from the Lucretian point that prenatal and posthumous nonexistence are deprivations of the same sort. In a recent article in this journal, Fred Feldman has offered an insightful critique of our Parfitian strategy for defending the deprivation account of death’s badness. Here we adjust, clarify, and defend our strategy for reply to Lucretian worries on behalf of the deprivation account.
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  46.  85
    The Zygote Argument Remixed.J. M. Fischer - 2011 - Analysis 71 (2):267-272.
    John and Mary have fully consensual sex, but they do not want to have a child, so they use contraception with the intention of avoiding pregnancy. Unfortunately, although they used the contraception in the way in which it is supposed to be used, Mary has become pregnant. The couple decides to have the baby, whom they name ‘Ernie’. Now we fill in the story a bit. The universe is causally deterministic, and 30 years later Ernie performs some action A and (...)
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  47. Responsibility and Control.John Martin Fischer - 1982 - Journal of Philsophy 79 (January):24-40.
  48.  15
    Reading Space Into Numbers: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of the SNARC Effect.Samuel Shaki & Martin H. Fischer - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):590-599.
    Small numbers are spontaneously associated with left space and larger numbers with right space (the SNARC effect), for example when classifying numbers by parity. This effect is often attributed to reading habits but a causal link has so far never been documented. We report that bilingual Russian-Hebrew readers show a SNARC effect after reading Cyrillic script (from left-to-right) that is significantly reduced after reading Hebrew script (from right-to-left). In contrast, they have similar SNARC effects after listening to texts in either (...)
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  49.  19
    Where Have All the People Gone? A Plea for Including Social Interaction in Emotion Research.Agneta H. Fischer & Gerben A. van Kleef - 2010 - Emotion Review 2 (3):208-211.
    In the present article we argue that emotional interactions are not appropriately captured in present emotion research and theorizing. Emotional stimuli or antecedents are dynamic and change over time because they often interact and have a specific relationship with the subject. Earlier emotional interactions may, for example, intensify later emotional reactions to a specific person, or our anger reactions towards powerful or powerless others may differ considerably. Thus, we suggest that such social factors not only affect the intensity, but also (...)
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  50.  75
    TEST: A Tropic, Embodied, and Situated Theory of Cognition.Andriy Myachykov, Christoph Scheepers, Martin H. Fischer & Klaus Kessler - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (3):442-460.
    TEST is a novel taxonomy of knowledge representations based on three distinct hierarchically organized representational features: Tropism, Embodiment, and Situatedness. Tropic representational features reflect constraints of the physical world on the agent's ability to form, reactivate, and enrich embodied (i.e., resulting from the agent's bodily constraints) conceptual representations embedded in situated contexts. The proposed hierarchy entails that representations can, in principle, have tropic features without necessarily having situated and/or embodied features. On the other hand, representations that are situated and/or embodied (...)
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