Results for 'organicism'

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  1. Holism, Organicism and the Risk of Biochauvinism.Charles T. Wolfe - 2014 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 43 (1-3):39-57.
    In this essay I seek to critically evaluate some forms of holism and organicism in biological thought, as a more deflationary echo to Gilbert and Sarkar's reflection on the need for an 'umbrella' concept to convey the new vitality of holistic concepts in biology (Gilbert and Sarkar 2000). Given that some recent discussions in theoretical biology call for an organism concept (from Moreno and Mossio’s work on organization to Kirschner et al.’s research paper in Cell, 2000, building on chemistry (...)
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  2.  8
    Organicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.D. C. Phillips - 1907 - Journal of the History of Ideas.
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  3.  37
    Organicism in Biology.Joseph Needham - 1928 - Journal of Philosophical Studies 3 (9):29-40.
    THE word “ Organicism,” although it may seem unfamiliar to the younger generation of biologists, is not a new one, and has been heard of already in that shadowy limbo where philosophical and biological conceptions meet on common ground. The genius of its original minting is not known, but it figured largely in the great work of Yves Delage, the French zoologist, in which he attempted to survey and criticize every important biological theory which had ever been seriously produced. (...)
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  4.  93
    Organicism and Reductionism in Cancer Research: Towards a Systemic Approach.Christophe Malaterre - 2007 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (1):57 – 73.
    In recent cancer research, strong and apparently conflicting epistemological stances have been advocated by different research teams in a mist of an ever-growing body of knowledge ignited by ever-more perplexing and non-conclusive experimental facts: in the past few years, an 'organicist' approach investigating cancer development at the tissue level has challenged the established and so-called 'reductionist' approach focusing on disentangling the genetic and molecular circuitry of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the ways in which 'organicism' and 'reductionism' are used and (...)
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  5.  16
    The Christian's Dilemma: Organicism or Mechanism?Michael Ruse - 2017 - Zygon 52 (2):442-467.
    Is organicism inherently Christian-friendly, and for that matter, is mechanism inherently religion nonfriendly? They have tended to be, but the story is much more complicated. The long history of the intertwined metaphors of nature taken as an organism, versus that of nature as a machine, reveals that both metaphors have flourished in the endeavors of philosophers, scientists, and persons of faith alike. Different kinds of Christians have been receptive to both organicist and mechanistic models, just as various kinds of (...)
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  6.  37
    Panpsychic Organicism: Sewall Wright’s Philosophy for Understanding Complex Genetic Systems. [REVIEW]David M. Steffes - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):327 - 361.
    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great (...)
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  7.  38
    Kant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy.Jennifer Mensch - 2013 - University of Chicago Press.
    In Kant’s Organicism, Jennifer Mensch draws a crucial link between these spheres by showing how the concept of epigenesis—a radical theory of biological formation—lies at the heart of Kant’s conception of reason.
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  8.  19
    Reductionism, Organicism, and Causality in the Biomedical Sciences: A Critique.Ana M. Soto & Carlos Sonnenschein - 2018 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 61 (4):489-502.
    It would be ahistorical to ridicule vitalists. When one reads the writings of one of the leading vitalists like Driesch one is forced to agree with him that many of the basic problems of biology simply cannot be solved by a philosophy as that of Descartes, in which the organism is simply considered a machine…. The logic of the critique of the vitalists was impeccable.At the turn of the new millennium, concomitant with the development of the evo-devo and eco-devo disciplines (...)
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  9.  13
    Organicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries.D. C. Phillips - 1970 - Journal of the History of Ideas 31 (3):413.
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  10.  17
    Idealist Organicism: Beyond Holism and Individualism.A. Simhony - 1991 - History of Political Thought 12 (3):515-535.
    The object of this article is to show that the organic conception of society defended by British idealists goes beyond the traditional dichotomy of holistic and individualist conceptions of society.
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  11. Neither Logical Empiricism nor Vitalism, but Organicism: What the Philosophy of Biology Was.Daniel J. Nicholson & Richard Gawne - 2015 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 37 (4):345-381.
    Philosophy of biology is often said to have emerged in the last third of the twentieth century. Prior to this time, it has been alleged that the only authors who engaged philosophically with the life sciences were either logical empiricists who sought to impose the explanatory ideals of the physical sciences onto biology, or vitalists who invoked mystical agencies in an attempt to ward off the threat of physicochemical reduction. These schools paid little attention to actual biological science, and as (...)
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  12.  83
    First Principles in the Life Sciences: The Free-Energy Principle, Organicism, and Mechanism.Matteo Colombo & Cory Wright - forthcoming - Synthese 198 (Suppl 14):3463-3488.
    The free-energy principle states that all systems that minimize their free energy resist a tendency to physical disintegration. Originally proposed to account for perception, learning, and action, the free-energy principle has been applied to the evolution, development, morphology, anatomy and function of the brain, and has been called a postulate, an unfalsifiable principle, a natural law, and an imperative. While it might afford a theoretical foundation for understanding the relationship between environment, life, and mind, its epistemic status is unclear. Also (...)
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  13.  11
    Hegelian Organicism, British New Liberalism and the Return of the Family State.J. Morefield - 2002 - History of Political Thought 23 (1):141-170.
    This paper examines the tensions between liberalism, Hegelian idealism and organicism in the thought of the nineteenth-century British ‘new liberals’ such as T.H. Green and Bernard Bosanquet. It maintains that these thinkers drew upon Hegelian conceptual motifs to help them compensate for what they saw as orthodox liberalism's lack of social responsibility. Ultimately, however, they rejected Hegel's state theory and turned to organicism and Social Darwinism to help them imagine an alternative notion of community. Yet, through the process (...)
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  14. Mechanism, Vitalism and Organicism in Late Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Biology: The Importance of Historical Context.Garland E. Allen - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):261-283.
    The term ‘mechanism’ has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome . Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines — that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early (...)
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  15.  22
    Mechanism, Vitalism and Organicism in Late Nineteenth and Twentieth-Century Biology: The Importance of Historical Context.Garland E. Allen - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 36 (2):261-283.
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  16. Multifaceted Ecology Between Organicism, Emergentism and Reductionism.Donato Bergandi - 2011 - In A. Schwarz & K. Jax (eds.), Ecology Revisited. Reflecting on Concepts, Advancing Science. Springer. pp. 31-43.
    The classical holism-reductionism debate, which has been of major importance to the development of ecological theory and methodology, is an epistemological patchwork. At any moment, there is a risk of it slipping into an incoherent, chaotic Tower of Babel. Yet philosophy, like the sciences, requires that words and their correlative concepts be used rigorously and univocally. The prevalent use of everyday language in the holism-reductionism issue may give a false impression regarding its underlying clarity and coherence. In reality, the conceptual (...)
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  17.  6
    Negative Organicism: Adorno, Emerson, and the Idea of a Disclosing Critique of Society.Arvi Särkelä - 2020 - Critical Horizons 21 (3):222-239.
    ABSTRACT This article articulates the idea of a disclosing critique of society. It starts from the assumption that the curiously organicistic undertones of Adorno’s negative social ontology is part and parcel of a disclosing gesture in his social criticism. It then traces Adorno’s debate with social organicists to the point where the critical theorist’s own concept of society emerges with a claim to be critical in itself. It is argued that this critical claim is enforced by a disclosing gesture. To (...)
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  18.  38
    Personalistic Organicism: Paradox or Paradigm?: Frederick Ferré.Frederick Ferré - 1994 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 36:59-73.
    Many environmental thinkers are torn in two opposing directions at once. For good reasons we are appalled by the damage that has been done to the earth by the ethos of heedless anthropocentric individualism, which has achieved its colossal feats of exploitation, encouraged to selfishness by its world view—of relation-free atoms—while chanting ‘reduction’ as its mantra. But also for good reasons we are repelled, at the other extreme, by environmentally correct images of mindless biocentric collectivisms in which precious personal values (...)
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  19. Organicism, Pluralism and Civil Association: Some Neglected Political Thinkers.Charles Turner - 1992 - History of the Human Sciences 5 (3):175-184.
  20. Plato: Organicism.Richard McDonough - 2010 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21.  10
    Panpsychic Organicism: Sewall Wright’s Philosophy for Understanding Complex Genetic Systems.David M. Steffes - 2007 - Journal of the History of Biology 40 (2):327-361.
    Sewall Wright first encountered the complex systems characteristic of gene combinations while a graduate student at Harvard's Bussey Institute from 1912 to 1915. In Mendelian breeding experiments, Wright observed a hierarchical dependence of the organism's phenotype on dynamic networks of genetic interaction and organization. An animal's physical traits, and thus its autonomy from surrounding environmental constraints, depended greatly on how genes behaved in certain combinations. Wright recognized that while genes are the material determinants of the animal phenotype, operating with great (...)
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  22.  16
    From Organicist to Relational Human Ecology.Valerie A. Haines - 1985 - Sociological Theory 3 (1):65-74.
  23.  33
    Organicism in Nineteenth-Century Architecture: An Inquiry Into Its Theoretical and Philosophical Background.Caroline van Eck - 1997 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 55 (3):346-347.
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  24.  72
    Molecular Biology Vs. Organicism: The Enduring Dispute Between Mechanism and Vitalism.Hilde Hein - 1969 - Synthese 20 (2):238 - 253.
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  25.  16
    Organicism and qualitative aspects of self-organization.Claus Emmeche - 2004 - Revue Internationale de Philosophie 2:205-217.
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  26.  20
    Ferré: Organicistic Connectedness—But Still Speciesistic.Arthur Zucker - 1996 - Ethics and the Environment 1 (2):185 - 190.
    An environmental ethics open to the charge of speciesism would be a weak environmental ethics at best. Ferré criticizes the environmental ethics of Callicott and Rolston, presenting his version of an environmental ethics; one he refers to as organicistic. His version does indeed avoid the pitfalls of the environmental ethics of Callicott and Rolston. But, as I show, the charge of speciesism can be leveled against Ferré (and many others). I suggest that properly understood speciesism is so deeply rooted in (...)
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  27.  12
    On Reductionism, Organicism, Somatic Mutations and Cancer.James A. Coffman - 2005 - Bioessays 27 (4):459-459.
  28.  35
    Kant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy.Ludmila Guenova - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (1):202-205.
  29.  77
    Cells as Irreducible Wholes: The Failure of Mechanism and the Possibility of an Organicist Revival.Michael J. Denton, Govindasamy Kumaramanickavel & Michael Legge - 2013 - Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):31-52.
    According to vitalism, living organisms differ from machines and all other inanimate objects by being endowed with an indwelling immaterial directive agency, ‘vital force,’ or entelechy . While support for vitalism fell away in the late nineteenth century many biologists in the early twentieth century embraced a non vitalist philosophy variously termed organicism/holism/emergentism which aimed at replacing the actions of an immaterial spirit with what was seen as an equivalent but perfectly natural agency—the emergent autonomous activity of the whole (...)
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  30. Creation: Algorithmic, Organicist, or Emergent Metaphorical Process?Floyd Merrell - 2006 - Semiotica 2006 (161):119-146.
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  31.  72
    Wittgenstein, German Organicism, Chaos, and the Center of Life.Richard McDonough - 2004 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 42 (3):297-326.
  32.  23
    Book ReviewKant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical PhilosophyBy Jennifer Mensch. Chicago and London : University of Chicago Press, Pp. Xi +246 ;Isbn-13: 978-0-226-021980-0. [REVIEW]Stella Sandford - 2015 - Critical Philosophy of Race 3 (1):167-170.
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  33.  28
    Jennifer Mensch. Kant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy. Ix + 246 Pp., Bibl., Index. Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 2013. $45. [REVIEW]Joan Steigerwald - 2014 - Isis 105 (4):848-849.
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  34.  21
    Mechanist And Organicist Parallels Between Theories Of Memory And Science.Robert F. Belli - 1986 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 7 (1):63-86.
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  35. Hegel's Organicist Theory of the State: On the Concept and Method of Hegel's “Science of the State”'.Michael Wolff - 2004 - In Robert B. Pippin & Otfried Höffe (eds.), Hegel on Ethics and Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 292.
     
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  36.  22
    Kant's Organicism: Epigenesis and the Development of Critical Philosophy. [REVIEW]Hein van den Berg - 2014 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 28 (1):99-101.
  37.  7
    The Myth of Frederic Clements’s Mutualistic Organicism, Or: On the Necessity to Distinguish Different Concepts of Organicism.Thomas Kirchhoff - 2020 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 42 (2):1-27.
    In the theory and history of ecology, Frederic Clements’s theory of plant communities is usually presented as the historical prototype and a paradigmatic example of synecological organicism, characterised by the assumption that ecological communities are functionally integrated units of mutually dependent species. In this paper, I will object to this standard interpretation of Clements’s theory. Undoubtedly, Clements compares plant communities with organisms and calls them “complex organisms” and “superorganisms”. Further, he can indeed be regarded as a proponent of ecological (...)
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  38.  3
    Crystals, Fabrics, and Fields: Metaphors of Organicism in Twentieth-Century Developmental Biology.Donna Jeanne Haraway - 1976 - Yale University Press.
  39.  48
    Organicism in Nineteenth-Century Architecture: An Inquiry Into its Theoretical and Philosophical Background.Caroline van Eck - 1994 - Architectura & Natura Press.
  40.  82
    Should Environmentalists Be Organicists?Bryan G. Norton - 1993 - Topoi 12 (1):21-30.
  41.  21
    Organicism and Perspectivism From Leibniz to Hegel.Paolo Diego Bubbio - 2017 - Philosophy Today 61 (3):785-791.
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  42.  44
    Political Organicism in the Crito.Phillip Goggans - 1999 - Ancient Philosophy 19 (2):217-233.
  43.  49
    Edward O. Wilson and the Organicist Tradition.Abraham H. Gibson - 2013 - Journal of the History of Biology 46 (4):599-630.
    Edward O. Wilson’s recent decision to abandon kin selection theory has sent shockwaves throughout the biological sciences. Over the past two years, more than a hundred biologists have signed letters protesting his reversal. Making sense of Wilson’s decision and the controversy it has spawned requires familiarity with the historical record. This entails not only examining the conditions under which kin selection theory first emerged, but also the organicist tradition against which it rebelled. In similar fashion, one must not only examine (...)
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  44.  4
    Lewis Mumford and the Organicist Concept in Social Thought.Robert Casillo - 1992 - Journal of the History of Ideas 53 (1):91-116.
  45.  41
    Metaphysical Presuppositions and Scientific Practices: Reductionism and Organicism in Cancer Research.James A. Marcum - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (1):31 – 45.
    Metaphysical presuppositions are important for guiding scientific practices and research. The success of twentieth-century biology, for instance, is largely attributable to presupposing that complex biological processes are reducible to elementary components. However, some biologists have challenged the sufficiency of reductionism for investigating complex biological phenomena and have proposed alternative presuppositions like organicism. In this article, contemporary cancer research is used as a case study to explore the importance of metaphysical presuppositions for guiding research. The predominant paradigm directing cancer research (...)
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  46.  15
    Matter and Form: Hegel, Organicism, and the Difference Between Women and Men.Alison Stone - 2010 - In Kimberly Hutchings & Tuija Pulkkinen (eds.), Hegel's Philosophy and Feminist Thought: Beyond Antigone? Palgrave-Macmillan.
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  47.  36
    The Excluded Philosophy of Evo-Devo? Revisiting CH Waddington's Failed Attempt to Embed Alfred North Whitehead's" Organicism" in Evolutionary Biology.Erik L. Peterson - 2011 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 33 (3).
  48.  4
    From Equality to Organicism.Frank E. Manuel - 1956 - Journal of the History of Ideas 17 (1/4):54.
  49.  3
    From Equality to Organicism.Frank E. Manuel & The Editors - 1956 - Journal of the History of Ideas 17 (1):54.
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  50.  15
    Organicism and Lysenkoism.Nils Roll-Hansen - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 65:30-34.
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