Languages

Edited by Guy Longworth (University of Warwick)
About this topic
Summary This category covers discussion of a wide range of issues, including the following. 1. Linguistic Convention. What is the nature of the relation between individuals and the languages that they can speak? In particular, should it be accounted for by appeal to convention and, if so, what account should be given of the nature of convention? 2. Idiolects. What determines the properties of individual speakers' languages? Are those properties determined by properties of the individual speaker, or might properties of other speakers, or communities of speakers (perhaps including past speakers), figure here? Are there shared or communal languages? What is the relation between individuals' languages and shared or communal languages? 3. Knowledge of Language. Do speakers of a language know that language? If they do, in what does their knowledge consist? Is it a form of propositional knowledge, a form of practical knowledge, or some other form of knowledge? And what is it that they know when they know a language? 4. Linguistic Universals. Are there properties shared by all possible languages? Are there properties shared by all natural, or humanly acquirable, languages? If there are such properties, what are they? And can we explain why there are precisely those universal properties? 5. Private Language. Is it possible for there to be a language that, as a matter of necessity, only one person speaks? Or are there arguments that no such language is possible? 6. Words. Are there such things as words? If there are, what is their nature? Are words concrete individuals or types, or do they belong to a different metaphysical category? What are the principles that govern how words are to be counted?
Key works Lewis 1975 Important presentation of a view about how convention figures in determining which language individuals speak. Davidson 1986 Important defence of the idea that idiolects are fundamental to language and communication. Dummett 1993 Development of Dummett's view that knowledge of a language is a distinctive form of practical knowledge. Crain & Pietroski 2001 Useful overview of arguments for innateness and linguistic universals. Kripke 1982 Important argument that private languages are not possible. Kaplan 1990 Important account of the metaphysics of words.
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  1. Complexity and Language Contact: A Socio-Cognitive Framework.Albert Bastardas-Boada - 2017 - In Salikoko Mufwene, F. Pellegrino & C. Coupé (eds.), Complexity in language. Developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 218-243.
    Throughout most of the 20th century, analytical and reductionist approaches have dominated in biological, social, and humanistic sciences, including linguistics and communication. We generally believed we could account for fundamental phenomena in invoking basic elemental units. Although the amount of knowledge generated was certainly impressive, we have also seen limitations of this approach. Discovering the sound formants of human languages, for example, has allowed us to know vital aspects of the ‘material’ plane of verbal codes, but it tells us little (...)
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  2. A Linguistic Framework for Knowledge, Belief, and Veridicality Judgement.Anastasia Giannakidou & Alda Mari - manuscript
  3. De oorsprong van taal: een vraag voor filosofie, linguïstiek, antropologie of biologie?Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - In Nathalie Gontier & Katrien Mondt (eds.), Dynamisch Inter(-en trans)disciplinair Taal Onderzoek: De nieuwe taalwetenschappen. pp. 81-112.
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  4. De nieuwe taalwetenschappen.Nathalie Gontier & Katrien Mondt - 2006 - In Nathalie Gontier & Katrien Mondt (eds.), Dynamisch Inter(-en trans)disciplinair Taal Onderzoek: De nieuwe taalwetenschappen. pp. 3-20.
  5. Evolutie van taal.Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - In I. Tallon (ed.), Evolutie vandaag: hoe de dingen ontstaan en waarom ze veranderen. pp. 239-263.
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  6. An Epistemological Inquiry Into the ‘What is Language’ Question and the ‘What Did Language Evolve for’ Question.Nathalie Gontier - 2006 - In A. Cangelosi (ed.), The evolution of language: proceedings of the 6th international conference (EVOLANG 6). pp. 107-114.
  7. The Origin of the Social Approach in Language and Cognitive Research Exemplified by Studies Into the Origin of Language.Nathalie Gontier - 2009 - In H. Pishwa (ed.), Language and Social Cognition: Expressions of the social mind. pp. 25-46.
  8. On Constructing a Research Model for Historical Cognitive Linguistics (HCL): Some Theoretical Considerations.Nathalie Gontier - 2010 - In M. E. Winters (ed.), Historical Cognitive Linguistics. pp. 31-69.
  9. How to Identify the Units, Levels and Mechanisms of Language Evolution.Nathalie Gontier - 2010 - In A. D. M. Smith (ed.), The evolution of language: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference (EVOLANG 8). pp. 176-183.
  10. Studying Language Evolution: From Ethology and Comparative Zoology to Social Primatology and Evolutionary Psychology.Nathalie Gontier & Marco Pina - 2014 - In Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.), The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach. pp. 1-30.
  11. The Origins and Prehistory of Language.Joshua Whatmough, G. Revesz & J. Butler - 1958 - American Journal of Philology 79 (1):98.
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  12. On the Eliminability of Ideal Linguistic Entities.Wybranie-Skardowska Urszula - 1989 - Studia Logica (4):587-615.
    With reference to Polish logical-philosophical tradition two formal theories of language syntax have been sketched and then compared with each other. The first theory is based on the assumption that the basic linguistic stratum is constituted by object-tokens (concrete objects perceived through the senses) and that the types of such objects (ideal objects) are derivative constructs. The other is founded on an opposite philosophical orientation. The two theories are equivalent. The main conclusion is that in syntactic researches it is redundant (...)
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  13. Relinquishing Control: What Romanian De Se Attitude Reports Teach Us About Immunity To Error Through Misidentification.Marina Folescu - 2019 - In Alessandro Capone, Una Stojnic, Ernie Lepore, Denis Delfitto, Anne Reboul, Gaetano Fiorin, Kenneth A. Taylor, Jonathan Berg, Herbert L. Colston, Sanford C. Goldberg, Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri, Cliff Goddard, Anna Wierzbicka, Magdalena Sztencel, Sarah E. Duffy, Alessandra Falzone, Paola Pennisi, Péter Furkó, András Kertész, Ágnes Abuczki, Alessandra Giorgi, Sona Haroutyunian, Marina Folescu, Hiroko Itakura, John C. Wakefield, Hung Yuk Lee, Sumiyo Nishiguchi, Brian E. Butler, Douglas Robinson, Kobie van Krieken, José Sanders, Grazia Basile, Antonino Bucca, Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri & Kobie van Krieken (eds.), Indirect Reports and Pragmatics in the World Languages. Springer. pp. 299-313.
    Higginbotham argued that certain linguistic items of English, when used in indirect discourse, necessarily trigger first-personal interpretations. They are: the emphatic reflexive pronoun and the controlled understood subject, represented as PRO. PRO is special, in this respect, due to its imposing obligatory control effects between the main clause and its subordinates ). Folescu & Higginbotham, in addition, argued that in Romanian, a language whose grammar doesn’t assign a prominent role to PRO, de se triggers are correlated with the subjunctive mood (...)
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  14. The Evolution of (Proto-)Language: Focus on Mechanisms.Przemyslaw Zywickzinski, Nathalie Gontier & Slawomir Wacewicz - 2017 - Language Science 63 (63):1-11.
    This article introduces a special issue on mechanisms in language evolution research. It describes processes relevant for the emergence of protolanguage and the transition thereof to modern language. Protolanguage is one of the key terms in the field of language evolution, used to designate a hypothesised intermediate stage in the emergence of language present in extinct hominins: qualitatively different from non-human primate communication in possessing some, but not all, of the features that characterise modern language. Much debate in language evolution (...)
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  15. The Primacy of Use Over Naming.Alok Sahu - 2019 - IOSR 24 (5):26-34.
    In Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein proposed the notion of meaning that accounts for the large variety of contexts in which we apply the term “meaning”. This paper agreement with the manner in which Wittgenstein enhance his conception of meaning emphasizing his methodology of observation and description of particular cases. By applying a descriptive approach, Wittgenstein demonstrated that meaning of the term does not reside in physical or mental objects as well as in its correlations. As a result of contrasting denotative theory (...)
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  16. The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach.Marco Pina & Nathalie Gontier (eds.) - 2014 - Springer.
    How did social communication evolve in primates? In this volume, primatologists, linguists, anthropologists, cognitive scientists and philosophers of science systematically analyze how their specific disciplines demarcate the research questions and methodologies involved in the study of the evolutionary origins of social communication in primates in general, and in humans in particular. In the first part of the book, historians and philosophers of science address how the epistemological frameworks associated with primate communication and language evolution studies have changed over time, and (...)
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  17. Espacio, significación y vivencia: implicaciones semióticas sobre la noción Centro Histórico.Julio Horta - 2015 - In Olimpia Niglio (ed.), edA. Roma, Italia: pp. 134-146.
    Este artículo tiene el objetivo de explorar algunas funciones semióticas que constituyen el espacio urbano. Se revisarán algunas categorías y operaciones semióticas relevantes en la comprensión del espacio para que, desde ahí, se pueda explorar el sentido de la noción Centro Histórico como un concepto fundamental en la construcción del imaginario social en las ciudades de occidente.
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  18. La deriva del dopo-morte. [REVIEW]Fabio Vergine - 2014 - Doppiozero 1.
    Recensione del testo di M. FOUCAULT, Il bel rischio. Conversazione con Claude Bonnefoy.
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  19. Metaphor, Truth, and Representation.Richmond Kwesi - 2018 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Objects of Inquiry in Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Berlin, Germany: pp. 117-146.
    Do metaphorical sentences express facts or represent states of affairs in the world? Can a metaphorical statement tell us ‘what there is’? These questions raise the issue of whether metaphors can be used to make truth-claims; that is, whether metaphors can be regarded as assertions that can be evaluated as true or false. Some theorists on metaphor have argued for a negative answer to the above-mentioned questions. They have claimed, among others, that metaphorical utterances are non-descriptive uses of language (Blackburn (...)
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  20. De l'idéalisme dans les théories du langage. Histoire d'une transition.Lia Formigari - 1988 - Histoire Epistémologie Langage 1 (X):59-80.
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  21. Varieties of Alternatives: Mandarin Focus Particles.Mingming Liu - 2017 - Linguistics and Philosophy 40 (1):61-95.
    Mandarin focus particles systematically have heterogeneous uses. By examining details of two focus particles jiu ‘only’ and dou ‘even’, this paper explores the hypothesis that varieties of alternatives give rise to systematic ‘ambiguities’. Specifically, by positing sum-based alternative sets and atom-based ones, it maintains unambiguous semantics of jiu as onlyweak and dou as even, while deriving their variability through interaction with alternatives. Independently motivated analyses of distributive/collective readings and contrastive topics, combined with varieties of alternatives, deliver the full range of (...)
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  22. What is Universal and What is Language-Specific in Emotion Words?: Evidence From Biblical Hebrew.John Myhill - 1997 - Pragmatics and Cognition 5 (1):79-129.
    This paper proposes a model for the analysis of emotions in which each emotion word in each language is made up of a universal component and a language-specific component; the universal component is drawn from a set of universal human emotions which underlie all emotion words in all languages, and the language-specific component involves a language-particular thought pattern which is expressed as part of the meanings of a variety of different words in the language. The meanings of a variety of (...)
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  23. Формування Культурно-Соціальної Компетентності У Процесі Вивчення Англійської Мови: Аспекти Інформаційного Суспільства.Vitalina Nikitenko - 2016 - Гуманітарний Вісник Запорізької Державної Інженерної Академії 67:251-257.
    The present article analyzes the foreign language teaching approaches in the studying process of social and cultural sciences such as social philosophy, political science, cultural studies, psychology, sociology, history and others that possess a number of units and structural elements of the social and humanitarian sciences; The article defines the importance of facing to the cultural and geocultural values during the foreign languages studying and reveals its significance. Each of the above sciences studies the specific features of geoculture which can (...)
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  24. Language and Mind.Noam Chomsky - 1968 - Cambridge University Press.
    This is the third edition of Chomsky's outstanding collection of essays on language and mind, first published in 2006. The first six chapters, originally published in the 1960s, made a groundbreaking contribution to linguistic theory. This edition complements them with an additional chapter and a new preface, bringing Chomsky's influential approach into the twenty-first century. Chapters 1-6 present Chomsky's early work on the nature and acquisition of language as a genetically endowed, biological system, through the rules and principles of which (...)
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  25. Sprachphilosophiephilosophy of Language.Elisabeth Leiss (ed.) - 2009 - Walter de Gruyter.
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  26. The Croatian Language Today.Christopher Spalatin - 1977 - Journal of Croatian Studies 25:253-255.
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  27. Language Policy in Yugoslavia with Special Reference to Croatian.Branko Franolić - 1984 - Journal of Croatian Studies 25:126-152.
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  28. A Survey of the Linguistic Periodical Jezik.Christopher Spalatin - 1984 - Journal of Croatian Studies 25:153-162.
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  29. Language Situaition in Croatia Today.Christopher Spalatin - 1973 - Journal of Croatian Studies 14:3-12.
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  30. What Is Language?Carlos Santana - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
    Linguists (and philosophers of language) have long disagreed about the ontology of language, and thus about the proper subject matter of their disciplines. A close examination of the leading arguments in the debates shows that while positive arguments that language is x tend to be sound, negative arguments that language is not x generally fail. This implies that we should be pluralists about the metaphysical status of language and the subject matter of linguistics and the philosophy of language. A pluralist (...)
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  31. My Language Which Is Not My Own.Carolyn Culbertson - 2016 - Southwest Philosophy Review 32 (2):115-136.
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  32. Social Constructivism of Language and Meaning.Chen Bo - 2015 - Croatian Journal of Philosophy 15 (1):87-113.
    To systematically answer two questions “how does language work?” and “where does linguistic meaning come from?” this paper argues for SocialConstructivism of Language and Meaning which consists of six theses: the primary function of language is communication rather than representation, so language is essentially a social phenomenon. Linguistic meaning originates in the causal interaction of humans with the world, and in the social interaction of people with people. Linguistic meaning consists in the correlation of language to the world established by (...)
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  33. On the Way to Language.Karsten Harries, Martin Heidegger & Peter D. Hertz - 1972 - Philosophical Review 81 (3):387.
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  34. Language of the Nirukta.Rosane Rocher & Mantrini Prasad - 1980 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 100 (3):321.
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  35. The Irula (Ëṟla) Language, Part IIThe Irula (Erla) Language, Part II.David W. McAlpin & Kamil V. Zvelebil - 1982 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 102 (4):678.
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  36. The Khmer Language.Kamil Sedláček, Y. A. Gorgoniyev, V. Korotky & Kamil Sedlacek - 1969 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 89 (1):273.
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  37. Khasi, A Language of Assam.Henry M. Hoenigswald & Lili Rabel - 1963 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (1):144.
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  38. A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language. Vol. I.Johannes Friedrich, Edgar H. Sturtevant & E. Adelaide Hahn - 1953 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 73 (2):106.
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  39. A Comparative Grammar of the Hittite Language.E. A. Speiser & Edgar H. Sturtevant - 1934 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 54 (2):206.
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  40. Language.Franklin Edgerton & Leonard Bloomfield - 1933 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 53 (3):295.
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  41. Proto-Phenomenology and the Nature of Language: Dwelling in Speech I.Lawrence J. Hatab - 2017 - London: Rowman & Littlefield International.
    How is it that sounds from the mouth or marks on a page—which by themselves are nothing like things or events in the world—can be world-disclosive in an automatic manner? In this fascinating and important book, Lawrence J. Hatab presents a new vocabulary for Heidegger’s early phenomenology of being-in-the-world and applies it to the question of language. He takes language to be a mode of dwelling, in which there is an immediate, direct disclosure of meanings, and sketches an extensive picture (...)
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  42. Pour une meilleure coordination des travaux philologiques relatifs au latin médiéval.U. Kindermann - 1972 - Bulletin de Philosophie Medievale 14:126-127.
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  43. On the State of Multilingualism in Bashkiria in the Light of the Social Functions of Philology.V. R. Timirkhanov - 2015 - Liberal Arts in Russiaроссийский Гуманитарный Журналrossijskij Gumanitarnyj Žurnalrossijskij Gumanitaryj Zhurnalrossiiskii Gumanitarnyi Zhurnal 4 (2):120.
    The issues related to the multilingual situation in modern Bashkiria are discussed in the article, configuration of multilingualism is given on the basis of extensive and representative data of the latest census. Multilingual issues are discussed in the context of the social functions of philology, as well as a set of measures of a regulatory nature undertaken by the government and society to ensure social, ethno-cultural and inter-ethnic stability. The author believes that the language situation with multilingualism depends on a (...)
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  44. Seeing Through Language.Donald Davidson - 1997 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 42:15-27.
    We see the world through language; but how should we understand this metaphor? Is language a medium that simply reproduces for the mind, or accurately records, what is out there? Or is it so dense there is no telling what the world is really like? Perhaps language is somewhere in between, a translucent material, so that the world bears the tint and focus of the particular language we speak.
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  45. Language in Action.E. N. & S. I. Hayakawa - 1941 - Journal of Philosophy 38 (26):720.
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  46. Giotto and the Language of Gesture. Moshe Barasch.Anita F. Moskowitz - 1989 - Speculum 64 (3):652-654.
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  47. The Language of the Strassburg Oaths.Bateman Edwards - 1927 - Speculum 2 (3):310-317.
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  48. A Liturgical Language in a Linguistic Perspective.David Crystal - 1964 - New Blackfriars 46 (534):148-156.
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  49. Keyword Extraction Using the Word Co-Occurrence Network Properties That is Independent of Languages and Document Types and Its Evaluation by Prediction of Headline Words.Yuki Yamamoto & Ryohei Orihara - 2009 - Transactions of the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence 24 (3):303-312.
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  50. Modeling Language Acquisition in Atypical Phenotypes.Michael S. C. Thomas & Annette Karmiloff-Smith - 2003 - Psychological Review 110 (4):647-682.
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