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  1. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  2. A. Barahona (2007). Andres Moya and Enrique Font, Eds, Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems. Biological Theory 2 (2).
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  3. Ana Barahona (2007). New Wine in Old Bottles: Evolution: From Molecules to Ecosystems Andrés Moya and Enrique Font , Eds Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 (350 Pp; $185.00 Hbk; ISBN 978019851425). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 2 (2):201-203.
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  4. Gillian Barker & John Odling-Smee (2013). Integrating Ecology and Evolution: Niche Construction and Ecological Engineering. In Gillian Barker, Eric Desjardins & Trevor Pearce (eds.), Entangled Life: Organism and Environment in the Biological and Social Sciences. Springer. 187-211.
  5. Donato Bergandi (2002). Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. [REVIEW] Environmental Conservation 29 (4):540-541.
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  6. Olivier Bernard, Zakaria Hadj-Sadok & Denis Dochain (2000). Software Sensors to Monitor the Dynamics of Microbial Communities: Application to Anaerobic Digestion. Acta Biotheoretica 48 (3-4).
    A mass balance based model has been derived to represent the dynamical behavior of the ecosystem contained in an anaerobic digester. The model considers two bacterial populations: acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria. It forms the basis for the design of a software sensor considering both a model of the biological system and on-line gaseous measurements. The software sensor computes the concentration of inorganic carbon and volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the digester. Another software sensor is dedicated to the estimation of the (...)
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  7. Stephen Bocking (1995). Ecosystems, Ecologists, and the Atom: Environmental Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Journal of the History of Biology 28 (1):1 - 47.
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  8. E. Boetzkes (2000). Toward an Inclusive Health Ethic for Humans and Ecosystems. Ethics and the Environment 5 (2):143-151.
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  9. Hartmut Bossel (1996). Ecosystems and Society: Implications for Sustainable Development. World Futures 47 (2):143-213.
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  10. Frédéric Bouchard (forthcoming). Ecosystem Evolution is About Variation and Persistence, Not Populations and Reproduction. Biological Theory.
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  11. Ingrid C. Burke & William K. Lauenroth (2011). Theories of Ecosystem Ecology. In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. The University of Chicago Press. 243.
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  12. Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Norman Morrison, Barry Smith, Christopher J. Mungall & Suzanna E. Lewis (2013). The Environment Ontology. Journal of Biomedical Semantics 4 (43).
    As biological and biomedical research increasingly reference the environmental context of the biological entities under study, the need for formalisation and standardisation of environment descriptors is growing. The Environment Ontology (ENVO; www.environmentontology.org) is a community-led, open project which seeks to provide an ontology for specifying a wide range of environments relevant to multiple life science disciplines and, through an open participation model, to accommodate the terminological requirements of all those needing to annotate data using ontology classes. This paper summarises ENVO’s (...)
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  13. Harley Cahen (1988). Against the Moral Considerability of Ecosystems. Environmental Ethics 10 (3):195-216.
    Are ecosystems morally considerable-that is, do we owe it to them to protect their “interests”? Many environmental ethicists, impressed by the way that individual nonsentient organisms such as plants tenaciously pursue their own biological goals, have concluded that we should extend moral considerability far enough to include such organisms. There is a pitfall in the ecosystem-to-organism analogy, however. We must distinguish a system’s genuine goals from the incidental effects, or byproducts, of the behavior of that system’s parts. Goals seem capable (...)
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  14. J. Baird Callicott (2008). What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems? Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  15. Anthony Chemero, Animats in the Modeling Ecosystem.
    There are many different kinds of model and scientists do all kind of things with them. This diversity of model type and model use is a good thing for science. Indeed, it is crucial especially for the biological and cognitive sciences, which have to solve many different problems at many different scales, ranging from the most concrete of the structural details of a DNA molecule to the most abstract and generic principles of self-organization in networks. Getting a grip (or more (...)
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  16. Stephen R. L. Clark (1987). Animals, Ecosystems and the Liberal Ethic. The Monist 70 (1):114-133.
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  17. Elizabeth Cripps (2010). Saving the Polar Bear, Saving the World: Can the Capabilities Approach Do Justice to Humans, Animals and Ecosystems? [REVIEW] Res Publica 16 (1):1-22.
    Martha Nussbaum has expanded the capabilities approach to defend positive duties of justice to individuals who fall below Rawls’ standard for fully cooperating members of society, including sentient nonhuman animals. Building on this, David Schlosberg has defended the extension of capabilities justice not only to individual animals but also to entire species and ecosystems. This is an attractive vision: a happy marriage of social, environmental and ecological justice, which also respects the claims of individual animals. This paper asks whether it (...)
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  18. Joachim L. Dagg, Arthur G. Tansley’s ‘New Psychology’ and its Relation to Ecology. Web Ecology 2007.
    In 1935, A. G. Tansley, who was knighted later, proposed the ecosystem concept. Nevertheless, this concept was not without predecessors. Why did Tansley’s ecosystem prevail and not one of its competitors? The purpose of this article is to pin the distinguishing features of Tansley’s ecosystem down, as far as the published record allows. It is an exercise in finding the difference that made a difference. Besides being a pioneering ecologist, Tansley was an adept of psychoanalysis. His interest even led him (...)
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  19. Joachim L. Dagg (2003). Ecosystem Organization as Side-Effects of Replicator and Interactor Activities. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):491-492.
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  20. Kevin de Laplante & Jay Odenbaugh, What Isn't Wrong with Ecosystem Ecology.
    Philosophers of the life sciences have devoted considerably more attention to evolutionary theory and genetics than to the various sub-disciplines of ecology, but recent work in the philosophy of ecology suggests reflects a growing interest in this area (Cooper 2003; Ginzburg and Colyvan 2004). However, philosophers of biology and ecology have focused almost entirely on conceptual and methodological issues in population and community ecology; conspicuously absent are foundational investigations in ecosystem ecology. This situation is regrettable. Ecosystem concepts play a central (...)
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  21. Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) (2011). Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  22. Michel Dion (2000). The Moral Status of Non-Human Beings and Their Ecosystems. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (2):221 – 229.
    Environmental ethics is generally searching for the intrinsic value in natural beings. However, there are very few holistic models trying to reflect the various dimensions of the experience-to-be a natural being. We are searching for that intrinsic value, in order to determine which species are holders of rights. In this article, I suggest a set of moral and rational principles to be used for identifying the intrinsic value of a given species and for comparing it to that of other species.
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  23. James Elser & Andrew Hamilton (2007). Stoichiometry and the New Biology: The Future Is Now. PLoS Biology 5:181-183.
    The world is an untidy place, and the sciences—all of them—reflect this. One source of this untidiness is the relationship between levels of organization. Reducing macrolevels to microlevels—explaining the former in terms of the latter—has met with successes but has never been the whole story. In the biological sciences, there has been much attention lately to the shortcomings of reductionism on the grounds that (i) it changes the subject rather than explaining, (ii) it leads to a myopically molecular view of (...)
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  24. Melissa M. Foley, Matthew H. Armsby, Erin E. Prahler, Margaret R. Caldwell, Ashley L. Erickson, John N. Kittinger, Larry B. Crowder & Phillip S. Levin (2013). Improving Ocean Management Through the Use of Ecological Principles and Integrated Ecosystem Assessments. Bioscience 63 (8):619-631.
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  25. Douglas A. Frank, Benjamin F. Tracy & Samuel J. McNaughton (1998). The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing Ecosystems. Bioscience 48 (7):513-521.
    Discusses profound functional similarities between the grazing ecosystem of Yellowstone National Park of North America and the Serengeti of East Africa. Structural and climactic differences; Energy dynamics of the grazing ecosystems; Plant biomass concentration throughout the seasonal ranges of migrating animals; The affect that humans have had on grazing ecosystems; The conservation of grazing ecosystems.
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  26. Alexander K. Fremier, Fabrice Aj Declerck, Nilsa A. Bosque-Pérez, Natalia Estrada Carmona, Renée Hill, Taylor Joyal, Levi Keesecker, P. Zion Klos, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas & Ryan Niemeyer (2013). Understanding Spatiotemporal Lags in Ecosystem Services to Improve Incentives. Bioscience 63 (6):472-482.
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  27. Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch (2014). Modeling Ecological Success of Common Pool Resource Systems Using Large Datasets. World Development 59:93-103.
    The influence of many factors on ecological success in common pool resource management is still unclear. This may be due to methodological issues. These include causal complexity, a lack of large-N-studies and nonlinear relationships between factors. We address all three issues with a new methodological approach, artificial neural networks, which is discussed in detail. It allows us to develop a model with comparably high predictive power. In addition, two success factors are analyzed: legal security and institutional fairness. Both factors show (...)
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  28. Philippe Gagnon (2014). "Diversité et historique des mouvements écologiques en Amérique du Nord" [Diversity and origins of the ecological movements in North America]. Connaître: Cahiers de l'Association Foi Et Culture Scientifique 40:76-89.
    The development of ecological thinking in North America has been conditioned by the imperative aiming at a valuation of the biotic community. Since the end of WWII, the US population was warned against the dangerous and violent alterations of nature. Many then found in theology an unforeseen ally. I review the roots of the tension which led to debates between radical ecologism or its denial, and I aim at analyzing it philosophically.
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  29. Annabel Gillings (1996). Evolution of Hydrothermal Ecosystems on Earth (and Mars?). Bioessays 18 (6):515-517.
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  30. Tiziano Gomiero, Maurizio G. Paoletti & David Pimentel (2010). Biofuels: Efficiency, Ethics, and Limits to Human Appropriation of Ecosystem Services. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (5):403-434.
    Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing countries, and (2) the limits of the Human Appropriation of ecosystem services and Net Primary Productivity. We warn that large scale conversion of crops, grasslands, natural and semi-natural ecosystem, (such as the conversion of grasslands to cellulosic (...)
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  31. Tina A. Grotzer, Amy M. Kamarainen, M. Shane Tutwiler, Shari Metcalf & Chris Dede (2013). Learning to Reason About Ecosystems Dynamics Over Time: The Challenges of an Event-Based Causal Focus. Bioscience 63 (4):288-296.
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  32. Kurt Jax (2007). Can We Define Ecosystems? On the Confusion Between Definition and Description of Ecological Concepts. Acta Biotheoretica 55 (4).
    Sound definitions of its basic concepts are fundamental to every scientific discipline. In some instances, like in the case of the ecosystem concept, the question arises if we can define such concepts at all. And if we can define them, how should we choose from the multiple definitions available? And what are the preconditions for a scientifically sound and useful definition? On the basis of the ecosystem concept, this paper illustrates a major, often neglected distinction in the definition of ecological (...)
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  33. Kurt Jax (2005). Book Review: Schwarz, Astrid E. (Ed.), Wasserwüste – Mikrokosmos – Ökosystem. Eine Geschichte der “Eroberung” Des Wasserraums [Water Desert – Microcosm – Ecosystem. A History of the, Conquest“ of Aquatic Space]. Freiburg, Rombach-Verlag, 350 Pp., 2003, ISBN 3-7930-9318-. [REVIEW] Acta Biotheoretica 53 (1).
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  34. Kurt Jax (1998). Holocoen and Ecosystem: On the Origin and Historical Consequences of Two Concepts. Journal of the History of Biology 31 (1):113 - 142.
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  35. Jonathan M. Jeschke (2013). Energetic Food Webs: An Analysis of Real and Model Ecosystems. Bioscience 63 (9):769-770.
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  36. Lawrence E. Johnson (1992). Toward the Moral Considerability of Species and Ecosystems. Environmental Ethics 14 (2):145-157.
    I develop the thesis that species and ecosystems are living entities with morally significant interests in their own right and defend it against leading objections. Contrary to certain claims, it is possible to individuate such entities sufficiently well. Indeed, there is a sense in which such entities define their own nature. I also consider and reject the argument that species and ecosystems cannot have interests or even traits in their own right because evolution does not proceed on that level. Although (...)
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  37. Lionel Johnson (1992). An Ecological Approach to Biosystem Thermodynamics. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):35-60.
    The general attributes of ecosystems are examined and a naturally occurring reference ecosystem is established, comparable with the isolated system of classical thermodynamics. Such an autonomous system with a stable, periodic input of energy is shown to assume certain structural characteristics that have an identifiable thermodynamic basis. Individual species tend to assume a state of least dissipation; this is most clearly evident in the dominant species (the species with the best integration of energy acquisition and conservation). It is concluded that (...)
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  38. C. Maria Keet (2006). Representations of the Ecological Niche. In B. Klein, I. Johansson & T. Roth-Berghofer (eds.), Third International Workshop on Philosophy and Informatics (WSPI2006), Saarbrucken, Germany. 3-4 May 2006. IFOMIS Reports.
    A formal theory of the ecological niche is indispensable not only for semantic precision in philosophy to understand and compare it with other meanings of niche, but also when computer scientists and ecologists desire to create interoperable software where one can retrieve the niche of a species and compare their parameters. The proposed model is a more fine-grained description of the ecological niche, including the distinction between its complex concept, the abstract niche (‘fundamental niche’) with its hypervolume in multidimensional space, (...)
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  39. David Keller (2001). Book Review: Betty Jean Craige. Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist. The University of Georgia Press, Athens, 2001. [REVIEW] Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):119-124.
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  40. David R. Keller (2001). Eugene Odum: Ecosystem Ecologist and Environmentalist (Review). Ethics and the Environment 6 (2):119-124.
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  41. Ian King (2009). The Need for the Incorporation of Phylogeny in the Measurement of Biological Diversity, with Special Reference to Ecosystem Functioning Research. Bioessays 31 (1):107-116.
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  42. B. W. Kooi (2003). Numerical Bifurcation Analysis of Ecosystems in a Spatially Homogeneous Environment. Acta Biotheoretica 51 (3).
    The dynamics of single populations up to ecosystems, are often described by one or a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. In this paper we review the use of bifurcation theory to analyse these non-linear dynamical systems. Bifurcation analysis gives regimes in the parameter space with quantitatively different asymptotic dynamic behaviour of the system. In small-scale systems the underlying models for the populations and their interaction are simple Lotka-Volterra models or more elaborated models with more biological detail. The latter ones (...)
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  43. Kalevi Kull (2010). Ecosystems Are Made of Semiosic Bonds: Consortia, Umwelten, Biophony and Ecological Codes. [REVIEW] Biosemiotics 3 (3):347-357.
    The paper focuses on the semiotic principles of the organisation of ecosystems, attempting to find concepts that point to relations and not to elements. (1) Consortium (the term introduced by Johannes Reinke around 1873) can be defined as a group of organisms connected via (sign) relations, or groups of interspecific semiosic links in biocoenosis. The consortial relations include trophic and topic relations, both implying a recognition (identification) of the object by an organism involved (these, i.e., are sign relations). These relations (...)
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  44. Brenda B. Lin, Sarina Macfadyen, Anna R. Renwick, Saul A. Cunningham & Nancy A. Schellhorn (2013). Maximizing the Environmental Benefits of Carbon Farming Through Ecosystem Service Delivery. Bioscience 63 (10):793-803.
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  45. Linda G. Lockwood (1990). Eugene P. Odum: Ecology and Our Endangered Life-Support Systems. Environmental Ethics 12 (4):375-378.
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  46. Alejandro Malpartida & Leonardo Lavanderos (2000). Ecosystem and Ecotomo: A Nature or Society-Nature Relationship? Acta Biotheoretica 48 (2).
    The notion of entorno is discussed and its mutual dependence upon the organism is emphasised. Both the etymology and meaning of ethos, oikos, entorno and ecotomo are discussed. The intimate relation between Ethology and Ecology is also shown. A reference background is given to explain how the commonly considered isolated components organism/society and entorno/nature articulate in the form of a relation. It is argued that the integrated concepts that originated the notion of ecosystem have been set aside. The term ecotomo (...)
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  47. Nicolae Morar, Ted Toadvine & Brendan Bohannan (forthcoming). Biodiversity at Twenty-Five Years: Revolution or Red Herring? Ethics, Policy, and Environment.
  48. Marco J. Nathan (2014). Molecular Ecosystems. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):101-122.
    Biologists employ a suggestive metaphor to describe the complexities of molecular interactions within cells and embryos: cytological components are said to be part of “ecosystems” that integrate them in a complex network of relations with many other entities. The aim of this essay is to scrutinize the molecular ecosystem, a metaphor that, despite its longstanding history, has seldom be articulated in detail. I begin by analyzing some relevant analogies between the cellular environment and the biosphere. Next, I discuss the applicability (...)
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  49. Z. Naveh (2004). Multifunctional, Self-Organizing Biosphere Landscapes and the Future of Our Total Human Ecosystem. World Futures 60 (7):469 – 502.
    Solar energy powered autopoietic (self-creating and regenerative) natural and cultural biosphere landscapes fulfill vital multiple functions for the sustainable future of organic life and its biological evolution and for human physical and mental health. At the present crucial Macroshift from the industrial to the post- industrial information age, their future and therefore also that of our Total Human Ecosystem, integrating humans and their total environment, is endangered by the exponential growth and waste products of urban-industrial technosphere landscapes and agro-industrial bio-technosphere (...)
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  50. Patricia Nevers, Ulrich Gebhard & Elfriede Billmann‐Mahecha (1997). Patterns of Reasoning Exhibited by Children and Adolescents in Response to Moral Dilemmas Involving Plants, Animals and Ecosystems. Journal of Moral Education 26 (2):169-186.
    Abstract Traditional moral philosophy, developmental psychology and moral education have generally been concerned with relationships between human beings. However, moral philosophy has gradually expanded to include plants, animals and ecosystems as legitimate moral objects, and aesthetics has rediscovered nature as an object of consideration. Thus it seems appropriate to begin to include this sphere in moral education and corresponding research as well. In this paper we wish to report on an investigation we have begun using children's philosophy as a hermeneutic (...)
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