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  1. Hume and the Independent Witnesses.Arif Ahmed - 2015 - Mind 124 (496):1013-1044.
    The Humean argument concerning miracles says that one should always think it more likely that anyone who testifies to a miracle is lying or deluded than that the alleged miracle actually occurred, and so should always reject any single report of it. A longstanding and widely accepted objection is that even if this is right, the concurring and non-collusive testimony of many witnesses should make it rational to believe in whatever miracle they all report. I argue that on the contrary, (...)
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  2. Skeptical Theism: New Essays. [REVIEW]Scott Aikin & Alyssa Lowery - 2017 - International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 7 (3):207-211.
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  3. Ceticismo e religião no início da modernidade. A ambivalência do ceticismo cristão.Luciana Maria Azevedo de Almeida - 2012 - Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 53 (126):601-608.
    Montaigne, no "De l'art de conferer", discute critérios que permitem distinguir os homens segundo suas capacidades (suffisances). A "maneira" de discursar ocupa o centro desta questão e entre suas qualidades se destaca a "ordem", que nos é apresentada, sobretudo, a partir dos desvios da "tolice" (sottise) e "obstinação" (opiniastreté), símbolos do dogmatismo e de uma errônea lide com os saberes que se apoiam na memória. Procura-se mostrar que a ordem se funda na assimilação e penetração do julgamento nas matérias que (...)
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  4. Theism as Theory and the Problem of Evil.William P. Alston - 1995 - Topoi 14 (2):135-148.
    Theism is a metaphysical theory. But the typical adherent of a theistic religion does not hold theism as a theory, even though she is committed to various propositions that could enter into such a theory. Attention is given to the kind of theory theism is, when it is a theory. As far as religion is concerned, the main importance of the question as to whether theism is a theory concerns the issue as to whether the success of theism as a (...)
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  5. A "Doxastic Practice" Approach to Epistemology.William P. Alston - 1989 - In Marjorie Clay & Keith Lehrer (eds.), Knowledge and Skepticism. Westview Press. pp. 1--29.
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  6. Psychoanalytic Theory and Theistic Belief.William P. Alston - 1964 - In Charles Taliaferro & Paul J. Griffiths (eds.), Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology. Blackwell. pp. 123-140.
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  7. Faith, Reason, and Skepticism: Essays.William P. Alston & Marcus B. Hester (eds.) - 1992 - Temple University Press.
    INTRODUCTION William Alston opens this dialogue on faith, reason, and skepticism by arguing that if the belief-forming processes of a typical Christian are ...
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  8. Skeptical Theism and Value Judgments.David James Anderson - 2012 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (1):27-39.
    One of the most prominent objections to skeptical theism in recent literature is that the skeptical theist is forced to deny our competency in making judgments about the all-things-considered value of any natural event. Some skeptical theists accept that their view has this implication, but argue that it is not problematic. I think that there is reason to question the implication itself. I begin by explaining the objection to skeptical theism and the standard response to it. I then identify an (...)
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  9. Hume's Mitigated Skepticism and the Design Argument.Robert Arp - 1998 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (4):539-558.
  10. In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion.Scott Atran - 2002 - Oup Usa.
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary book seeks to explain the origins of religion using our knowledge of the evolution of cognition. A cognitive anthropologist and psychologist, Scott Atran argues that religion is a by-product of human evolution just as the cognitive intervention, cultural selection, and historical survival of religion is an accommodation of certain existential and moral elements that have evolved in the human condition.
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  11. Possibility and Permission? Intellectual Character, Inquiry, and the Ethics of Belief.Guy Axtell - 2014 - In Pihlstrom S. & Rydenfelt H. (eds.), William James on Religion. (Palgrave McMillan “Philosophers in Depth” Series.
    This chapter examines the modifications William James made to his account of the ethics of belief from his early ‘subjective method’ to his later heightened concerns with personal doxastic responsibility and with an empirically-driven comparative research program he termed a ‘science of religions’. There are clearly tensions in James’ writings on the ethics of belief both across his career and even within Varieties itself, tensions which some critics think spoil his defense of what he calls religious ‘faith ventures’ or ‘overbeliefs’. (...)
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  12. Review of Stuart Rosenbaum, Ed. Pragmatism and Religion: Classical Sources and Original Essays. [REVIEW]Guy Axtell - 2004 - Contemporary Pragmatism 1 (2):182-191.
  13. Morality, Structure, Transcendence and Theism: A Response to Melissa Lane's Reading of Charles Taylor's Sources of the Self. [REVIEW]D. P. Baker - 2003 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 54 (1):33-48.
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  14. Religious Diversity and Epistemic Luck.Max Baker-Hytch - 2014 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (2):171-191.
    A familiar criticism of religious belief starts from the claim that a typical religious believer holds the particular religious beliefs she does just because she happened to be raised in a certain cultural setting rather than some other. This claim is commonly thought to have damaging epistemological consequences for religious beliefs, and one can find statements of an argument in this vicinity in the writings of John Stuart Mill and more recently Philip Kitcher, although the argument is seldom spelled out (...)
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  15. Theism and Humanism, The Gifford Lectures, Glasgow 1914.Arthur James Balfour - 1915 - H.Doran.
  16. A Probabilistic Defense of Proper De Jure Objections to Theism.Brian C. Barnett - manuscript
    A common view among nontheists combines the de jure objection that theism is epistemically unacceptable with agnosticism about the de facto objection that theism is false. Following Plantinga, we can call this a “proper” de jure objection—a de jure objection that does not depend on any de facto objection. In his Warranted Christian Belief, Plantinga has produced a general argument against all proper de jure objections. Here I first show that this argument is logically fallacious (it makes subtle probabilistic fallacies (...)
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  17. Skepticism and the Skeptical Theist.John Beaudoin - 2005 - Faith and Philosophy 22 (1):42-56.
    According to skeptical theists, our failure to find morally justifying reasons for certain of the world's evils fails to constitute even prima facie evidence that these evils are gratuitous. For even if such reasons did exist, it is not to be expected that our limited intellects would discover them. In this article I consider whether skeptical theism leads to other, more radical forms of skepticism.
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  18. Marriage, Sex, and the Jurisprudence of Skepticism: A Response to Ronald E. Long.Francis Beckwith - 2005 - Philosophia Christi 7 (1):41-44.
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  19. Externalism, Skepticism, and Knowledge: An Argument Against Internalism.James Beilby - 2008 - Philosophia Christi 10 (1):75-86.
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  20. The Modal Gap: The Objective Problem of Lessing's Ditch(Es) and Kierkegaard's Subjective Reply.Matthew A. Benton - 2006 - Religious Studies 42 (1):27-44.
    This essay expands upon the suggestion that Lessing's infamous ‘ditch’ is actually three ditches: temporal, metaphysical, and existential gaps. It examines the complex problems these ditches raise, and then proposes that Kierkegaard's Fragments and Postscript exhibit a similar triadic organizational structure, which may signal a deliberate attempt to engage and respond to Lessing's three gaps. Viewing the Climacean project in this way offers an enhanced understanding of the intricacies of Lessing's rationalist approach to both religion and historical truth, and illuminates (...)
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  21. Evil and Evidence.Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne & Yoaav Isaacs - 2016 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 7:1-31.
    The problem of evil is the most prominent argument against the existence of God. Skeptical theists contend that it is not a good argument. Their reasons for this contention vary widely, involving such notions as CORNEA, epistemic appearances, 'gratuitous' evils, 'levering' evidence, and the representativeness of goods. We aim to dispel some confusions about these notions, in particular by clarifying their roles within a probabilistic epistemology. In addition, we develop new responses to the problem of evil from both the phenomenal (...)
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  22. Skeptical Theism and the Problem of Evil.Michael Bergmann - 2008 - In Thomas P. Flint & Michael C. Rea (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Theology. Oxford University Press. pp. 374--99.
    The most interesting thing about sceptical theism is its sceptical component. When sceptical theists use that component in responding to arguments from evil, they think it is reasonable for their non-theistic interlocutors to accept it, even if they don't expect them to accept their theism. This article focuses on that sceptical component. The first section explains more precisely what the sceptical theist's scepticism amounts to and how it is used in response to various sorts of arguments from evil. The next (...)
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  23. Skeptical Theism and Rowe's New Evidential Argument From Evil.Michael Bergmann - 2001 - Noûs 35 (2):278–296.
    Skeptical theists endorse the skeptical thesis (which is consistent with the rejection of theism) that we have no good reason for thinking the possible goods we know of are representative of the possible goods there are. In his newest formulation of the evidential arguments from evil, William Rowe tries to avoid assuming the falsity of this skeptical thesis, presumably because it seems so plausible. I argue that his new argument fails to avoid doing this. Then I defend that skeptical thesis (...)
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  24. Reason and Faith: Themes From Swinburne.Michael Bergmann & Jeffrey E. Brower (eds.) - 2016 - Oxford University Press UK.
    The past fifty years have been an enormously fruitful period in the field of philosophy of religion, and few have done more to advance its development during this time than Richard Swinburne. His pioneering work has systematically developed a comprehensive set of positions within this field, and made major contributions to fields such as metaphysics, epistemology, and philosophy of science. This volume presents a collection of ten new essays in philosophy of religion that develop and critically engage themes from Swinburne's (...)
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  25. In Defence of Sceptical Theism: A Reply to Almeida and Oppy.Michael Bergmann & Michael C. Rea - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):241 – 251.
    Some evidential arguments from evil rely on an inference of the following sort: 'If, after thinking hard, we can't think of any God-justifying reason for permitting some horrific evil then it is likely that there is no such reason'. Sceptical theists, us included, say that this inference is not a good one and that evidential arguments from evil that depend on it are, as a result, unsound. Michael Almeida and Graham Oppy have argued (in a previous issue of this journal) (...)
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  26. Why is There Nothing Rather Than Something An Essay in the Comparative Metaphysic of Non-Being.Purushottama Bilimoria - 2012 - Sophia 51 (4):509-530.
    This essay in the comparative metaphysic of nothingness begins by pondering why Leibniz thought of the converse question as the preeminent one. In Eastern philosophical thought, like the numeral 'zero' (śūnya) that Indian mathematicians first discovered, nothingness as non-being looms large and serves as the first quiver on the imponderables they seem to have encountered (e.g., 'In the beginning was neither non-being nor being: what was there, bottomless deep?' RgVeda X.129). The concept of non-being and its permutations of nothing, negation, (...)
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  27. Flew, Skeptic and Atheist.H. James Birx - 1998 - Philo 1 (2):79-79.
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  28. Theism, Morality and the 'Why Should I Be Moral?' Question.John Bishop - 1984 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 16 (3):3 - 21.
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  29. Is Belief In God A Hinge Proposition?Matthew Bixby - unknown
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  30. Locke and the Skeptical Argument for Toleration.Sam Black - 2007 - History of Philosophy Quarterly 24 (4):355-375.
  31. Skepticism and the Religions of the Word.D. Blakeley - 1995 - Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 6.
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  32. Disagreeing with the (Religious) Skeptic.Tomas Bogardus - 2013 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 74 (1):5-17.
    Some philosophers believe that, when epistemic peers disagree, each has an obligation to accord the other’s assessment equal weight as her own. Other philosophers worry that this Equal-Weight View is vulnerable to straightforward counterexamples, and that it requires an unacceptable degree of spinelessness with respect to our most treasured philosophical, political, and religious beliefs. I think that both of these allegations are false. To show this, I carefully state the Equal-Weight View, motivate it, describe apparent counterexamples to it, and then (...)
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  33. The Problem of Contingency for Religious Belief.Tomas Bogardus - 2013 - Faith and Philosophy 30 (4):371-392.
    In this paper, I hope to solve a problem that’s as old as the hills: the problem of contingency for religious belief. Paradigmatic examples of this argument begin with a counterfactual premise: had we been born at a different time or in a difference place, we easily could have held different beliefs on religious topics. Ultimately, and perhaps by additional steps, we’re meant to reach the skeptical conclusion that very many of our religious beliefs do not amount to knowledge. I (...)
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  34. The Politics Of Faith and the Politics Of Scepticism.David Boucher - 2001 - International Studies in Philosophy 33 (2):151-152.
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  35. Scepticism in the Enlightenment.Harry M. Bracken - 2004 - International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):252-254.
  36. Scepticism By Kai Nielsen London, Macmillan, 1973, X + 118 Pp., £2.50. [REVIEW]Stuart Brown - 1974 - Philosophy 49 (188):220-.
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  37. Learning Not to Be Naïve: A Comment on the Exchange Between Perrine/Wykstra and Draper.Lara Buchak - 2014 - In Trent Dougherty & Justin McBrayer (eds.), Skeptical Theism: New Essays. Oxford University Press.
    Does postulating skeptical theism undermine the claim that evil strongly confirms atheism over theism? According to Perrine and Wykstra, it does undermine the claim, because evil is no more likely on atheism than on skeptical theism. According to Draper, it does not undermine the claim, because evil is much more likely on atheism than on theism in general. I show that the probability facts alone do not resolve their disagreement, which ultimately rests on which updating procedure – conditionalizing or updating (...)
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  38. Sceptical Theology.István Bugár - 2006 - Rhizai. A Journal for Ancient Philosophy and Science 2:299-319.
    Starting from the theological fragment of Protagoras , the paper explores the possible connections between sceptical views and theology in antiquity. I argue that some standard topics in late antique theological discourse, such as the method of negative theology, the philosophical problem of omnipotence, and the compatibility of human autonomy with divine omniscience stem from sceptical arguments, more particularly from those of Carneades. These sections discuss in detail evidence in passages of Sextus Empiricus, Cicero and of the pseudo-Aristotelian treatise De (...)
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  39. Terence Penelhum. God and Skepticism. Pp. Xiii + 186. (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1983.) $34.95. [REVIEW]Peter Byrne - 1985 - Religious Studies 21 (3):419-421.
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  40. On Skeptical Fideism in Montaigne's Apology for Raymond Sebond.Sérgio Cardoso - 2009 - In Maia Neto, José Raimundo, Gianni Paganini & John Christian Laursen (eds.), Skepticism in the Modern Age: Building on the Work of Richard Popkin. Brill.
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  41. Possibilities of Religious Skepticism.John Carlson - 1978 - The Thomist 42 (4):600.
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  42. Possession and Dispossession: Wittgenstein, Cavell, and Gregory of Nyssa on Life Amidst Skepticism.Natalie Carnes - 2013 - Modern Theology 29 (1):104-123.
    This article follows Ludwig Wittgenstein, Stanley Cavell, and Gregory of Nyssa in a journey of epistemic dispossession. It begins by tracing two ways of wandering off this trail, two epistemological sirens that tempt wayfarers from a path of epistemic dispossession. These are skepticism and anti‐skepticism, elaborated by Wittgenstein and Cavell as joined in their enthronement of epistemically‐anchored certainty. Following Wittgenstein and Cavell into an exploration of the forms of life and death that sustain and are sustained by grasping at such (...)
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  43. The Two Centers of Skepticism and Their Identification Through the Use of Language.Scott Celsor - 2013 - Philosophy and Theology 25 (2):229-245.
    This article contends that there are two formulations of skepticism; one centered upon epistemic investigation, the other centered upon developing the human capacity for judgment, a type of “quasi-religious” quest. The identification of these two easily confused formulations is suggested by an analysis of language usage within skeptical argumentation, supported by briefly analyzing Eric Havelock’s Preface to Plato, and confirmed by an analysis of Descartes. The significance of this confusion, i.e., the lack of progress in finding a solution to the (...)
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  44. Debunking CORNEA.Keith Chrzan - 1987 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 21 (3):171 - 177.
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  45. Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism.Mary T. Clark - 1984 - Teaching Philosophy 7 (3):273-275.
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  46. Folly to the Greeks: Good Reasons to Give Up Reason.Stephen R. L. Clark - 2012 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 4 (1):93-113.
    A discussion of why a strong doctrine of 'reason' may not be worth sustaining in the face of modern scientific speculation, and the difficulties this poses for scientific rationality, together with comments on the social understanding of religion, and why we might wish to transcend common sense.
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  47. Book Reviews : Kai Nielsen, God, Scepticism and Modernity. Philosophica, Vol. 40. Ottawa and London: University of Ottawa Press, 1989. Pp. 252, $40.00. [REVIEW]P. Clayton - 1992 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22 (4):519-525.
  48. David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion and Other Writings.Dorothy Coleman (ed.) - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    David Hume's Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, first published in 1779, is one of the most influential works in the philosophy of religion and the most artful instance of philosophical dialogue since the dialogues of Plato. It presents a fictional conversation between a sceptic, an orthodox Christian, and a Newtonian theist concerning evidence for the existence of an intelligent cause of nature based on observable features of the world. This new edition presents it together with several of Hume's other, shorter writings (...)
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  49. Hume, Miracles and Lotteries.Dorothy P. Coleman - 1988 - Hume Studies 14 (2):328-346.
    THIS PAPER ANSWERS RECENT CRITICISMS OF HUME’S SKEPTICISM WITH REGARD TO MIRACLES BY THOSE WHO ARGUE THAT THERE ARE COUNTEREXAMPLES, ILLUSTRATED BY LOTTERIES, TO HUME’S ACCOUNT OF HOW THE TRUTH OF REPORTS ABOUT IMPROBABLE EVENTS MUST BE EVALUATED. THE AUTHOR FIRST SHOWS THAT THESE ARGUMENTS ARE ANALOGOUS TO BUTLER’S CRITICISM OF HUME’S PREDECESSORS IN THE DEBATE ABOUT MIRACLES. IT IS THEN ARGUED THAT EACH OF THESE CRITICISMS COLLAPSES THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN PROBABILITIES PERTAINING TO EVENTS QUA UNIQUE OCCURRENCES AND PROBABILITIES PERTAINING (...)
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  50. Skeptical Theism is Incompatible with Theodicy.Scott Coley - 2015 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 77 (1):53-63.
    Inductive arguments from evil claim that evil presents evidence against the existence of God. Skeptical theists hold that some such arguments from evil evince undue confidence in our familiarity with the sphere of possible goods and the entailments that obtain between that sphere and God’s permission of evil. I argue that the skeptical theist’s skepticism on this point is inconsistent with affirming the truth of a given theodicy. Since the skeptical theist’s skepticism is best understood dialogically, I’ll begin by sketching (...)
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