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John Wilkins [68]John S. Wilkins [42]Jeremy D. Wilkins [11]J. Wilkins [10]
Jennifer L. Wilkins [3]Jon F. Wilkins [3]J. M. Wilkins [3]J. S. Wilkins [2]

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John Wilkins
University of Melbourne
John S. Wilkins
University of Melbourne (PhD)
John Simpson Wilkins
University of Melbourne
  1. Species: A History of the Idea.John Wilkins - 2009 - Univ of California Pr.
    "--Joel Cracraft, American Museum of Natural History "This is not the potted history that one usually finds in texts and review articles.
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  2.  27
    Species: The Evolution of the Idea.John Wilkins - 2018 - Boca Raton: CRC Press.
    Features Covers the philosophical and historical development of the concept of "species" Documents that variation was recognized by pre-Darwinian scholars Includes a section on the debates since the time of the New Synthesis Better suited to non-philosophers Summary Over time the complex idea of "species" has evolved, yet its meaning is far from resolved. This comprehensive work is a fresh look at an idea central to the field of biology by tracing its history from antiquity to today. Species is a (...)
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  3. Crossing the Milvian Bridge: When Do Evolutionary Explanations of Belief Debunk Belief?Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins - 2015 - In Phillip R. Sloan, Gerald McKenny & Kathleen Eggleson (eds.), Darwin in the Twenty-First Century: Nature, Humanity, and God. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 201-231.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? In this chapter we apply this argument to beliefs in three different domains: morality, religion, and science. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. The simplest reply to evolutionary scepticism is that the truth of beliefs (...)
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  4. Philosophically Speaking, How Many Species Concepts Are There?John S. Wilkins - 2011 - Zootaxa 2765:58–60.
  5. Essentialism in Biology.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    Essentialism in philosophy is the position that things, especially kinds of things, have essences, or sets of properties, that all members of the kind must have, and the combination of which only members of the kind do, in fact, have. It is usually thought to derive from classical Greek philosophy and in particular from Aristotle’s notion of “what it is to be” something. In biology, it has been claimed that pre-evolutionary views of living kinds, or as they are sometimes called, (...)
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  6. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ (...)
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  7. Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Three Domains: Fact, Value, and Religion.S. Wilkins John & E. Griffiths Paul - 2012 - In James Maclaurin Greg Dawes (ed.), A New Science of Religion. Routledge.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? We consider this problem for beliefs in three different domains: religion, morality, and commonsense and scientific claims about matters of empirical fact. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. One reply is that evolution can be (...)
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  8. Adaptationism and the Adaptive Landscape.Jon F. Wilkins & Peter Godfrey-Smith - 2009 - Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):199-214.
    Debates over adaptationism can be clarified and partially resolved by careful consideration of the ‘grain’ at which evolutionary processes are described. The framework of ‘adaptive landscapes’ can be used to illustrate and facilitate this investigation. We argue that natural selection may have special status at an intermediate grain of analysis of evolutionary processes. The cases of sickle-cell disease and genomic imprinting are used as case studies.
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  9. How to Be a Chaste Species Pluralist-Realist: The Origins of Species Modes and the Synapomorphic Species Concept.John S. Wilkins - 2003 - Biology and Philosophy 18 (5):621-638.
    The biological species (biospecies) concept applies only to sexually reproducing species, which means that until sexual reproduction evolved, there were no biospecies. On the universal tree of life, biospecies concepts therefore apply only to a relatively small number of clades, notably plants andanimals. I argue that it is useful to treat the various ways of being a species (species modes) as traits of clades. By extension from biospecies to the other concepts intended to capture the natural realities of what keeps (...)
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  10. The Hunting of the SNaRC: A Snarky Solution to the Species Problem.Brent D. Mishler & John S. Wilkins - 2018 - Philosophy, Theory, and Practice in Biology 10 (1).
    We argue that the logical outcome of the cladistics revolution in biological systematics, and the move towards rankless phylogenetic classification of nested monophyletic groups as formalized in the PhyloCode, is to eliminate the species rank along with all the others and simply name clades. We propose that the lowest level of formally named clade be the SNaRC, the Smallest Named and Registered Clade. The SNaRC is an epistemic level in the classification, not an ontic one. Naming stops at that level (...)
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  11. What is a Species? Essences and Generation.John S. Wilkins - 2010 - Theory in Biosciences 129:141-148.
    Arguments against essentialism in biology rely strongly on a claim that modern biology abandoned Aristotle's notion of a species as a class of necessary and sufficient properties. However, neither his theory of essentialism, nor his logical definition of species and genus (eidos and genos) play much of a role in biological research and taxonomy, including his own. The objections to natural kinds thinking by early twentieth century biologists wrestling with the new genetics overlooked the fact that species have typical developmental (...)
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  12. Could God Create Darwinian Accidents?John S. Wilkins - 2012 - Zygon 47 (1):30-42.
    Abstract Charles Darwin, in his discussions with Asa Gray and in his published works, doubted whether God could so arrange it that exactly the desired contingent events would occur to cause particular outcomes by natural selection. In this paper, I argue that even a limited or neo-Leibnizian deity could have chosen a world that satisfied some arbitrary set of goals or functions in its outcomes and thus answer Darwin's conundrum. In more general terms, this supports the consistency of natural selection (...)
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  13. Selection Without Replicators: The Origin of Genes, and the Replicator/Interactor Distinction in Etiobiology.John S. Wilkins, Ian Musgrave & Clem Stanyon - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):215-239.
    Genes are thought to have evolved from long-lived and multiply-interactive molecules in the early stages of the origins of life. However, at that stage there were no replicators, and the distinction between interactors and replicators did not yet apply. Nevertheless, the process of evolution that proceeded from initial autocatalytic hypercycles to full organisms was a Darwinian process of selection of favourable variants. We distinguish therefore between Neo-Darwinian evolution and the related Weismannian and Central Dogma divisions, on the one hand, and (...)
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  14.  72
    Eating Right Here: Moving From Consumer to Food Citizen.Jennifer L. Wilkins - 2005 - Agriculture and Human Values 22 (3):269-273.
    The term food citizenship is defined as the practice of engaging in food-related behaviors that support, rather than threaten, the development of a democratic, socially and economically just, and environmentally sustainable food system. Ways to practice food citizenship are described and a role for universities in fostering food citizenship is suggested. Finally, four barriers to food citizenship are identified and described: the current food system, federal food and agriculture policy, local and institutional policies, and the culture of professional nutrition organizations.
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  15.  17
    Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds.John S. Wilkins - 2013 - Science & Education 22 (2):221-240.
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  16.  20
    Courtesans and Fishcakes. The Consuming Passions of Classical Athens. [REVIEW]John Wilkins & J. Davidson - 2002 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 122:188-189.
  17. The Concept and Causes of Microbial Species.John S. Wilkins - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 28 (3):389-408.
    Species concepts for bacteria and other microbes are contentious, because they are often asexual. There is a Problem of Homogeneity: every mutation in an asexual lineage forms a new strain, of which all descendents are clones until a new mutation occurs. We should expect that asexual organisms would form a smear or continuum. What causes the internal homogeneity of asexual lineages, if they are in fact homogeneous? Is there a natural “species concept” for “microbes”? Two main concepts devised for metazoans (...)
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  18. The Dimensions, Modes and Definitions of Species and Speciation.John S. Wilkins - 2007 - Biology and Philosophy 22 (2):247-266.
    Speciation is an aspect of evolutionary biology that has received little philosophical attention apart from articles mainly by biologists such as Mayr (1988). The role of speciation as a terminus a quo for the individuality of species or in the context of punctuated equilibrium theory has been discussed, but not the nature of speciation events themselves. It is the task of this paper to attempt to bring speciation events into some kind of general scheme, based primarily upon the work of (...)
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  19. The Advantages of Theft Over Toil: The Design Inference and Arguing From Ignorance.John S. Wilkins & Wesley R. Elsberry - 2001 - Biology and Philosophy 16 (5):709-722.
    Intelligent design theorist William Dembski has proposed an ``explanatory filter'' for distinguishing between events due to chance,lawful regularity or design. We show that if Dembski's filter were adopted as a scientific heuristic, some classical developments in science would not be rational, and that Dembski's assertion that the filter reliably identifies rarefied design requires ignoring the state of background knowledge. If background information changes even slightly, the filter's conclusion will vary wildly. Dembski fails to overcome Hume's objections to arguments from design.
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  20.  19
    Replication and Reproduction.John Wilkins & Pierrick Bourrat - 2018 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21. Defining Species: A Sourcebook From Antiquity to Today.John S. Wilkins - 2009 - Peter Lang.
    Defining Species: A Sourcebook from Antiquity to Today provides excerpts and commentary on the definition of «species from source material ranging from the ...
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  22. The Nature of Classification: Relationships and Kinds in the Natural Sciences.John S. Wilkins & Malte C. Ebach - 2013 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    The Nature of Classification discusses an old and generally ignored issue in the philosophy of science: natural classification. It argues for classification to be a sometimes theory-free activity in science, and discusses the existence of scientific domains, theory-dependence of observation, the inferential relations of classification and theory, and the nature of the classificatory activity in general. It focuses on biological classification, but extends the discussion to physics, psychiatry, meteorology and other special sciences.
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  23. The Evolutionary Structure of Scientific Theories.John S. Wilkins - 1998 - Biology and Philosophy 13 (4):479–504.
    David Hull's (1988c) model of science as a selection process suffers from a two-fold inability: (a) to ascertain when a lineage of theories has been established; i.e., when theories are descendants of older theories or are novelties, and what counts as a distinct lineage; and (b) to specify what the scientific analogue is of genotype and phenotype. This paper seeks to clarify these issues and to propose an abstract model of theories analogous to particulate genetic structure, in order to reconstruct (...)
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  24. The Adaptive Landscape of Science.John S. Wilkins - 2008 - Biology and Philosophy 23 (5):659-671.
    In 1988, David Hull presented an evolutionary account of science. This was a direct analogy to evolutionary accounts of biological adaptation, and part of a generalized view of Darwinian selection accounts that he based upon the Universal Darwinism of Richard Dawkins. Criticisms of this view were made by, among others, Kim Sterelny, which led to it gaining only limited acceptance. Some of these criticisms are, I will argue, no longer valid in the light of developments in the formal modeling of (...)
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  25.  49
    Buying Into the Food System: Trends in Food Retailing in the US and Implications for Local Foods. [REVIEW]Amy Guptill & Jennifer L. Wilkins - 2002 - Agriculture and Human Values 19 (1):39-51.
    The contemporary US food systemis characterized by both an unprecedentedconcentration of corporate control as well as afragmentation of sourcing and marketingprocesses, introducing both new constraints andnew opportunities for more localized foodsystems. The purpose of our study is to explorethese issues by investigating three keyquestions. First, what are the key trends inthe US grocery industry? Second, how dodifferent kinds of food outlets choose,procure, and promote food products? Finally,what are the implications of recent trends inthe food retailing process for strengtheninglocal flows of (...)
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  26.  23
    Replication.David L. Hull & John S. Wilkins - 2005 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  27. Are Creationists Rational?John S. Wilkins - 2011 - Synthese 178 (2):207-218.
    Creationism is usually regarded as an irrational set of beliefs. In this paper I propose that the best way to understand why individual learners settle on any mature set of beliefs is to see that as the developmental outcome of a series of “fast and frugal” boundedly rational inferences rather than as a rejection of reason. This applies to those whose views are opposed to science in general. A bounded rationality model of belief choices both serves to explain the fact (...)
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  28. Trémaux on Species: A Theory of Allopatric Speciation (and Punctuated Equilibrium) Before Wagner.John S. Wilkins & Gareth J. Nelson - 2008 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 30 (1):179-206.
    Pierre Trémaux’s 1865 ideas on speciation have been unjustly derided following his acceptance by Marx and rejection by Engels, and almost nobody has read his ideas in a charitable light. Here we offer an interpretation based on translating the term sol as “habitat”, in order to show that Trémaux proposed a theory of allopatric speciation before Wagner and a punctuated equilibrium theory before Gould and Eldredge, and translate the relevant discussion from the French. We believe he may have influenced Darwin’s (...)
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  29.  8
    The Evolving Landscape of Imprinted Genes in Humans and Mice: Conflict Among Alleles, Genes, Tissues, and Kin.Jon F. Wilkins, Francisco Úbeda & Jeremy Van Cleve - 2016 - Bioessays 38 (5):482-489.
    Three recent genome‐wide studies in mice and humans have produced the most definitive map to date of genomic imprinting (gene expression that depends on parental origin) by incorporating multiple tissue types and developmental stages. Here, we explore the results of these studies in light of the kinship theory of genomic imprinting, which predicts that imprinting evolves due to differential genetic relatedness between maternal and paternal relatives. The studies produce a list of imprinted genes with around 120–180 in mice and ∼100 (...)
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  30.  1
    Considering Veritatis Splendor.John Wilkins (ed.) - 1994 - Pilgrim Press.
    Pope John Paul II's recent encyclical on the moral life, Veritatis Splendor ("The Splendor of Truth"), has ignited a firestorm of controversy in the secular world as well as among Catholic and Protestant clergy and laity. In bold and uncompromising language John Paul II has reaffirmed traditional Catholic moral teaching and condemned not only what he perceives as the relativism and egoistic individualism of the modern world, but many contemporary currents in Catholic theology as well. The response to the pope's (...)
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  31.  1
    The Discovery of a World in the Moone. Or, a Discourse Tending to Prove, That 'Tis Probable There May Be Another Habitable World in That Planet.John Wilkins - 1638 - E.G. For M. Sparke and E. Forrest.
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  32.  90
    The Roles, Reasons and Restrictions of Science Blogs.John S. Wilkins - 2008 - Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 (8):411-413.
    Over the past few years, blogging (“web logging”) has become a major social movement, and as such includes blogs by scientists about science. Blogs are highly idiosyncratic, personal and ephemeral means of public expression, and yet they contribute to the current practice and reputation of science as much as, if not more than, any popular scientific work or visual presentation. It is important, therefore, to understand this phenomenon.
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  33.  69
    Species Are Not Theoretical Objects, or, on What There is in Biology.John S. Wilkins - unknown
    It is often claimed that species are the units of evolution, but this is not defined or clearly explained. In this paper I will argue that species are phenomenal objects that stand in need of explanation, but that they are not objects required by any theory of biology. I further define, or rather describe, species as the genealogical cluster of various lineages at the genetic, haplotype, genomic, organismic, and population level, in keeping with my previous discussions.
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  34.  5
    The Appearance of Lamarckism in the Evolution of Culture.John Wilkins - 2001 - In J. Laurent & J. Nightingale (eds.), Darwinism and Evolutionary Economics. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar. pp. 160-183.
  35.  5
    Darwin.John S. Wilkins - unknown
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  36.  54
    Local Food Policy Coalitions: Evaluation Issues as Seen by Academics, Project Organizers, and Funders. [REVIEW]Karen L. Webb, David Pelletier, Audrey N. Maretzki & Jennifer Wilkins - 1998 - Agriculture and Human Values 15 (1):65-75.
    Several different evaluation issuesare perceived as important by people involved withinnovative projects intended to improve local food andnutrition systems; particularly the establishment oflocal food policy coalitions. Several such coalitionshave been formed in North America, Europe, andAustralia with the goal of improving community foodsecurity and promoting sustainable local food systems.Pioneer coalitions have served as models, yet therehas been little systematic evaluation of thesemodels. A qualitative study was conducted to identifyfactors that may hinder evaluation efforts. In grouptelephone interviews, we sought the views (...)
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  37.  12
    Sex‐Biased Migration in Humans: What Should We Expect From Genetic Data?Jon F. Wilkins & Frank W. Marlowe - 2006 - Bioessays 28 (3):290-300.
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  38.  37
    Mercury, or, the Secret and Swift Messenger: Shewing How a Man May with Privacy and Speed Communicate His Thoughts to a Friend at Any Distance ; Together with an Abstract of Dr. Wilkins's Essays Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language.John Wilkins - 1708 - John Benjamins.
    Language planning comprises a number of different though related aspects of linguistic activity, its proper realm ranging from the 'improvement' of existing ...
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  39.  35
    J.J. Winkler, F.I. Zeitlin (Edd.): Nothing to Do with Dionysos?. Athenian Drama in its Social Context. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990. [REVIEW]J. Wilkins - 1996 - The Classical Review 46 (1):56-58.
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  40.  25
    Rules, Sanctions and Rewards in Secondary Schools.F. Merrett, J. Wilkins, S. Houghton & K. Wheldall - 1988 - Educational Studies 14 (2):139-149.
    All 24 secondary schools in a West Midlands local education authority were visited and a structured interview was conducted with the head or another senior teacher. An interview schedule was used to record details concerning the rule structure which had been established to control the conduct of the pupils. Information was also gathered about the sanctions and rewards used to maintain this behaviour and from most schools copies of the rules were available. It was found that almost all schools had (...)
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  41.  19
    Nothing to Do with Dionysos? [REVIEW]J. Wilkins - 1996 - The Classical Review 46 (1):56-58.
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  42.  9
    Many-Body Effects in Electron Scattering.V. Heine, P. Nozières & J. W. Wilkins - 1966 - Philosophical Magazine 13 (124):741-758.
  43.  8
    The Young of Athens: Religion and Society in Herakleidai of Euripides.John Wilkins - 1990 - Classical Quarterly 40 (02):329-.
    Philostratos records that the ephebes of Athens wore a black χλαμς to commemorate their murder of Kopreus in defence of the Herakleidai. Both the Herakleidai and a herald of Eurystheus appear in Herakleidai of Euripides, but the murder of the herald is not at issue, nor indeed is there any reference to ephebes or ephebic practice. This state of affairs will cause no surprise, for tragedy regularly selects its story-line from the wider range of the myth, and later uses to (...)
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  44.  6
    Science and Technology Consortia in U.S. Biomedical Research: A Paradigm Shift in Response to Unsustainable Academic Growth.Curt Balch, Hugo Arias-Pulido, Soumya Banerjee, Alex K. Lancaster, Kevin B. Clark, Michael Perilstein, Brian Hawkins, John Rhodes, Piotr Sliz, Jon Wilkins & Thomas W. Chittenden - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (2):119-122.
  45.  28
    Galen and the World of Knowledge.Christopher Gill, Tim Whitmarsh & John Wilkins (eds.) - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Introduction Christopher Gill, Tim Whitmarsh and John Wilkins: 1. Galen's library Vivian Nutton; 2. Conventions of prefatory self-presentation in Galen's On the Order of My Own Books Jason König; 3. Demiurge and emperor in Galen's world of knowledge Rebecca Flemming; 4. Shock and awe: the performance dimension of Galen's anatomy demonstrations Maud Gleason; 5. Galen's un-Hippocratic case-histories G. E. R. Lloyd; 6. Staging the past, staging oneself: Galen on Hellenistic exegetical traditions Heinrich von Staden; 7. Galen (...)
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  46. Pituitary-Adrenal Activity Following Inescapable Shock-Effects of Dexamethasone.T. R. Minor, T. Insel, J. Wilkins & J. Haracz - 1987 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (5):345-345.
     
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  47. Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and Literature in Honour of Christopher Gill.Richard Seaford, John Wilkins & Matthew Wright (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Selfhood and the Soul is a collection of new and original essays in honour of Christopher Gill, Emeritus Professor of Ancient Thought at the University of Exeter. Although they all share the same concern - the experience of being a person and the question of how best to live - as in the work of the honorand himself they are distinguished by a diversity of approach and subject matter, taking the reader on a journey from ancient philosophy to medical writing (...)
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  48. In Thomæhobbii Philosophiam Exercitatio Epistolica. Ad Amplissimum Eruditissimúmque Virum D. Iohannem Wilkinsium S.T.D. Collegii Wadhamensis Gardianum. [REVIEW]Seth Ward, John Wilkins, Henry Hall & Richard Davis - 1656 - Excudebat H. Hall Academiætypographus, Impensis Richardi Davis.
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  49. An Alphabetical Dictionary Wherein All English Words According to Their Various Significations, Are Either Referred to Their Places in the Philosophical Tables, or Explained by Such Words as Are in Those Tables.John Wilkins - 1668 - Printed by J. M. For S. Gellibrand [Etc.].
     
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  50. A Deflation of Genetic Information.John S. Wilkins - manuscript
    It is often claimed there is information in some biological entity or process, most especially in genes. Genetic “information” refers to distinct notions, either of concrete properties of molecular bonds and catalysis, in which case it is little more than a periphrasis for correlation and causal relations between physical biological objects (molecules), or of abstract properties, in which case it is mind-dependent. When information plays a causal role, nothing is added to the account by calling it “information”. In short, if (...)
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