Search results for 'material identity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  5
    J. K. Swindler (1985). Material Identity and Sameness. Philosophical Topics 13 (2):69-76.
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  2.  83
    Michael C. Rea (1998). Sameness Without Identity: An Aristotelian Solution to the Problem of Material Constitution. Ratio 11 (3):316–328.
    In this paper, I present an Aristotelian solution to the problem of material constitution. The problem of material constitution arises whenever it appears that an object a and an object b share all of the same parts and yet are essentially related to their parts in different ways. (A familiar example: A lump of bronze constitutes a statue of Athena. The lump and the statue share all of the same parts, but it appears that the lump can, whereas (...)
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  3. Kit Fine (2003). The Non-Identity of a Material Thing and its Matter. Mind 112 (446):195-234.
    There is a well-known argument from Leibniz's Law for the view that coincident material things may be distinct. For given that they differ in their properties, then how can they be the same? However, many philosophers have suggested that this apparent difference in properties is the product of a linguistic illusion; there is just one thing out there, but different sorts or guises under which it may be described. I attempt to show that this ‘opacity’ defence has intolerable consequences (...)
  4.  69
    Mahrad Almotahari (2014). The Identity of a Material Thing and its Matter. Philosophical Quarterly 64 (256):387-406.
    I have both a smaller and a larger aim. The smaller aim is polemical. Kit Fine believes that a material thing—a Romanesque statue, for example, or an open door—can be distinguished from its constituent matter—a piece of alloy, say, or a hunk of plastic—without recourse to modal or temporal considerations. The statue is Romanesque; the piece of alloy is not Romanesque. The door is open; the hunk of plastic is not open. I argue that these considerations, when combined with (...)
  5.  93
    Lynne Rudder Baker (1999). Unity Without Identity: A New Look at Material Constitution. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 23 (1):144–165.
    relation between, say, a lump of clay and a statue that it makes up, or between a red and white piece of metal and a stop sign, or between a person and her body? Assuming that there is a single relation between members of each of these pairs, is the relation “strict” identity, “contingent” identity or something else?1 Although this question has generated substantial controversy recently,2 I believe that there is philo- sophical gain to be had from thinking (...)
  6.  14
    Lynne Rudder Baker (1999). Unity Without Identity: A New Look at Material Constitution. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 23 (1):144-165.
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  7.  22
    Lawrence D. Roberts (1985). Problems About Material and Formal Modes in the Necessity of Identity. Journal of Philosophy 82 (10):562-572.
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  8.  1
    David G. Smith (2011). Identity Crisis (S.) Hales, (T.) Hodos (Edd.) Material Culture and Social Identities in the Ancient World. Pp. Xvi + 339, Figs, Ills, Maps. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Cased, £55, US$99. ISBN: 978-0-521-76774-3. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 61 (02):586-589.
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  9. J. María Vilajosana (1996). Towards a Material Criterion of Identity of a Legal Order. Rechtstheorie 27 (1):45-64.
     
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  10.  30
    William J. Greenberg (1996). The Paradox of Identity. Epistemologia (2):207-226.
    Call a semantics for singular terms *extensionalist* if it embraces (1) and *classical* if it embraces (2). -/- 1. The meaning of a singular term is exhausted by its reference. 2. The reference of a singular term is an entity that is logically simple. -/- Call a semantics *adequate* if it distinguishes material identity (a = b) from formal identity (a = a). -/- Frege reacts to the inadequacy of classical extensionalist semantics by rejecting (1). This he (...)
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  11. Stephen Barker & Mark Jago (2014). Monism and Material Constitution. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):189-204.
    Are the sculpture and the mass of gold which permanently makes it up one object or two? In this article, we argue that the monist, who answers ‘one object’, cannot accommodate the asymmetry of material constitution. To say ‘the mass of gold materially constitutes the sculpture, whereas the sculpture does not materially constitute the mass of gold’, the monist must treat ‘materially constitutes’ as an Abelardian predicate, whose denotation is sensitive to the linguistic context in which it appears. We (...)
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  12. E. J. Lowe (2002). Material Coincidence and the Cinematographic Fallacy: A Response to Olson. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (208):369-372.
    Eric T. Olson has argued that those who hold that two material objects can exactly coincide at a moment of time, with one of these objects constituting the other, face an insuperable difficulty in accounting for the alleged differences between the objects, such as their being of different kinds and possessing different persistence-conditions. The differences, he suggests, are inexplicable, given that the objects in question are composed of the same particles related in precisely the same way. In response, I (...)
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  13.  28
    Edward Andrew Greetis (2011). Dissociative Identity: An Objection to Baker's Constitution Theory. Acta Analytica 26 (4):329-341.
    One of the central problems of personal identity is to determine what we are essentially . In response to this problem, Lynne Rudder Baker espouses a psychological criterion, that is, she claims that persons are essentially psychological. Baker’s theory purports to bypass the problems of other psychological theories such as Dissociative Identity Disorder and the problem of individuating persons synchronically. I argue that the theory’s treatment of Dissociative Identity Disorder leads to untenable results, is invalid, and consequently (...)
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  14.  2
    Macarena Bonhomme (2013). Cultura material y migrantes peruanos en Chile: un proceso de integración desde el hogar. Polis 35.
    El presente artículo busca profundizar las formas en que migrantes peruanos en Chile habitan su espacio privado desde una perspectiva de cultura material, a través del análisis de las posesiones del hogar y la comida. La cultura material del hogar encarna tanto su experiencia y trayectoria migratoria como el proceso de integración en la sociedad chilena, representando el continuo proceso de ajuste que deben enfrentar en términos culturales, sociales y materiales. Los resultados muestran que las formas de habitar (...)
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  15.  19
    Ernesto Schwartz-Marín & Irma Silva-Zolezzi (2010). The Map of the Mexican’s Genome”: Overlapping National Identity, and Population Genomics. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):489-514.
    This paper explores the intersections between national identity and the production of medical/population genomics in Mexico. The ongoing efforts to construct a Haplotype Map of Mexican genetic diversity offers a unique opportunity to illustrate and analyze the exchange between the historic-political narratives of nationalism, and the material culture of genomic science. Haplotypes are central actants in the search for medically significant SNP’s, as well as powerful entities involved in the delimitation of ancestry, temporality and variability. By following the (...)
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  16. Mauro Dorato & Matteo Morganti (2013). Grades of Individuality. A Pluralistic View of Identity in Quantum Mechanics and in the Sciences. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):591-610.
    This paper offers a critical assessment of the current state of the debate about the identity and individuality of material objects. Its main aim, in particular, is to show that, in a sense to be carefully specified, the opposition between the Leibnizian ‘reductionist’ tradition, based on discernibility, and the sort of ‘primitivism’ that denies that facts of identity and individuality must be analysable has become outdated. In particular, it is argued that—contrary to a widespread consensus—‘naturalised’ metaphysics supports (...)
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  17.  33
    Jukka Törrönen (2014). Situational, Cultural and Societal Identities: Analysing Subject Positions as Classifications, Participant Roles, Viewpoints and Interactive Positions. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 44 (1):80-98.
    In this article I develop tools for analyzing the identities that emerge in qualitative material. I approach identities as historically, socially and culturally produced subject positions, as processes that are in a constant state of becoming and that receive their temporary stability and meaning in concrete contexts and circumstances. I suggest that the identities and subject positions that materialize in qualitative material can be analyzed from four different perspectives. They can be approached by focusing on (1) classifications that (...)
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  18. Harold W. Noonan (1989). Personal Identity. Routledge.
    What is the self? And how does it relate to the body? In the second edition of Personal Identity, Harold Noonan presents the major historical theories of personal identity, particularly those of Locke, Leibniz, Butler, Reid and Hume. Noonan goes on to give a careful analysis of what the problem of personal identity is, and its place in the context of more general puzzles about identity. He then moves on to consider the main issues and arguments (...)
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  19. Eric T. Olson (2002). What Does Functionalism Tell Us About Personal Identity? Noûs 36 (4):682-698.
    Sydney Shoemaker argues that the functionalist theory of mind entails a psychological-continuity view of personal identity, as well as providing a defense of that view against a crucial objection. I show that his view has surprising consequences, e.g. that no organism could have mental properties and that a thing's mental properties fail to supervene even weakly on its microstructure and surroundings. I then argue that the view founders on "fission" cases and rules out our being material things. Functionalism (...)
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  20. Matteo Morganti (2011). The Partial Identity Account of Partial Similarity Revisited. Philosophia 39 (3):527-546.
    This paper provides a defence of the account of partial resemblances between properties according to which such resemblances are due to partial identities of constituent properties. It is argued, first of all, that the account is not only required by realists about universals à la Armstrong, but also useful (of course, in an appropriately re-formulated form) for those who prefer a nominalistic ontology for material objects. For this reason, the paper only briefly considers the problem of how to conceive (...)
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  21.  99
    Rafael De Clercq (2013). Locke's Principle is an Applicable Criterion of Identity. Noûs 47 (4):697-705.
    According to Locke’s Principle, material objects are identical if and only if they are of the same kind and once occupy the same place at the same time. There is disagreement about whether this principle is true, but what is seldom disputed is that, even if true, the principle fails to constitute an applicable criterion of identity. In this paper, I take issue with two arguments that have been offered in support of this claim by arguing (i) that (...)
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  22.  22
    Paul C. Anders (2011). Mind, Mortality and Material Being. Sophia 50 (1):25-37.
    Many religiously minded materialist philosophers have attempted to understand the doctrine of the survival of death from within a physicalist approach. Their goal is not to show the doctrine false, but to explain how it can be true. One such approach has been developed by Peter van Inwagen. After explaining what I call the duplication objection, I present van Inwagen’s proposal and show how a proponent might attempt to solve the problem of duplication. I argue that the very features of (...)
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  23.  1
    Ayesha Qurrat Ul Ain (2015). Everyday Life of a Chinese Muslim: Between Religious Retention and Material Acculturation. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 14 (40):209-237.
    This research focuses upon tracing the acculturative trends of the Hui Muslim community in Xi’an. It suggests that the existence of Muslims in China is a dialectical process between the adaptation to the Chinese culture and the retention of essentially Islamic religious traits. It is exclusively based upon ethnography and aims to investigate qualitatively the patterns of acculturation/retention of the Hui in the light of four socio-religious variables, i.e. identity, dietary habits, religious festivals and life passage rituals, social networking (...)
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  24.  5
    Steven Tester (2013). G.C. Lichtenberg on Self-Consciousness and Personal Identity. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 95 (3):336-359.
    This paper investigates the philosophy of the eighteenth-century German physicist Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742–1799), situating his views in the context of early-modern views of the self, and providing an interpretation and assessment of his remarks on self-consciousness and personal identity in his Waste Books. In these remarks, which include his famous observation that we are warranted only in saying “it thinks” rather than “I think,” Lichtenberg criticizes the rationalist metaphysics of the soul for confusing conceivability with cognizability and argues (...)
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  25.  1
    Helga Dittmar (2011). Material and Consumer Identities. In Seth J. Schwartz, Koen Luyckx & Vivian L. Vignoles (eds.), Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. Springer Science+Business Media 745--769.
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  26. Robert Francescotti (2003). Statues and Their Constituents: Whether Constitution is Identity. Metaphysica 4 (2):59-77.
    This paper examines two popular arguments for the nonidentity of the statue and its constituent material. An essentialist response is provided to one of the arguments; that response is then shown to undermine the other argument as well. It is also shown that even if we accept these arguments and concede nonidentity, we can still avoid the further conclusion that constitution is not identity. These ideas are then extended to other applications of the arguments for nonidentity (specifically, their (...)
     
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  27.  15
    Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (2014). Leibniz's Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles. Oxford University Press.
    This book is a study of Leibniz’s Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles, the principle that rules out numerically distinct but perfectly similar things. The Identity of Indiscernibles was a central principle in Leibniz’s philosophy. Leibniz derived it from more basic principles and used it to establish important philosophical theses. Thus this book is about the place and role of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Leibniz’s philosophy. It aims at establishing what Leibniz meant by the Principle of (...) of Indiscernibles, what his arguments for and from it were, and to assess those claims and arguments. The book argues that Leibniz had a very strong version of the principle, according to which necessarily no possibilia (whether or not they belong to the same possible world) are intrinsically perfectly similar, where this excludes things that differ in magnitude alone. The book discusses Leibniz’s arguments for the Identity of Indiscernibles in the Meditation on the Principle of the Individual, the Discourse on Metaphysics, Notationes Generales, Primary Truths, the letter to Casati of 1689, the correspondence with Clarke, as well as the use of the Identity of Indiscernibles in Leibniz’s arguments against the Cartesian conception of the material world, atoms, absolute space and time, the Lockean conception of the mind as a tabula rasa, and freedom of indifference. The general conclusion of the book is that the Identity of Indiscernibles was a central but inessential principle of Leibniz’s philosophy. (shrink)
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  28.  27
    John Corcoran (2014). Formalizing Euclid’s First Axiom. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 20:404-405.
    Formalizing Euclid’s first axiom. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic. 20 (2014) 404–5. (Coauthor: Daniel Novotný) -/- Euclid [fl. 300 BCE] divides his basic principles into what came to be called ‘postulates’ and ‘axioms’—two words that are synonyms today but which are commonly used to translate Greek words meant by Euclid as contrasting terms. -/- Euclid’s postulates are specifically geometric: they concern geometric magnitudes, shapes, figures, etc.—nothing else. The first: “to draw a line from any point to any point”; the last: the (...)
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  29. Peter van Inwagen (1990). Material Beings. Cornell University Press.
    The topic of this book is material objects. Like most interesting concepts, the concept of a material object is one without precise boundaries.
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  30.  66
    Kit Fine (2006). Arguing for Non-Identity: A Response to King and Frances. Mind 115 (460):1059-1082.
    I defend my paper ‘The Non-identity of a Material Thing and Its Matter’ against objections from Bryan Frances and Jeffrey King.
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  31. Stephan Blatti (2012). Material Constitution. In Robert Barnard & Neil Manson (eds.), Continuum Companion to Metaphysics. Continuum Publishing 149-69.
    This paper reviews four leading strategies for addressing the problem of material constitution, along with some of the prominent objections faced by each approach. Sections include (1) "The Orthodox View: Coincident Objects," (2) "Dominant Kinds," (3) "Nihilism," (4) "Revising the Logic of Identity," and (5) "Future Research." Also included is an annotated bibliography.
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  32.  65
    E. J. Lowe (1998). Entity, Identity and Unity. Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):191-208.
    I propose a fourfold categorisation of entities according to whether or not they possess determinate identity-conditions and whether or not they are determinately countable. Some entities – which I call ‘individual objects’ – have both determinate identity and determinate countability: for example, persons and animals. In the case of entities of a kind K belonging to this category, we are in principle always entitled to expect there to be determinate answers to such questions as ‘Is x the same (...)
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  33.  15
    James T. Turner Jr (2014). No Explanation of Persons, No Explanation of Resurrection: On Lynne Baker’s Constitution View and the Resurrection of Human Persons. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (3):297-317.
    I don’t think Lynne Rudder Baker’s constitution view can account for personal identity problems of a synchronic or diachronic nature. As such, it cannot accommodate the Christian’s claim of eschatological bodily resurrection-a principle reason for which she gives this account. In light of this, I press objections against her constitution view in the following ways: First, I critique an analogy she draws between Aristotle’s “accidental sameness” and constitution. Second, I address three problems for Baker’s constitution view [‘Constitution Problems’ ], (...)
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  34.  53
    David V. Ward (1984). Identity. Philosophy Research Archives 10:353-382.
    This paper argues that there are no necessary and sufficient conditions for the identity through time of material objects where those conditions have a kind of empirical content necessary for them to function as criteria for identity through time. Taking Eli Hirsch’s program in The Concept of Identity as representative of attempts to formulate conditions which are logically necessary and sufficient and which also function as criteria guiding our tracing of objects’ careers through time, I argue (...)
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  35.  64
    John Barresi, The Rise and Fall of the Conscious Self: A History of Western Concepts of Self and Personal Identity.
    I will trace the history of western conceptions of soul and self from the ancient Greeks to the present. The story line that I will present is based mainly on material covered in two books by Ray Martin and myself: _The Naturalization of the Soul: Self and Personal Identity in the_.
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  36.  10
    M. L. Peters, S. A. Uyterlinde, J. Consemulder & O. van der Hart (1998). Apparent Amnesia on Experimental Memory Tests in Dissociative Identity Disorder: An Exploratory Study. Consciousness and Cognition 7 (1):27-41.
    Dissociative identity disorder (DID; called multiple personality disorder in DSMIII-R) is a psychiatric condition in which two or more identity states recurrently take control of the person's behavior. A characteristic feature of DID is the occurrence of apparently severe amnestic symptoms. This paper is concerned with experimental research of memory function in DID and focuses on between-identity transfer of newly learned neutral material. Previous studies on this subject are reviewed and a pilot study with four subjects (...)
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  37.  64
    Robert Stern (1993). Did Hegel Hold an Identity Theory of Truth? Mind 102 (408):645-647.
    The aim of this paper is to criticize Thomas Baldwin's claim, that in developing an identity theory of truth, F H Bradley was following Hegel. It is argued that Baldwin has incorrectly understood certain passages from Hegel which he cites in defense of this view, and that Hegel's conception of truth was primarily material, not propositional.
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  38.  28
    Silas Langley (2001). Aquinas, Resurrection, and Material Continuity. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 75:135-147.
    Aquinas’s understanding of bodily resurrection can take two different directions. Either continuity of the soul alone is sufficient to reconstitute the same body as the pre-mortem body at the resurrection, or continuity of the matter of the pre-mortem body is also required. After arguing that Aquinas’s account of personal identity over time requires sameness of soul and sameness of body, I suggest that Aquinas’s two possible views on bodily resurrection are consistent with this account of personal identity and (...)
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  39.  11
    Peter Volek (2011). Hylomorphism as a Solution for Freedom and for Personal Identity. Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (2):178-188.
    Secundum Petrum Bieri dualismus ontologicus hoc trilemma generat: 1) Status mentis non sunt status physici. 2) Status mentis causalitatem exerceunt in regionem statuum physicorum. 3) Regio statuum physicorum est causaliter clausa. Haec tertia propositio a Bieri “physicalismum methodologicum” exprimere dicitur. Ut hoc trilemma solvat, Bieri unum eius membrorum reicere suadet. Hylemorphismus causalitatem mentis ut causalitetem formalem explicat, relationem vero hominis ad mundum ut causalitatem efficientem. Unde clausura causalis mundi de causalitate efficiente intelligi potest, quae in physica investigatur. Liberum arbitrium ab (...)
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  40.  15
    Matteo Morganti (2008). Identity, Individuality and Indiscernibility. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 15:167-173.
    This paper deals with the identity and individuality of material objects. In particular, the view that identity is derivative on the qualities of things, based on the endorsement of the Principle of the Identity of the Indiscernibles, is studied in detail. This provides what seems to be a much-needed unitary look at, and up-to-date critical analysis of, the vast literature on the Identity of the Indiscernibles. It is concluded that the ‘reductionist’ view, dating back to (...)
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  41.  35
    Edmund Runggaldier (1998). Sortal Continuity of Material Things. Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):359-369.
    Spatiotemporal and qualitative continuity are not sufficient to trace the career or path of one and the same object through its history. One needs sortal continuity, guaranteed by the form-token of the object. In this paper I concentrate on the question of sortal continuity linked to the problem of the cohabitation of objects. I intend to test whether it is possible to stick to the belief in continuants or endurers as well as the sortal dependence of identity and at (...)
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  42.  21
    Amihud Gilead (2008). A Humean Argument for Personal Identity. Metaphysica 9 (1):1-16.
    Considering various arguments in Hume’s Treatise, I reconstruct a Humean argument against personal identity or unity. According to this argument, each distinct perception is separable from the bundle of perceptions to which it belongs and is thus transferable either to the external, material reality or to another psychical reality, another bundle of perceptions. Nevertheless, such transference (Hume’s word!) is entirely illegitimate, otherwise Hume’s argument against causal inference would have failed; furthermore, it violates private, psychical accessibility. I suggest a (...)
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  43.  4
    Jo Anne Pagano (1991). Relating to One's Students: Identity, Morality, Stories and Questions. Journal of Moral Education 20 (3):257-266.
    Abstract At the present moment, American undergraduates are highly critical of their colleges and universities. Provoked by representations of the state of higher education in the popular press, students are vigorously engaged in debates regarding the ?Canon? and ?political correctness?. In this essay, I interpret student criticism and our responses to those criticisms in the context of larger questions of morality. I argue that a principal aim of education is the development of a moral imagination, and that the development of (...)
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  44.  3
    Michael Chugozie Anyaehie (2013). Appraisal of African Identity for Sustainable Development. Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (1):150.
    Africa is the poorest continent in the world despite her huge human and material resources. She is at the periphery of global development. Some people attribute the African predicament to her experience of slavery and colonialism which distorted her identity and disoriented her values. But she is not the only continent that was colonised. Other colonised continents are already finding their bearing in global development. What is that unique factor about African identity that hinders her from having (...)
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  45.  10
    Jorge J. E. Gracia (1979). Numerical Continuity in Material Substances. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):73-92.
    This paper investigates the problem of numerical continuity in thomistic metaphysics and attempts to point out the principle of identity in material substances. it has three parts: the first clarifies the issue and presents the possible alternatives; the second rejects various solutions which have been proposed by interpreters of thomas aquinas such as matter, form, accidents, and substance; and the third part argues that within thomistic metaphysics it is only existence ("esse") that may be considered as an acceptable (...)
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  46.  14
    Paul Sheehy (2006). Sharing Space: The Synchronic Identity of Social Groups. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 36 (2):131-148.
    Taking ontological realism about social groups as the thesis that groups are composite material objects constituted by their members, this paper considers a challenge to the very possibility that groups be regarded as material entities. Ordinarily we believe that two groups can have synchronic co-extensive memberships—for example, the choir and the rugby team—while preserving their distinctive identity conditions. We also doubt that two objects of the same kind can be in the same place at the same time, (...)
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  47.  1
    G. Verstraete (2002). Railroading America: Towards a Material Study of the Nation. Theory, Culture and Society 19 (5-6):145-159.
    This article studies the material production and consumption of the national community in 19th-century America. More particularly, it concentrates on the intersection between particular technologies of transportation, representation and dissemination in the spatial and imaginary formation of the American nation in the 1860s. Through an analysis of the contradictory mechanism of placement and displacement, identity and difference at the heart of a particular state-sanctioned field of national production the construction of America's first transcontinental railroad in 19th-century California the (...)
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  48.  2
    Gary Alan Fine (2003). Crafting Authenticity: The Validation of Identity in Self-Taught Art. [REVIEW] Theory and Society 32 (2):153-180.
    The desire for authenticity now occupies a central position in contemporary culture. Whether in our search for selfhood, leisure experience, or in our material purchases, we search for the real, the genuine. These terms are not, however, descriptive, but must be situated and defined by audiences. In this analysis, I examine the development of the market for self-taught art, an artistic domain in which the authentic is a central defining feature, conferring value on objects and creators. Self-taught art is (...)
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  49.  4
    Malin Masterton, Mats G. Hansson & Anna T. Höglund (2010). In Search of the Missing Subject: Narrative Identity and Posthumous Wronging. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (4):340-346.
    With the advanced methods of analysing old biological material, it is pressing to discuss what should be allowed to be done with human remains, particularly for well documented historical individuals. We argue that Queen Christina of Sweden, who challenged the traditional gender roles, has an interest in maintaining her privacy when there are continued attempts to reveal her ‘true’ gender. In the long-running philosophical debate on posthumous wronging, the fundamental question is: Who is wronged? Our aim is to find (...)
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  50.  2
    J. N. Findlay (1984). Identity and Identification. Religious Studies 20 (1):55 - 62.
    Professor Lewis and I have some important differences of opinion regarding the identity and distinctness of conscious persons, which it will be well to try to clarify on the present occasion, first of all by enumerating a number of points on which we are, I think, in agreement. Both of us believe in the existence of individual persons, each of whom can be said to live in a ‘world’ of his own intentional objectivity, a world ‘as it is for (...)
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