The Direction of Time

Edited by Sam Baron (University of Western Australia)
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  1. Causal Decision Theory and the Fixity of the Past.Arif Ahmed - 2014 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (4):665-685.
    Causal decision theory (CDT) cares only about the effects of a contemplated act, not its causes. The article constructs a case in which CDT consequently recommends a bet that the agent is certain to lose, rather than a bet that she is certain to win. CDT is plainly giving wrong advice in this case. It therefore stands refuted. 1 The Argument2 The Argument in More Detail2.1 The betting mechanism2.2 Soft determinism2.3 The content of P 2.4 The argument again3 The Descriptive (...)
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  2. The Arrow of Time: From Universe Time-Asymmetry to Local Irreversible Processes. [REVIEW]Matías Aiello, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi - 2008 - Foundations of Physics 38 (3):257-292.
    In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete the global (...)
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  3. Cosmic Inflation and the Past Hypothesis.Peter Ainsworth - 2008 - Synthese 162 (2):157-165.
    The past hypothesis is that the entropy of the universe was very low in the distant past. It is put forward to explain the entropic arrow of time but it has been suggested. The emperor’s new mind. London:Vintage Books; Penrose, R.. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 571, 249–264; Price, H.. In S. F. Savitt, Times’s arrows today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Price, H.. Time’s arrow and Archimedes’ point. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Price, H.. In C. Hitchcock, Contemporary (...)
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  4. In Search of the Arrow of Time. Temporal Asymmetries in Leibniz.Jean-Pascal Anfray - 2012 - Studia Leibnitiana 44 (1):81-106.
    This paper examines the problem of the basis of time’s asymmetry. I hold the view that there is an objective temporal asymmetry in Leibniz’s philosophy of time. I closely examine various asymmetrical phenomena, which can be candidates as an explanation of time’s asymmetry: (1) causation; (2) the flow of time; (3) the modal difference between past and present; (4) counterfactual dependence; and, finally (5) the asymmetry of the world’s progress and its direction and (6) of the progress of rational creatures. (...)
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  5. SWINBURNE, RICHARD Space, Time and Causality. [REVIEW]D. M. Armstrong - 1984 - Philosophy 59:539.
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  6. Time Reversal Operations, Representations of the Lorentz Group, and the Direction of Time.Frank Arntzenius - 2004 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 35 (1):31-43.
    A theory is usually said to be time reversible if whenever a sequence of states S 1 , S 2 , S 3 is possible according to that theory, then the reverse sequence of time reversed states S 3 T , S 2 T , S 1 T is also possible according to that theory; i.e., one normally not only inverts the sequence of states, but also operates on the states with a time reversal operator T . David Albert and (...)
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  7. Mirrors and the Direction of Time.Frank Arntzenius - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):222.
    The frequencies with which photons pass through half-silvered mirrors in the forward direction of time is always approximately 1/2, whereas the frequencies with which photons pass through mirrors in the backward direction in time can be highly time-dependent. I argue that whether one should infer from this time-asymmetric phenomenon that time has an objective direction will depend on one's interpretation of quantum mechanics.
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  8. Indeterminism and the Direction of Time.Frank Arntzenius - 1995 - Topoi 14 (1):67-81.
    Many phenomena in the world display a striking time-asymmetry: the forwards transition frequencies are approximately invariant while the backwards ones are not. I argue in this paper that theories of such phenomena will entail that time has a direction, and that quantum mechanics in particular entails that the future is objectively different from the past.
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  9. The Future of the Philosophy of Time.Adrian Bardon (ed.) - 2011 - Routledge.
    The last century has seen enormous progress in our understanding of time. This volume features original essays by the foremost philosophers of time discussing the goals and methodology of the philosophy of time, and examining the best way to move forward with regard to the field's core issues. The collection is unique in combining cutting edge work on time with a focus on the big picture of time studies as a discipline. The major questions asked include: What are the implications (...)
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  10. The Oxford Handbook of Causation.Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Causation is a central topic in many areas of philosophy. In metaphysics, philosophers want to know what causation is, and how it is related to laws of nature, probability, action, and freedom of the will. In epistemology, philosophers investigate how causal claims can be inferred from statistical data, and how causation is related to perception, knowledge and explanation. In the philosophy of mind, philosophers want to know whether and how the mind can be said to have causal efficacy, and in (...)
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  11. Direction and Description.Y. Ben-Menahem - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (4):621-635.
    This paper deals with the dependence of directionality in the course of events-or our claims concerning such directionality-on the modes of description we use in speaking of the events in question. I argue that criteria of similarity and individuation play a crucial role in assessments of directionality. This is an extension of Davidson's claim regarding the difference between causal and explanatory contexts. The argument is based on a characterisation of notions of necessity and contingency that differ from their modal logic (...)
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  12. Counterfactuals and Temporal Direction.Jonathan Bennett - 1984 - Philosophical Review 93 (1):57-91.
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  13. Earman on Temporal Anisotropy.George Berger - 1971 - Journal of Philosophy 68 (5):132-137.
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  14. An Inquiry Into the Asymmetry and Direction of Time.Jack Herman Bertsch - 1968 - Dissertation, The Ohio State University
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  15. The "Direction" of Time.Max Black - 1958 - Analysis 19 (3):54 - 63.
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  16. Is There an Intrinsic Criterion for Causal Lawlike Statements?Julien Blondeau & Michel Ghins - 2012 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 26 (4):381-401.
    A scientific mathematical law is causal if and only if it is a process law that contains a time derivative. This is the intrinsic criterion for causal laws we propose. A process is a space-time line along which some properties are conserved or vary. A process law contains a time variable, but only process laws that contain a time derivative are causal laws. An effect is identified with what corresponds to a time derivative of some property or magnitude in a (...)
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  17. Aristotle on the Order and Direction of Time.John Bowin - 2009 - Apeiron 42 (1):49-78.
    This paper defends Aristotle’s project of deriving the order of time from the order of change in Physics 4.11, against the objection that it contains a vicious circularity arising from the assumption that we cannot specify the direction of a change without invoking the temporal relations of its stages. It considers and rejects a solution to this objection proposed by Ursula Coope, and proposes an alternative solution. It also considers the related problem of how the temporal orders and directions derived (...)
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  18. The Origins of Time-Asymmetry in Thermodynamics: The Minus First Law.Harvey R. Brown & Jos Uffink - 2001 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 32 (4):525-538.
    This paper investigates what the source of time-asymmetry is in thermodynamics, and comments on the question whether a time-symmetric formulation of the Second Law is possible.
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  19. Thermodynamic Time Asymmetry.Craig Callender - forthcoming - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  20. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Time.Craig Callender (ed.) - 2011 - Oxford University Press.
    As the study of time has flourished in the physical and human sciences, the philosophy of time has come into its own as a lively and diverse area of academic research. Philosophers investigate not just the metaphysics of time, and our experience and representation of time, but the role of time in ethics and action, and philosophical issues in the sciences of time, especially with regard to quantum mechanics and relativity theory. This Handbook presents twenty-three specially written essays by leading (...)
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  21. Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time.Craig Callender - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Thermodynamics is the science that describes much of the time asymmetric behavior found in the world. This entry's first task, consequently, is to show how thermodynamics treats temporally ‘directed’ behavior. It then concentrates on the following two questions. (1) What is the origin of the thermodynamic asymmetry in time? In a world possibly governed by time symmetric laws, how should we understand the time asymmetric laws of thermodynamics? (2) Does the thermodynamic time asymmetry explain the other temporal asymmetries? Does it (...)
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  22. There is No Puzzle About the Low-Entropy Past.Craig Callender - 2004 - In Christopher Hitchcock (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Science. Blackwell. pp. 240-255.
    Suppose that God or a demon informs you of the following future fact: despite recent cosmological evidence, the universe is indeed closed and it will have a ‘final’ instant of time; moreover, at that final moment, all 49 of the world’s Imperial Faberge eggs will be in your bedroom bureau’s sock drawer. You’re absolutely certain that this information is true. All of your other dealings with supernatural powers have demonstrated that they are a trustworthy lot.
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  23. The View From No-When. [REVIEW]Craig Callender - 1998 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (1):135 - 159.
    In Philip K. Dick’s Counter-Clock World the direction of time flips in 1986, putting the Earth into what its inhabitants call the ‘Hogarth Phase’. Named after the scientist who predicted that ‘time’s arrow' would change direction, the Hogarth Phase is a period in which entropy decreases instead of increases. During this time the dead call from their graves to be excavated, people clean their lungs by ‘smoking’ stubs that grow into mature cigarettes, coffee separates from cream, and so on. Although (...)
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  24. What is 'the Problem of the Direction of Time'?Craig Callender - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (4):234.
    This paper searches for an explicit expression of the so-called problem of the direction of time. I argue that the traditional version of the problem is an artifact of a mistaken view in the foundations of statistical mechanics, and that to the degree it is a problem, it is really one general to all the special sciences. I then search the residue of the traditional problem for any remaining difficulty particular to time's arrow and find that there is a special (...)
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  25. Stephen Savitt, Ed., Time's Arrow Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time Reviewed By.Craig Callender - 1996 - Philosophy in Review 16 (1):57-59.
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  26. EICHENBACH'S The Direction of Time. [REVIEW]Capek Capek - 1958 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 19:402.
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  27. Spatial Directions, Anisotropy and Special Relativity.Marco Mamone Capria - 2011 - Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1375-1397.
    The concept of an objective spatial direction in special relativity is investigated and theories assuming light-speed isotropy while accepting the existence of a privileged spatial direction are classified, including so-called very special relativity. A natural generalization of the proper time principle is introduced which makes it possible to devise non-optical experimental tests of spatial isotropy. Several common misunderstandings in the relativistic literature concerning the role of spatial isotropy are clarified.
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  28. The Global Non-Entropic Arrow of Time: From Global Geometrical Asymmetry to Local Energy Flow.Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi - 2009 - Synthese 169 (1):1-25.
    Since the nineteenth century, the problem of the arrow of time has been traditionally analyzed in terms of entropy by relating the direction past-to-future to the gradient of the entropy function of the universe. In this paper, we reject this traditional perspective and argue for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem, according to which the arrow of time can be defined in terms of the geometrical properties of spacetime. In particular, we show how the global non-entropic arrow can (...)
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  29. The Global Arrow of Time as a Geometrical Property of the Universe.Mario Castagnino, Olimpia Lombardi & Luis Lara - 2003 - Foundations of Physics 33 (6):877-912.
    Traditional discussions about the arrow of time in general involve the concept of entropy. In the cosmological context, the direction past-to-future is usually related to the direction of the gradient of the entropy function of the universe. But the definition of the entropy of the universe is a very controversial matter. Moreover, thermodynamics is a phenomenological theory. Geometrical properties of space-time provide a more fundamental and less controversial way of defining an arrow of time for the universe as a whole. (...)
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  30. The Direction of Time. By Hans Reichenbach. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1972. Pp. Vii, 280. Paper, $4.50. [REVIEW]Tobias Chapman - 1973 - Dialogue 12 (4):717-721.
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  31. Time's Error: Is Time's Asymmetry Extrinsic?Ferrel Christensen - 1987 - Erkenntnis 26 (2):231 - 248.
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  32. Review. Time's Arrow's Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time. SF Savitt (Ed).J. Collier - 1997 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 48 (2):287-289.
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  33. On the Supposed Temporal Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence; Or: It Wouldn't Have Taken a Miracle!Gabriele Contessa - 2006 - Dialectica 60 (4):461–473.
    The thesis that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world plays a central role in Lewis’s philosophy, as. among other things, it underpins one of Lewis most renowned theses—that causation can be analyzed in terms of counterfactual dependence. To maintain that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world, Lewis committed himself to two other theses. The first is that the closest possible worlds at which the antecedent of a counterfactual conditional is true is one in which (...)
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  34. Two Lectures on the Direction of Time.O. Costa de Beauregard - 1977 - Synthese 35 (2):129-154.
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  35. Temporal Becoming and the Direction of Time.William Lane Craig - 1999 - Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):349-366.
    The impression is frequently given that the static description of the 4-dimensional world given by a tenseless theory of time adequately accounts for the world and that a tensed theory of time has nothing to offer. In fact, the tenseless theory of time leaves us incapable of specifying the direction of time, whereas a tensed theory of time enables us to do so. Thus, the tensed theory enjoys a considerable advantage over the tenseless view.
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  36. The Arrow of Electromagnetic Time and the Generalized Absorber Theory.John G. Cramer - 1983 - Foundations of Physics 13 (9):887-902.
    The problem of the direction of electromagnetic time, i.e., the complete dominance of retarded electromagnetic radiation over advanced radiation in the universe, is considered in the context of a generalized form of the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in an open expanding universe with a singularity atT=0. It is shown that the application of a four-vector reflection boundary condition at the singularity leads to the observed dominance of retarded radiation; it also clarifies the role of advanced and retarded waves in the emission (...)
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  37. Two Lectures on the Direction of Time.O. Costa De Beauregard - 1977 - Synthese 35 (2):129 - 154.
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  38. Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time.Kenneth G. Denbigh - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (2):221-227.
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  39. Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time.Kenneth G. Denbigh - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (2):221-227.
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  40. Time's Arrows Today: Recent Physical and Philosophical Work on the Direction of Time: SF Savitt (Ed.), Time's Arrows Today (Cambridge University Press, 1995), ISBN 0-521-46111-1 (Hardback)£ 37.50, US $49.95. [REVIEW]Kenneth G. Denbigh - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 27 (2):221-227.
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  41. Time, Consciousness and Scientific Explanation.Joan Elizabeth Dixon - unknown
    To date, there is no universal and coherent theory concerning the nature or the function of time. Furthermore, important and unresolved controversies raging within both philosophy and the natural sciences apparently indicate that there is little hope of constructing a single, unified theory. Even so-called "folk" theories of time, embedded within different cultural traditions, show no common elements, and therefore can not provide a pre-theoretical description of time, towards which an explanatory framework could be constructed. This lack of consensus indicates (...)
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  42. What Makes Time Tick?Scott Dodd - unknown
    One thing it can’t do, though – outside of our memories and science fiction movies – is go backward. Whether we perceive time sprinting or crawling, it’s always heading in the same direction – forward.
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  43. Becoming and the Arrow of Causation.Mauro Dorato - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):534.
    The conceptual relation between objective becoming and the direction of time is explored by discussing an ontologically asymmetric notion of causation. It is claimed that such a notion, in terms of which Stein defined objective becoming in Minkowski spacetime, has either a purely metaphysical status or is reducible to physical concepts. In the former case, it is adequate for Stein's purpose but irrelevant to physical theories. In the latter, the causal asymmetry can be related to irreversible physical processes only in (...)
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  44. Process Causality and Asymmetry.Phil Dowe - 1992 - Erkenntnis 37 (2):179-196.
    Process theories of causality seek to explicate causality as a property of individual causal processes. This paper examines the capacity of such theories to account for the asymmetry of causation. Three types of theories of asymmetry are discussed; the subjective, the temporal, and the physical, the third of these being the preferred approach. Asymmetric features of the world, namely the entropic and Kaon arrows, are considered as possible sources of causal asymmetry and a physical theory of asymmetry is subsequently developed (...)
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  45. Moving Backward in Time.Fred I. Dretske - 1962 - Philosophical Review 71 (1):94-98.
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  46. Is the Past a Matter of Chance?Antony Eagle - 2014 - In Alastair Wilson (ed.), Chance and Temporal Asymmetry. U.K: Oxford University Press. pp. 126-158.
    This volume sets the agenda for future work on time and chance, which are central to theemerging sub-field of metaphysics of science.
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  47. An Attempt to Add a Little Direction to "the Problem of the Direction of Time".John Earman - 1974 - Philosophy of Science 41 (1):15-47.
    It is argued that the main problem with "the problem of the direction of time" is to figure out what the problem is or is supposed to be. Towards this end, an attempt is made to disentangle and to classify some of the many issues which have been discussed under the label of 'the direction of time'. Secondly, some technical apparatus is introduced in the hope of producing a sharper formulation of the issues than they have received in the philosophical (...)
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  48. The Anisotropy of Time.John Earman - 1969 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47 (3):273 – 295.
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  49. Some Aspects of Temporal Asymmetry.John Earman - 1968 - Dissertation, Princeton University
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  50. Irreversibility and Temporal Asymmetry.John Earman - 1967 - Journal of Philosophy 64 (18):543-549.
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