Results for 'Natural Language'

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  1. Natural Language and Natural Selection.Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom - 1990 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any (...)
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  2. Inner Speech, Natural Language, and the Modularity of the Mind.Axel Gelfert - 2015 - Kairos 14:7-29.
    Inner speech is a pervasive feature of our conscious mental lives. Yet its function and character remain an issue of philosophical debate. The present paper focuses on the relation between inner speech and natural language and on the cognitive functions that various contributors have ascribed to inner speech. In particular, it is argued that inner speech does not consist of bare, context-free internal presentations of sentential (or subsentential) content, but rather has an ineliminably perspectival element. The proposed model (...)
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  3.  95
    Proof-Theoretic Semantics for a Natural Language Fragment.Nissim Francez & Roy Dyckhoff - 2010 - Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (6):447-477.
    The paper presents a proof-theoretic semantics (PTS) for a fragment of natural language, providing an alternative to the traditional model-theoretic (Montagovian) semantics (MTS), whereby meanings are truth-condition (in arbitrary models). Instead, meanings are taken as derivability-conditions in a dedicated natural-deduction (ND) proof-system. This semantics is effective (algorithmically decidable), adhering to the meaning as use paradigm, not suffering from several of the criticisms formulated by philosophers of language against MTS as a theory of meaning. In particular, Dummett’s (...)
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  4.  13
    Natural Language Inference in Coq.Stergios Chatzikyriakidis & Zhaohui Luo - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (4):441-480.
    In this paper we propose a way to deal with natural language inference by implementing Modern Type Theoretical Semantics in the proof assistant Coq. The paper is a first attempt to deal with NLI and natural language reasoning in general by using the proof assistant technology. Valid NLIs are treated as theorems and as such the adequacy of our account is tested by trying to prove them. We use Luo’s Modern Type Theory with coercive subtyping as (...)
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  5. The Language of Thought and Natural Language Understanding.Jonathan Knowles - 1998 - Analysis 58 (4):264-272.
    Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis have recently argued that certain kinds of regress arguments against the language of thought (LOT) hypothesis as an account of how we understand natural languages have been answered incorrectly or inadequately by supporters of LOT ('Regress arguments against the language of thought', Analysis, 57 (1), 60-6, J 97). They argue further that this does not undermine the LOT hypothesis, since the main sources of support for LOT are (or might be) independent of (...)
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  6.  47
    Natural Language Ontology.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - Oxford Encyclopedia of Linguistics.
    The aim of natural language ontology is to uncover the ontological categories and structures that are implicit in the use of natural language, that is, that a speaker accepts when using a language. This article aims to clarify what exactly the subject matter of natural language ontology is, what sorts of linguistic data it should take into account, how natural language ontology relates to other branches of metaphysics, in what ways (...) language ontology is important, and what may be distinctive of the ontological categories and structures reflected in natural language. (shrink)
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  7.  15
    Natural Language and Logic of Agency.Johan van Benthem - 2014 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (3):367-382.
    This light piece reflects on analogies between two often disjoint streams of research: the logical semantics and pragmatics of natural language and dynamic logics of general information-driven agency. The two areas show significant overlap in themes and tools, and yet, the focus seems subtly different in each, defying a simple comparison. We discuss some unusual questions that emerge when the two are put side by side, without any pretense at covering the whole literature or at reaching definitive conclusions.
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  8.  19
    Towards a Natural Language Semantics Without Functors and Operands.Miklós Erdélyi-Szabó, László Kálmán & Agi Kurucz - 2007 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):1-17.
    The paper sets out to offer an alternative to the function/argument approach to the most essential aspects of natural language meanings. That is, we question the assumption that semantic completeness (of, e.g., propositions) or incompleteness (of, e.g., predicates) exactly replicate the corresponding grammatical concepts (of, e.g., sentences and verbs, respectively). We argue that even if one gives up this assumption, it is still possible to keep the compositionality of the semantic interpretation of simple predicate/argument structures. In our opinion, (...)
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  9. Indefinite Extensibility in Natural Language.Laureano Luna - 2013 - The Monist 96 (2):295-308.
    The Monist’s call for papers for this issue ended: “if formalism is true, then it must be possible in principle to mechanize meaning in a conscious thinking and language-using machine; if intentionalism is true, no such project is intelligible”. We use the Grelling-Nelson paradox to show that natural language is indefinitely extensible, which has two important consequences: it cannot be formalized and model theoretic semantics, standard for formal languages, is not suitable for it. We also point out (...)
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  10. Logical Consequence and Natural Language.Michael Glanzberg - 2015 - In Colin Caret & Ole Hjortland (eds.), Foundations of Logical Consequence. Oxford University Press. pp. 71-120.
    One of the great successes in the study of language has been the application of formal methods, including those of formal logic. Even so, this chapter argues against one way of accounting for this success, by arguing that the study of natural language semantics and of logical consequence relations are not the same. There is indeed a lot we can glean about logic from looking at our languages, and at our inferential practices, but the semantic properties of (...)
     
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  11. Boguslawski's Analysis of Quantification in Natural Language.John-Michael Kuczynski - 2010 - Journal of Pragmatics 42 (10):2836-2844.
    The semantic rules governing natural language quantifiers (e.g. "all," "some," "most") neither coincide with nor resemble the semantic rules governing the analogues of those expressions that occur in the artificial languages used by semanticists. Some semanticists, e.g. Peter Strawson, have put forth data-consistent hypotheses as to the identities of the semantic rules governing some natural-language quantifiers. But, despite their obvious merits, those hypotheses have been universally rejected. In this paper, it is shown that those hypotheses are (...)
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  12.  9
    Incremental Bayesian Category Learning From Natural Language.Lea Frermann & Mirella Lapata - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (6):1333-1381.
    Models of category learning have been extensively studied in cognitive science and primarily tested on perceptual abstractions or artificial stimuli. In this paper, we focus on categories acquired from natural language stimuli, that is, words. We present a Bayesian model that, unlike previous work, learns both categories and their features in a single process. We model category induction as two interrelated subproblems: the acquisition of features that discriminate among categories, and the grouping of concepts into categories based on (...)
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  13.  70
    Formal Semantics of Natural Language.Adam Morton - 1982 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12 (4):805-808.
    a review of Keenan, ed. *Formal Semantics of Natural Language*.
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  14.  11
    Prior and Temporal Sequences for Natural Language.Tim Fernando - forthcoming - Synthese:1-13.
    Logics of discrete time are, in Arthur Prior’s words, “applicable in limited fields of discourse in which we are concerned with what happens in a sequence of discrete states,” independent of “any serious metaphysical assumption that time is discrete.” This insight is applied to natural language semantics, a widespread assumption in which is that time is, as is the real line, dense. “Limited fields of discourse” are construed as finite sets of temporal propositions, inducing bounded notions of temporal (...)
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  15.  12
    Natural Language Interfaces and Strategic Computing.Geoffrey K. Pullum - 1987 - AI and Society 1 (1):47-58.
    Modern weaponry is often too complex for unaided human operation, and is largely or totally controlled by computers. But modern software, particularly artificial intelligence software, exhibits such complexity and inscrutability that there are grave dangers associated with its use in non-benign applications. Recent efforts to make computer systems more accessible to military personnel through natural language processing systems, as proposed in the Strategic Computing Initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, increases rather than decreases the dangers of (...)
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  16.  34
    An Expressive First-Order Logic with Flexible Typing for Natural Language Semantics.Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin - 2004 - Logic Journal of the Interest Group in Pure and Applied Logics 12 (2):135--168.
    We present Property Theory with Curry Typing (PTCT), an intensional first-order logic for natural language semantics. PTCT permits fine-grained specifications of meaning. It also supports polymorphic types and separation types. We develop an intensional number theory within PTCT in order to represent proportional generalized quantifiers like “most.” We use the type system and our treatment of generalized quantifiers in natural language to construct a type-theoretic approach to pronominal anaphora that avoids some of the difficulties that undermine (...)
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  17.  17
    Natural Language Understanding Within a Cognitive Semantics Framework.Inger Lytje - 1989 - AI and Society 4 (4):276-290.
    The article argues that cognitive linguistic theory may prove an alternative to the Montague paradigm for designing natural language understanding systems. Within this framework it describes a system which models language understanding as a dialogical process between user and computer. The system operates with natural language texts as input and represent language meaning as entity-relationship diagrams.
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  18.  35
    Some Comments on the Begriffsschrift and Natural Language.Alan Schwerin - 1983 - Philosophical Papers 12 (2):32-38.
    If the begriffsschrift from Frege does represent the logical form of natural language it either lacks a logical form itself, or its logical form is different to that of natural language. But Frege insists that his notation has a logical form. So the second disjunct holds. This suggests that Frege's notation will generate consequences different to those that can be derived with natural language, with its different logical form. For anyone looking for "a means (...)
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  19.  41
    Logical Reasoning in Natural Language: It is All About Knowledge. [REVIEW]Lucja Iwańska - 1993 - Minds and Machines 3 (4):475-510.
    A formal, computational, semantically clean representation of natural language is presented. This representation captures the fact that logical inferences in natural language crucially depend on the semantic relation of entailment between sentential constituents such as determiner, noun, adjective, adverb, preposition, and verb phrases.The representation parallels natural language in that it accounts for human intuition about entailment of sentences, it preserves its structure, it reflects the semantics of different syntactic categories, it simulates conjunction, disjunction, and (...)
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  20.  33
    Natural Language Processing for Transparent Communication Between Public Administration and Citizens.Bernardo Magnini, Elena Not, Oliviero Stock & Carlo Strapparava - 2000 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 8 (1):1-34.
    This paper presents two projects concerned with the application of natural language processing technology for improving communication between Public Administration and citizens. The first project, GIST,is concerned with automatic multilingual generation of instructional texts for form-filling. The second project, TAMIC, aims at providing an interface for interactive access to information, centered on natural language processing and supposed to be used by the clerk but with the active participation of the citizen.
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  21.  33
    Natural Language Processing Using a Propositional Semantic Network with Structured Variables.Syed S. Ali & Stuart C. Shapiro - 1993 - Minds and Machines 3 (4):421-451.
    We describe a knowledge representation and inference formalism, based on an intensional propositional semantic network, in which variables are structures terms consisting of quantifier, type, and other information. This has three important consequences for natural language processing. First, this leads to an extended, more natural formalism whose use and representations are consistent with the use of variables in natural language in two ways: the structure of representations mirrors the structure of the language and allows (...)
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  22. Representing Time in Natural Language the Dynamic Interpretation of Tense and Aspect.Alice G. B. ter Meulen - 1997
     
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  23. Modularity in Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Understanding.Jay L. Garfield (ed.) - 1987 - MIT Press.
  24. Natural Language and Everyday Reasoning.Fred Sommers - manuscript
  25.  69
    Understanding Natural Language.John Haugeland - 1979 - Journal of Philosophy 76 (November):619-32.
  26.  63
    Symbolic Connectionism in Natural Language Disambiguation.James Franklin & S. W. K. Chan - 1998 - IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 9:739-755.
    Uses connectionism (neural networks) to extract the "gist" of a story in order to represent a context going forward for the disambiguation of incoming words as a text is processed.
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  27. Natural Language and Thought: Thinking in English.Barbara Abbott - 1995 - Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):49-55.
  28.  3
    Forgetting and Natural Language Mediation.William E. Montague, Jack A. Adams & Harold O. Kiess - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (6):829.
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  29.  31
    Natural Language and Thought: Doing Without Mentalese.Larry Hauser - 1995 - Behavior and Philosophy 23 (2):41-47.
    Hauser defends the proposition that our languages of thought are public languages. One group of arguments points to the coincidence of clearly productive (novel, unbounded) cognitive competence with overt possession of recursive symbol systems. Another group relies on phenomenological experience. A third group cites practical and methodological considerations: Occam's razor and the "streetlight principle" (other things being equal, look under the lamp) that motivate looking for instantiations of outer languages in thought first.
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  30.  6
    Item Length, Acoustic Similarity, and Natural Language Mediation as Variables in Short-Term Memory.Jack A. Adams, Howard I. Thorsheim & John S. McIntyre - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):39.
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  31.  2
    Effects of Natural Language Mediators on Short-Term Memory.Harold O. Kiess - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (1):7.
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  32.  2
    Natural Language Associability in Paired-Associate Learning.Clinton B. Walker, William E. Montague & Alexander J. Wearing - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):264.
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  33. Natural Language Understanding and Logic Programming, Ii Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Natural Language Understanding and Logic Programming, Vancouver, Canada, 17-19 August, 1987. [REVIEW]Veronica Dahl & Patrick Saint-Dizier - 1988
     
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  34.  11
    The Semantic Representation of Natural Language.Michael Levison - 2012 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Introduction -- Basic concepts -- Previous approaches -- Semantic expressions: introduction -- Formal issues -- Semantic expressions: basic features -- Advanced features -- Applications: capture -- Three little pigs -- Applications: creation.
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  35. From Natural Language Processing to Logic for Expert Systems a Logic Based Approach to Artificial Intelligence.André Thayse & Jean-Louis Binot - 1991
     
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  36.  50
    A Meeting of the Conceptual and the Natural: Wittgenstein on Learning a Sensation‐Language.Hao Tang - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (1):105-135.
    Since the rise of modern natural science there has been deep tension between the conceptual and the natural. Wittgenstein's discussion of how we learn a sensation-language contains important resources that can help us relieve this tension. The key here, I propose, is to focus our attention on animal nature, conceived as partially re-enchanted. To see how nature, so conceived, helps us relieve the tension in question, it is crucial to gain a firm and detailed appreciation of how (...)
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  37. Logic & Natural Language on Plural Reference and its Semantic and Logical Significance.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2004 - Ashgate.
    Frege's invention of the predicate calculus has been the most influential event in the history of modern logic. The calculus' place in logic is so central that many philosophers think, in fact, of it when they think of logic. This book challenges the position in contemporary logic and philosophy of language of the predicate calculus claiming that it is based on mistaken assumptions. Ben-Yami shows that the predicate calculus is different from natural language in its fundamental semantic (...)
     
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  38.  58
    Polarity in Natural Language: Predication, Quantification and Negation in Particular and Characterizing Sentences. [REVIEW]Sebastian Löbner - 2000 - Linguistics and Philosophy 23 (3):213-308.
    The present paper is an attempt at the investigation of the nature of polarity contrast in natural languages. Truth conditions for natural language sentences are incomplete unless they include a proper definition of the conditions under which they are false. It is argued that the tertium non datur principle of classical bivalent logical systems is empirically invalid for natural languages: falsity cannot be equated with non-truth. Lacking a direct intuition about the conditions under which a sentence (...)
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  39.  16
    Natural Signs and the Origin of Language.Anton Sukhoverkhov - 2012 - Biosemiotics 5 (2):153-159.
    This article considers natural signs and their role in the origin of language. Natural signs, sometimes called primary signs, are connected with their signified by causal relationships, concomitance, or likeliness. And their acquisition is directed by both objective reality and past experience (memory). The discovery and use of natural signs is a required prerequisite of existence for any living systems because they are indispensable to movement, the search for food, regulation, communication, and many other information-related activities. (...)
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  40.  70
    Negation in Logic and in Natural Language.Jaakko Hintikka - 2002 - Linguistics and Philosophy 25 (5-6):585-600.
    In game-theoretical semantics, perfectlyclassical rules yield a strong negation thatviolates tertium non datur when informationalindependence is allowed. Contradictorynegation can be introduced only by a metalogicalstipulation, not by game rules. Accordingly, it mayoccur (without further stipulations) onlysentence-initially. The resulting logic (extendedindependence-friendly logic) explains several regularitiesin natural languages, e.g., why contradictory negation is abarrier to anaphase. In natural language, contradictory negationsometimes occurs nevertheless witin the scope of aquantifier. Such sentences require a secondary interpretationresembling the so-called substitutionalinterpretation of quantifiers.This interpretation (...)
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  41. Abstract Objects and the Semantics of Natural Language.Friederike Moltmann - 2013 - Oxford University Press.
    This book pursues the question of how and whether natural language allows for reference to abstract objects in a fully systematic way. By making full use of contemporary linguistic semantics, it presents a much greater range of linguistic generalizations than has previously been taken into consideration in philosophical discussions, and it argues for an ontological picture is very different from that generally taken for granted by philosophers and semanticists alike. Reference to abstract objects such as properties, numbers, propositions, (...)
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  42.  13
    'You Gotta Listen to How People Talk': Machines and Natural Language.Jacob Berger & Kyle Ferguson - 2009 - In Richard Brown & Kevin S. Decker (eds.), Terminator and Philosophy: I'll be Back, Therefore I Am. pp. 239-252.
    A fun piece discussing the challenges to and prospects of building machines that are able to produce and understand natural language.
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  43.  28
    A Metalogical Theory of Natural Language Semantics.Michael Mccord & Arendse Bernth - 2004 - Linguistics and Philosophy 28 (1):73 - 116.
    We develop a framework for natural language semantics which handles intensionality via metalogical constructions and deals with degree truth values in an integrated way. We take an axiomatic set theory, ZF, as the foundation for semantic representations, but we make ZF a metalanguage for part of itself by embedding a language ℒ within ZF which is basically a copy of the part of ZF consisting of set expressions. This metalogical set-up is used for handling propositional attitude verbs (...)
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  44.  22
    A Grammar Systems Approach to Natural Language Grammar.M. Dolores Jiménez López - 2006 - Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (4):419 - 454.
    Taking as its starting point significant similarities between a formal language model—Grammar Systems—and a grammatical theory—Autolexical Syntax—in this paper we suggest the application of the former to the topic of the latter. To show the applicability of Grammar Systems Theory to grammatical description, we introduce a formal-language-theoretic framework for the architecture of natural language grammar: Linguistic Grammar Systems. We prove the adequacy of this model by highlighting its features (modularity, parallelism, interaction) and by showing the similarity (...)
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  45. Situations in Natural Language Semantics.Angelika Kratzer - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Situation semantics was developed as an alternative to possible worlds semantics. In situation semantics, linguistic expressions are evaluated with respect to partial, rather than complete, worlds. There is no consensus about what situations are, just as there is no consensus about what possible worlds or events are. According to some, situations are structured entities consisting of relations and individuals standing in those relations. According to others, situations are particulars. In spite of unresolved foundational issues, the partiality provided by situation semantics (...)
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  46.  49
    Quantifiers in TIME and SPACE. Computational Complexity of Generalized Quantifiers in Natural Language.Jakub Szymanik - 2009 - Dissertation, University of Amsterdam
    In the dissertation we study the complexity of generalized quantifiers in natural language. Our perspective is interdisciplinary: we combine philosophical insights with theoretical computer science, experimental cognitive science and linguistic theories. -/- In Chapter 1 we argue for identifying a part of meaning, the so-called referential meaning (model-checking), with algorithms. Moreover, we discuss the influence of computational complexity theory on cognitive tasks. We give some arguments to treat as cognitively tractable only those problems which can be computed in (...)
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  47. Continuations and Natural Language.Chris Barker & Chung-Chieh Shan - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    This book takes concepts developed by researchers in theoretical computer science and adapts and applies them to the study of natural language meaning. Summarizing over a decade of research, Chris Barker and Chung-chieh Shan put forward the Continuation Hypothesis: that the meaning of a natural language expression can depend on its own continuation.
     
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  48. Some Aspects of Optimality in Natural Language Interpretation.R. Blutner - 2000 - Journal of Semantics 17 (3):189-216.
    In a series of papers, Petra Hendriks, Helen de Hoop, and Henriette de Swart have applied optimality theory (OT) to semantics. These authors argue that there is a fundamental difference between the from of OT as used in syntax on the one hand and its from as used in semantics on the other hand. Whereas in the first case. OT takes the point of view of the speaker, in the second case the point of view of the hearer is taken. (...)
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  49. Natural Language and Virtual Belief.Keith Frankish - 1998 - In Peter Carruthers & Jill Boucher (eds.), Language and Thought: Interdisciplinary Themes. Cambridge University Press. pp. 248.
    This chapter outlines a new argument for the view that language has a cognitive role. I suggest that humans exhibit two distinct kinds of belief state, one passively formed, the other actively formed. I argue that actively formed beliefs (_virtual beliefs_, as I call them) can be identified with _premising policies_, and that forming them typically involves certain linguistic operations. I conclude that natural language has at least a limited cognitive role in the formation and manipulation of (...)
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  50. Reference to Numbers in Natural Language.Friederike Moltmann - 2013 - Philosophical Studies 162 (3):499 - 536.
    A common view is that natural language treats numbers as abstract objects, with expressions like the number of planets, eight, as well as the number eight acting as referential terms referring to numbers. In this paper I will argue that this view about reference to numbers in natural language is fundamentally mistaken. A more thorough look at natural language reveals a very different view of the ontological status of natural numbers. On this view, (...)
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