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  1. added 2020-05-29
    Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 2: The New Problem of Religious Luck.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    One main kind of etiological challenge to the well-foundedness of someone’s belief is the consideration that if you had a different education/upbringing, you would very likely accept different beliefs than you actually do. Although a person’s religious identity and attendant religious beliefs are usually the ones singled out as targets of such “contingency” or “epistemic location” arguments, it is clear that a person’s place and time has a conditioning effect in all domains of controversial views, and over all of what (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-29
    Problems of Religious Luck, Chapter 1: Kinds of Religious Luck: A Working Taxonomy.Guy Axtell - manuscript
    Although there has been little written to date that speaks directly to problems of religious luck, described in other terms these problems have a long history. Contemporary contributors to the literature have referred to “soteriological luck” (Anderson 2011) “salvific luck” (Davidson 1999) and “religious luck” (Zagzebski 1994). Using “religious” as the unifying term, Part I of this monograph begins with the need a more comprehensive taxonomy. Serious philosophic interest in moral and epistemic luck took hold only after comprehensive taxonomies for (...)
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  3. added 2020-05-29
    Spirituality, Expertise, and Philosophers.Bryan Frances - 2008 - Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion 1:44-81.
  4. added 2020-05-24
    The Epistemology of Real-World Religious Disagreement Without Peers.Bryan Frances - 2018 - Philosophia Christi 20 (1):289-297.
    When you learn that a large body of highly intelligent, fair-minded, reasonable, and relatively unbiased thinkers disagree with you, does that give you good reason to think you’re wrong? Should you think, “Wait a minute. Maybe I’ve missed something here”? Should you at least drastically reduce your confidence? There is a general epistemological problem here regarding controversial beliefs, one that has nothing especially to do with religious belief. I argue that applying this discussion to religion transforms the problem in unexpected (...)
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  5. added 2020-03-26
    The Implausibility and Low Explanatory Power of the Resurrection Hypothesis—With a Rejoinder to Stephen T. Davis.Robert Greg Cavin & Carlos A. Colombetti - 2020 - Socio-Historical Examination of Religion and Ministry 2 (1):37-94.
    We respond to Stephen T. Davis’ criticism of our earlier essay, “Assessing the Resurrection Hypothesis.” We argue that the Standard Model of physics is relevant and decisive in establishing the implausibility and low explanatory power of the Resurrection hypothesis. We also argue that the laws of physics have entailments regarding God and the supernatural and, against Alvin Plantinga, that these same laws lack the proviso “no agent supernaturally interferes.” Finally, we offer Bayesian arguments for the Legend hypothesis and against the (...)
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  6. added 2020-03-10
    Belief and Religious ‘Belief’.Arif Ahmed - forthcoming - Religious Studies:1-15.
    Is the analysis of religion best conducted in terms of the beliefs of its practitioners? I describe a Wittgenstein-inspired approach to belief on which it is dubious that religious practices satisfy the criteria for the attribution of belief. I defend this more moderate and plausible version of Needham's thesis against two natural reasons to think religious belief widespread.
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  7. added 2020-01-30
    The Epistemology of Theistic Philosophers’ Reactions to the Problem of Evil.Bryan Frances - forthcoming - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly.
    I first argue that contrary to many atheistic philosophers, there is good reason to think the typical theistic philosopher’s retaining of her theism when faced with the Problem of Evil (PoE) is comparatively epistemically upstanding even if both atheism is true and the typical theistic philosopher has no serious criticism of the atheist’s premises in the PoE argument. However, I then argue that contrary to many theistic philosophers, even if theism is true, the typical theistic philosopher has no good non-theistic (...)
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  8. added 2019-12-31
    The Fellowship of the Ninth Hour: Christian Reflections on the Nature and Value of Faith.Daniel Howard-Snyder & Daniel J. McKaughan - forthcoming - In James Arcadi & James T. Turner Jr (eds.), The T&T Clark Companion to Analytic Theology. New York, NY, USA: T&T Clark/Bloomsbury.
    Christians in the West struggle with intellectual doubt more than they used to, especially university-educated Christians. It is common for young Christians to go off to college assured in their beliefs but, in the course of their first year, they meet powerful defenses of scientific naturalism and the basic Christian story (BCS, for short) in particular. What they learned at home or church seems much less plausible to them, and many are thrown into doubt. They think to themselves something like (...)
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  9. added 2019-12-28
    Religious Disagreement.Bryan Frances - forthcoming - In Charles Taliaferro & Goetz (eds.), Encyclopedia of Philosophy of Religion.
    Many people with religious beliefs, pro or con, are aware that those beliefs are denied by a great number of others who are as reasonable, intelligent, fair-minded, and relatively unbiased as they are. Such a realization often leads people to wonder, “How do I know I’m right and they’re wrong? How do I know that the basis for my belief is right and theirs is misleading?” In spite of that realization, most people stick with their admittedly controversial religious belief. This (...)
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  10. added 2019-12-07
    ¿La autobiografía espiritual más profunda de todos los tiempos? -una reseña de "la rodilla de la escucha" de ADI da (Franklin Jones) (1995) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 330-333.
    Una breve reseña de la vida y la autobiografía espiritual de la única mística estadounidense ADI da (Franklin Jones). La pegatina en la portada de algunas ediciones dice "la más profunda autobiografía espiritual de todos los tiempos" y esto bien podría ser cierto. Estoy en mis 70 ́s y he leído muchos libros de maestros espirituales y de espiritualidad, y este es uno de los más grandes. Ciertamente, es by lejos la más completa y clara relato del proceso de iluminación (...)
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  11. added 2019-10-15
    Religious Pluralism and Inter-Religious Dialogue Iosr.Manas Kumar Sahu - 2019 - IOSR Journal of HumanitieS and Social Science 24 (7):57-62.
    Religious exclusivism is the biggest threat for multi-religious society at the same time, ambivalent thoughts among religion in religious pluralism due to religious diversity often yields religious violence. In both of the extreme, (religious exclusivism and religious pluralism) there is the possibility of religious violence, i.e., religious riots, terrorism, mob lynching, and communalism. The objective of this paper is to discuss the significance of inter-religious dialogue (IRD), its basic principle, how IRD will help us for addressing the problems of humanity (...)
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  12. added 2019-09-17
    Disagreement, Deference, and Religious Commitment.John Pittard - 2019 - New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Every known religious or explicitly irreligious outlook is contested by large contingents of informed and reasonable people. Many philosophers have argued that reflection on this fact should lead us to abandon confident religious or irreligious belief and to embrace religious skepticism. John Pittard critically assesses the case for such disagreement-motivated religious skepticism. While the book focuses on religious disagreement, it makes a number of significant contributions to the more general discussion of the rational significance of disagreement as well.
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  13. added 2019-08-14
    Apocalypses Now: Modern Science and Biblical Miracles: The Boyle Lecture 2018.Mark Harris - 2018 - Zygon 53 (4):1036-1050.
  14. added 2019-08-14
    Faith as Poeisis in Nicholas of Cusa's Pursuit of Wisdom.Jason Aleksander - 2018 - In Thomas Izbicki, Jason Aleksander & Donald Duclow (eds.), Nicholas of Cusa in Ages of Transition. Leiden: E. J. Brill. pp. 197-218.
    This article discusses how Nicholas of Cusa’s speculative philosophy harbors an ecumenical spirit that is deeply entwined and in tension with his commitment to incarnational mystical theology. On the basis of my discussion of this tension, I intend to show that Nicholas understands “faith” as a poietic activity whose legitimacy is rooted less in the independent veracity of the beliefs in question than in the potential of particular religious conventions to aid intellectual processes of self-interpretation. In undertaking this analysis, the (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-14
    On the Broken Myth in the Philosophy of Religion and Theology.Konrad Waloszczyk - 2012 - Przeglad Filozoficzny - Nowa Seria 82 (2):401-409.
    On the broken myth in the philosophy of religion and theology Abstract. The article deals with the concept of broken myth, thus named by the German theologian and philosopher Paul Tillich (1886 - 1965). The thesis related to this concept is that all religions, including Christianity, use a mythical language. This language is expressing moral truths and metaphysical intuitions, but not the objective facts and states of affairs that may provide knowledge. The broken myth does not imply the rejection of (...)
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  16. added 2019-08-08
    Knowledge, Belief, and God: New Insights in Religious Epistemology, Edited by Matthew A. Benton, John Hawthorne, and Dani Rabinowitz. [REVIEW]Andrew Moon - 2019 - Faith and Philosophy 36 (1):129-134.
  17. added 2019-07-14
    The Buddha's Middle Way: Experiential Judgement in His Life and Teaching.Robert Michael Ellis - 2019 - Sheffield, UK: Equinox.
    The Middle Way was first taught explicitly by the Buddha. It is the first teaching offered by the Buddha in his first address, and the basis of his practical method in meditation, ethics, and wisdom. It is often mentioned in connection with Buddhist teachings, yet the full case for its importance has not yet been made. This book aims to make that case. -/- The Middle Way can be understood from the Buddha's life and metaphors as well as his teachings, (...)
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  18. added 2019-06-27
    Faith and Reason: Philosophers Explain Their Turn to Catholicism.Brian Besong & Jonathan Fuqua (eds.) - 2019 - San Francisco: Ignatius Press.
  19. added 2019-06-06
    Strong Interiority and (Traditional) Theism: What's the Problem?Robert Oakes - 2012 - Ratio 25 (1):68-78.
    Central to Spinozism is the thesis that the immanence of the Divine Substance in the cosmos is – like the immanence of the dancer in the dance –maximal or total. Just as the dance consists entirely of the dancer in aesthetically‐stylized motion, so the domain of nature is nothing in addition to God in cosmic guise. Accordingly, natural objects constitute modes of God. Hence, Spinozism and theism are obviously irreconcilable. For it is indispensable to theism that the immanence of God (...)
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  20. added 2019-06-06
    Epistemological Considerations Concerning Skeptical Theism: A Response To Dougherty.Jonathan D. Matheson - 2011 - Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):323-331.
    Recently Trent Dougherty has claimed that there is a tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology—that the more plausible one of these views is, the less plausible the other is. In this paper I explain Dougherty’s argument and develop an account of defeaters which removes the alleged tension between skeptical theism and common sense epistemology.
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  21. added 2019-06-06
    Reductio Ad Malum: Bayle’s Early Skepticism About Theodicy.Michael W. Hickson - 2011 - Modern Schoolman 88 (3/4):201-221.
    Pierre Bayle is perhaps most well-known for arguing in his Dictionary that the problem of evil cannot be solved by reason alone. This skepticism about theodicy is usually credited to a religious crisis suffered by Bayle in 1685 following the unjust imprisonment and death of his brother, the death of his father, and the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. But in this paper I argue that Bayle was skeptical about theodicy a decade earlier than these events, from at least (...)
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  22. added 2019-06-06
    Schellenberg on Divine Hiddenness and Religious Scepticism: MARK L. McCREARY.Mark L. Mccreary - 2010 - Religious Studies 46 (2):207-225.
    J. L. Schellenberg has constructed major arguments for atheism based on divine hiddenness in two separate works. This paper reviews these arguments and highlights how they are grounded in reflections on perfect divine love. However, Schellenberg also defends what he calls the ‘subject mode’ of religious scepticism. I argue that if one accepts Schellenberg's scepticism, then the foundation of his divine-hiddenness arguments is undermined by calling into question some of his conclusions regarding perfect divine love. In other words, if his (...)
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  23. added 2019-06-06
    Of Hobbes and Hume: A Review of Paul Russell, the Riddle of Hume's Treatise: Skepticism, Naturalism and Irreligion 1. [REVIEW]James A. Harris - 2009 - Philosophical Books 50 (1):38-46.
  24. added 2019-06-06
    Must an ‘Origins Agnostic’ Be Skeptical About Everything?Wes Morriston - 2008 - Philo 11 (2):165-176.
    Plantinga claims to give a person who is agnostic about the ultimate source of his cognitive faculties an undefeatable defeater for all his beliefs. This argument of Plantinga’s bears a family resemblance to his much better known argument for saying that naturalism is self-defeating, but it has a much more ambitious conclusion. In the present paper, I try to show both that Plantinga’s argument for this conclusion fails, and that even if an “origins agnostic” were to succumb to it, a (...)
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  25. added 2019-06-06
    In Defence of Sceptical Theism: A Reply to Almeida and Oppy.Michael Rea & Michael Bergmann - 2005 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):241.
    Some evidential arguments from evil rely on an inference of the following sort: ‘If, after thinking hard, we can't think of any God-justifying reason for permitting some horrific evil then it is likely that there is no such reason’. Sceptical theists, us included, say that this inference is not a good one and that evidential arguments from evil that depend on it are, as a result, unsound. Michael Almeida and Graham Oppy have argued that Michael Bergmann's way of developing the (...)
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  26. added 2019-06-06
    Stuart Rosenbaum, Ed. Pragmatism and Religion: Classical Sources and Original Essays. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003. Pp. 376. Cloth ISBN 0-252-02838-4. Paper ISBN 0-252-07122-0. [REVIEW]Guy Axtell - 2004 - Contemporary Pragmatism 1 (2):182-191.
  27. added 2019-06-06
    Skepticism, Illumination and Christianity In Augustine’s Contra Academicos.Brian Harding - 2003 - Augustinian Studies 34 (2):197-212.
    This is my first published paper, written over a decade ago. I can't remember exactly what I argued in it, but I can assure you that the follow up paper "Epistemology and Eudaimonism in Augustine's Contra Academicos" is better.
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  28. added 2019-06-06
    Hume’s Mitigated Skepticism and the Design Argument.Robert Arp - 1998 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 72 (4):539-558.
  29. added 2019-06-06
    Out From the Shadows of God: Nietzschean Scepticism and Political Practice.Leslie Paul Thiele - 1995 - International Studies in Philosophy 27 (3):55-72.
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    A Skeptical Defense of Theism.David O’Connor - 1990 - Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 64:211.
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Ward on Davidson's Refutation of Scepticism.Guillermo Hurtado - 1989 - Critica 21 (63):75-81.
  32. added 2019-06-06
    M. Jamie Ferreira, "Scepticism and Reasonable Doubt. The British Naturalist Tradition in Wilkins, Hume, Reid and Newman". [REVIEW]Henry G. Van Leeuwen - 1989 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 27 (2):312.
  33. added 2019-06-06
    Terence Penelhum, "God and Skepticism: A Study in Skepticism and Fideism". [REVIEW]Ezra Talmor - 1987 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 25 (2):299.
  34. added 2019-06-06
    The Challenge of Scepticism.Olaf Tollefsen - 1985 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 59:81.
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    Theism and the Rationale of Hume’s Skepticism About Causation.Donald W. Livingston - 1985 - Idealistic Studies 15 (2):151-164.
    Hume is famous for having introduced a radical theory of the nature of causation. To say that A causes B is just to say that A is constantly conjoined with B and that experience of the conjunction determines the mind to expect the one on the appearance of the other. It was this theory that awoke Kant from his dogmatic slumbers and established Hume as a founding figure of the various forms of positivism that emerged from the nineteenth century. A. (...)
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  36. added 2019-06-05
    Tasavvufun ve Epistemolojik Bir Araç Olarak İlhamın İbn Teymiyye Düşüncesindeki Yeri.Emrah Kaya - 2016 - Cumhuriyet Ilahiyat Dergisi 20 (1):11-34.
    This article aims to study Sufism (taṣawwuf) and inspiration (ilhâm), which is the main means of the mystical knowledge, in the thought of Ibn Taymiyya who is known generally as an exponent of a tradition grounded on the understanding of Salaf. He is considered by majority to be a rigid opponent of Sufism because of his unconventional interpretations of Sufi terminology. Also, since Ibn Taymiyya constantly offers the Qur’ān, ḥadīth, and the opinions of Salaf as the base of religious knowledge, (...)
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  37. added 2019-06-05
    Marriage, Sex, and the Jurisprudence of Skepticism.Francis J. Beckwith - 2005 - Philosophia Christi 7 (1):41-44.
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  38. added 2019-06-05
    Evidential Arguments From Evil and Skeptical Theism.Michael Almeida & Graham Oppy - 2004 - Philo 8 (2):84 - 94.
    In this paper we respond to criticisms by Michael Bergmann and Michael Rea in their “In Defense of Sceptical Theism : A Reply to Almeida and Oppy,” Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83.
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  39. added 2019-04-18
    Positive Skeptical Theism and the Problem of Divine Deception.John DePoe - 2017 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 82 (1):89-99.
    In a recent article, Erik Wielenberg has argued that positive skeptical theism fails to circumvent his new argument from apparent gratuitous evil. Wielenberg’s new argument focuses on apparently gratuitous suffering and abandonment, and he argues that negative skeptical theistic responses fail to respond to the challenge posed by these apparent gratuitous evils due to the parent–child analogy often invoked by theists. The greatest challenge to his view, he admits, is positive skeptical theism. To stave off this potential problem with his (...)
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  40. added 2019-02-23
    Review of Religion Explained-- The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought by Pascal Boyer (2002) (Review Revised 2019).Michael Starks - 2019 - In Suicidal Utopian Delusions in the 21st Century -- Philosophy, Human Nature and the Collapse of Civilization -- Articles and Reviews 2006-2019 4th Edition Michael Starks. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 317-330.
    You can get a quick summary of this book on p 135 or 326. If you are not up to speed on evolutionary psychology, you should first read one of the numerous recent texts with this term in the title. One of the best is "The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology" 2nd ed by Buss. Until about 15 years ago, ´explanations´ of behavior have not really been explanations of mental processes at all, but rather vague and largely useless descriptions of what (...)
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  41. added 2019-02-23
    Disagreement Skepticism and the Rationality of Religious Belief.Jonathan Matheson - 2019 - In Kevin McCain & Ted Poston (eds.), The Mystery of Skepticism: New Explorations. Brill. pp. 83-104.
    The Equal Weight View is a view about the epistemic significance of disagreement that is thought to have significant skeptical consequences. In this paper I do two things: (i) apply the Equal Weight View to cases of religious disagreement, and (ii) evaluate some consequences of that application for the rationality of religious beliefs. With regard to (i), I argue that the Equal Weight View implies that awareness of the current state of disagreement over religious propositions, such as God exists or (...)
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  42. added 2019-02-22
    A Philosophy of the Essay: Scepticism, Experience, and Style.Erin S. Plunkett - 2018 - London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic.
    Erin Plunkett draws from both analytic and continental sources to argue for the philosophical relevance of style, making the case that the essay form is uniquely suited to address the sceptical problem. The authors examined here-Montaigne, Hume, the early German Romantics, Kierkegaard and Stanley Cavell-bring into relief the relationship between scepticism and ordinary life and situate the will to know within a broader frame of meaningful human activity. The formal features of the essay call attention to time, subjectivity, and language (...)
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  43. added 2019-02-11
    Well-Founded Belief and the Contingencies of Epistemic Location.Guy Axtell - 2020 - In Patrick Bondy & J. Adam Carter (eds.), Well Founded Belief: New Essays on the Epistemic Basing Relation. London: Routledge, 2019.
    A growing number of philosophers are concerned with the epistemic status of culturally nurtured beliefs, beliefs found especially in domains of morals, politics, philosophy, and religion. Plausibly, worries about the deep impact of cultural contingencies on beliefs in these domains of controversial views is a question about well-foundedness: Does it defeat well-foundedness if the agent is rationally convinced that she would take her own reasons for belief as insufficiently well-founded, or would take her own belief as biased, had she been (...)
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  44. added 2019-01-24
    THEORETICAL APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF JEWISH MYSTICISM: NEW PERSPECTIVE.Stepan Lisy - 2018 - Communio Viatorum 60 (3): 276-312.
    According to Thomas S. Kuhn what changes with the transition to maturity of discipline is not the presence of a paradigm but rather its nature. The purpose of this study is to analyse a nature of paradigm in the study of Jewish mysticism. In the present article I attempt to show, that the discipline shares many characteristic features of the schools of pre-paradigm period caused by the absence of a pre-established theory. Despite the fact we are able to observe that (...)
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  45. added 2019-01-19
    Living in the Throes of Paradox.Howard Wettstein - 2017 - Conversations: Institute of Jewish Ideas 30 (4):1-15.
    A reflection on paradox vis-a-vis truth in the context of religion. The discussion directly pertains to the Jewish context. But the issues are quite general.
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  46. added 2018-12-10
    Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement.Guy Axtell - 2018 - Lanham, MD, USA & London, UK: Lexington Books/Rowman & Littlefield.
    To speak of being religious lucky certainly sounds odd. But then, so does “My faith holds value in God’s plan, while yours does not.” This book argues that these two concerns — with the concept of religious luck and with asymmetric or sharply differential ascriptions of religious value — are inextricably connected. It argues that religious luck attributions can profitably be studied from a number of directions, not just theological, but also social scientific and philosophical. There is a strong tendency (...)
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  47. added 2018-11-20
    Hjumovo shvatanje odnosa između skepticizma i filozofije.Aleksandra Davidović - 2018 - Theoria: Beograd 61 (3):93-118.
    U ovom radu istražujem kako su se Hjumova gledišta o odnosu između skepticizma i filozofije razvijala i kako su sazrevala tokom njegovog filozofskog rada. Hjumovo prvo delo, Rasprava o ljudskoj prirodi, ostavlja otvoreno pitanje zašto bi se iko bavio filozofijom u svetlu otkrića da su skeptički argumenti neoborivi. Cilj mi je da pokažem da, iako se Hjumov stav o skepticizmu i njegova skeptička pozicija nisu suštinski menjali tokom godina, Istraživanje o ljudskom razumu i Dijalozi o prirodnoj religiji, kao i nekoliko (...)
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  48. added 2018-09-24
    Skeptheism: Is Knowledge of God’s Existence Possible?Moti Mizrahi - 2017 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 9 (1):41-64.
    In this paper, I sketch an argument for the view that we cannot know (or have good reasons to believe) that God exists. Some call this view “strong agnosticism” but I prefer the term “skeptheism” in order to clearly distinguish between two distinct epistemic attitudes with respect to the existence of God, namely, agnosticism and skepticism. For the skeptheist, we cannot know (or have good reasons to believe) that God exists, since there can be neither conceptual (a priori) nor empirical (...)
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  49. added 2018-09-06
    Theorizing About a Mystical Approach.Ulrich De Balbian - 2018 - Oxford: Create Space.
    The theme of the work concerns the so-called ‘unity experience’ of these mystics. The unity or oneness or the realization of ‘being oned’ with, can be referred to the beatific vision. In the case of Christian mystics it is unity experience of The Gottheit (or Godhead) of Meister Eckhart, in Sufism it is being united with The Beloved, in Buddhism it could be said to realize The Buddha mind or Cosmic Buddha’s consciousness and in Vedanta, the realization of The One (...)
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  50. added 2018-07-24
    Divine Hiddenness: Defeated Evidence.Charity Anderson - 2017 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 81:119-132.
    This paper challenges a common assumption in the literature concerning the problem of divine hiddenness, namely, that the following are inconsistent: God's making available adequate evidence for belief that he exists and the existence of non-culpable nonbelievers. It draws on the notions of defeated evidence and glimpses to depict the complexity of our evidential situation with respect to God's existence.
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1 — 50 / 367