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Profile: Thomas Mormann (University of the Basque Country)
Profile: Thomas Mormann (University of the Basque Country)
  1. Similarity and Continuous Quality Distributions.Thomas Mormann - 1996 - The Monist 79 (1):76--88.
  2. Wissenschaftliche Philosophie im Exil: Cassirer und der Wiener Kreis nach 1933.Thomas Mormann - 2016 - Veröffentlichungen des Instituts Wiener Kreis 23:159 - 179.
  3. Infinitesimals as an Issue of Neo-Kantian Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann & Mikhail G. Katz - 2013 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science (2):236-280.
    We seek to elucidate the philosophical context in which one of the most important conceptual transformations of modern mathematics took place, namely the so-called revolution in rigor in infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis. Some of the protagonists of the said revolution were Cauchy, Cantor, Dedekind,and Weierstrass. The dominant current of philosophy in Germany at the time was neo-Kantianism. Among its various currents, the Marburg school (Cohen, Natorp, Cassirer, and others) was the one most interested in matters scientific and mathematical. Our (...)
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  4. Tools, Objects, and Chimeras: Connes on the Role of Hyperreals in Mathematics.Vladimir Kanovei, Mikhail G. Katz & Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Foundations of Science 18 (2):259-296.
    We examine some of Connes’ criticisms of Robinson’s infinitesimals starting in 1995. Connes sought to exploit the Solovay model S as ammunition against non-standard analysis, but the model tends to boomerang, undercutting Connes’ own earlier work in functional analysis. Connes described the hyperreals as both a “virtual theory” and a “chimera”, yet acknowledged that his argument relies on the transfer principle. We analyze Connes’ “dart-throwing” thought experiment, but reach an opposite conclusion. In S , all definable sets of reals are (...)
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  5. Heyting Mereology as a Framework for Spatial Reasoning.Thomas Mormann - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (1):137- 164.
    In this paper it is shown that Heyting and Co-Heyting mereological systems provide a convenient conceptual framework for spatial reasoning, in which spatial concepts such as connectedness, interior parts, (exterior) contact, and boundary can be defined in a natural and intuitively appealing way. This fact refutes the wide-spread contention that mereology cannot deal with the more advanced aspects of spatial reasoning and therefore has to be enhanced by further non-mereological concepts to overcome its congenital limitations. The allegedly unmereological concept of (...)
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  6. The Contact Algebra of the Euclidean Plane has Infinitely Many Elements.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Abstract. Let REL(O*E) be the relation algebra of binary relations defined on the Boolean algebra O*E of regular open regions of the Euclidean plane E. The aim of this paper is to prove that the canonical contact relation C of O*E generates a subalgebra REL(O*E, C) of REL(O*E) that has infinitely many elements. More precisely, REL(O*,C) contains an infinite family {SPPn, n ≥ 1} of relations generated by the relation SPP (Separable Proper Part). This relation can be used to define (...)
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  7. Mathematical Metaphors in Natorp’s Neo-Kantian Epistemology and Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - 2005 - In Falk Seeger, Johannes Lenard & Michael H. G. Hoffmann (eds.), Activity and Sign. Grounding Mathematical Education. Springer.
    A basic thesis of Neokantian epistemology and philosophy of science contends that the knowing subject and the object to be known are only abstractions. What really exists, is the relation between both. For the elucidation of this “knowledge relation ("Erkenntnisrelation") the Neokantians of the Marburg school used a variety of mathematical metaphors. In this con-tribution I reconsider some of these metaphors proposed by Paul Natorp, who was one of the leading members of the Marburg school. It is shown that Natorp's (...)
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  8. Scientific Theories as Intervening Representations.Andorni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann - 2006 - Theoria 21 (1):21-38.
    In this paper some classical representational ideas of Hertz and Duhem are used to show how the dichotomy between representation and intervention can be overcome. More precisely, scientific theories are reconstructed as complex networks of intervening representations (or representational interventions). The formal apparatus developed is applied to elucidate various theoretical and practical aspects of the in vivo/in vitro problem of biochemistry. Moreover, adjoint situations (Galois connections) are used to explain the relation berween empirical facts and theoretical laws in a new (...)
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  9. A Virtual Debate in Exile: Cassirer and the Vienna Circle After 1933.Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 16:149 - 167.
    Ernst Cassirer, 2011, Symbolische Prägnanz, Ausdrucksphänomen und „Wiener Kreis“, Nachgelassene Manuskripte und Texte, vol. 4, ed. Christian Möckel, 478pp., Hamburg, Felix Meiner Verlag.
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  10. On the Mereological Structure of Complex States of Affairs.Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Synthese 187 (2):403-418.
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the mereological structure of complex states of affairs without relying on the problematic notion of structural universals. For this task tools from graph theory, lattice theory, and the theory of relational systems are employed. Our starting point is the mereology of similarity structures. Since similarity structures are structured sets, their mereology can be considered as a generalization of the mereology of sets..
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  11. Topology as an Issue for History of Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - 2013 - In Hanne Andersen, Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao J. Gonzalez, Thomas Uebel & Gregory Wheeler (eds.), New Challenges to Philosophy of Science. Springer. pp. 423--434.
    Since antiquity well into the beginnings of the 20th century geometry was a central topic for philosophy. Since then, however, most philosophers of science, if they took notice of topology at all, considered it as an abstruse subdiscipline of mathematics lacking philosophical interest. Here it is argued that this neglect of topology by philosophy may be conceived of as the sign of a conceptual sea-change in philosophy of science that expelled geometry, and, more generally, mathematics, from the central position it (...)
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  12. Between Heidelberg and Marburg: On the Aufbau’s Neokantian Origins and the AP/CP-Divide.Thomas Mormann - 2006 - Sapere Aude! 1:22 - 50.
    In A Parting of the Ways Michael Friedman proposed to conceive the contemporary divide between analytic philosophy (AP) and continental philosophy (CP) as the outcome of the bifurcation between the Neokantians of Heidelbarg and Marburg. According to Friedman, Carnap can be characterized as the executor of the Marburg school, while Heidegger is to be considered as the heir of the Southwest Neokantianism. In this paper it is argued that Carnap was much closer to the Southwest Neokantianism than usually recognized. To (...)
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  13. Werte bei Carnap.Thomas Mormann - 2006 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 62 (2):169 - 189.
    Nach gängiger Auffassung nahm das Thema „Werte” in Carnaps Philosophie nur einen geringen Stellenwert ein. In dieser Arbeit soll gezeigt werden, daß diese Einschätzung der Korrektur bedarf: So wird der im „Aufbau“ vorgetragene Entwurf eines Konstitutionssystems mit Werten als der höchsten Schicht des Konstitutionssystems abgeschlossen. Auch die Quasianalyse als allgemeine Konstitutionsmethode steht in enger Beziehung zur Unterscheidung zwischen „Sein“ und „Gelten“, die für den werttheoretisch orientierten Neukantianismus der südwest-deutschen Schule charakteristisch war. Allgemein erlaubt die Wertthematik einen Blick auf Unterströmungen des (...)
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  14.  25
    Topology and Leibnizian Principles of Identity of Indiscernibles.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to show that topology has a bearing on Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles (PII). According to (PII), if, for all properties F, an object a has property F iff object b has property F, then a and b are identical. If any property F whatsoever is permitted in PII, then Leibniz’s principle is trivial, as is shown by “identity properties”. The aim of this paper is to show that topology can make a (...)
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  15. Morris’ Pariser Programm einer wissenschaftlichen Philosophie.Thomas Mormann - 2016 - In Christian Bonnet & Elisabeth Nemeth (eds.), Wissenschaft und Praxis. Zur Wissenschaftsphilosophie in Österreich und Frankreich in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Springer. pp. 73 - 88.
    Abstract: One of the institutional highlights of the encounter between Austrian “wissen¬schaftliche Philosophie” and French “philosophie scientifique” in the first half of the 20th century was the “First International Congress for Unity of Science” that took place 1935 in Paris. In my contribution I deal with an episode of the philosophical mega-event whose protagonist was the American philosopher and semiotician Charles William Morris. At the Paris congress he presented his programme of a comprehensive, practice-oriented scientific philosophy and, in a more (...)
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  16. Trope Sheaves. A Topological Ontology of Tropes.Thomas Mormann - 1995 - Logic and Logical Philosophy of Science 3:129-150.
    In this paper I want to show that topology has a bearing on the theory of tropes. More precisely, I propose a topological ontology of tropes. This is to be understood as follows: trope ontology is a „one-category”-ontology countenancing only one kind of basic entities, to wit, tropes. 1 Hence, individuals, properties, relations, etc. are to be constructed from tropes.
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  17. The Vicissitudes of Mathematical Reason in the 20th Century. [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Metascience 21 (2):295-300.
    The vicissitudes of mathematical reason in the 20th century Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-6 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9556-y Authors Thomas Mormann, Department of Logic and Philosophy of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EPU, Donostia-San Sebastian, Spain, Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  18. A Place for Pragmatism in the Dynamics of Reason?Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 43 (1): 27 - 37.
    Abstract. In Dynamics of Reason Michael Friedman proposes a kind of synthesis between the neokantianism of Ernst Cassirer, the logical empiricism of Rudolf Carnap, and the historicism of Thomas Kuhn. Cassirer and Carnap are to take care of the Kantian legacy of modern philosophy of science, encapsulated in the concept of a relativized a priori and the globally rational or continuous evolution of scientific knowledge,while Kuhn´s role is to ensure that the historicist character of scientific knowledge is taken seriously. More (...)
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  19. Structural Universals as Structural Parts: Toward a General Theory of Parthood and Composition.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - Axiomathes 20 (2 -3):229 - 253.
    David Lewis famously argued against structural universals since they allegedly required what he called a composition “sui generis” that differed from standard mereological com¬position. In this paper it is shown that, although traditional Boolean mereology does not describe parthood and composition in its full generality, a better and more comprehensive theory is provided by the foundational theory of categories. In this category-theoretical framework a theory of structural universals can be formulated that overcomes the conceptual difficulties that Lewis and his followers (...)
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  20. Set Theory, Topology, and the Possibility of Junky Worlds.Thomas Mormann - 2014 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 55 (1): 79 - 90.
    A possible world is a junky world if and only if each thing in it is a proper part. The possibility of junky worlds contradicts the principle of general fusion. Bohn (2009) argues for the possibility of junky worlds, Watson (2010) suggests that Bohn‘s arguments are flawed. This paper shows that the arguments of both authors leave much to be desired. First, relying on the classical results of Cantor, Zermelo, Fraenkel, and von Neumann, this paper proves the possibility of junky (...)
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  21.  64
    Idealization in Cassirer's Philosophy of Mathematics.Thomas Mormann - 2007 - Philosophia Mathematica 16 (2):151 - 181.
    The notion of idealization has received considerable attention in contemporary philosophy of science but less in philosophy of mathematics. An exception was the ‘critical idealism’ of the neo-Kantian philosopher Ernst Cassirer. According to Cassirer the methodology of idealization plays a central role for mathematics and empirical science. In this paper it is argued that Cassirer's contributions in this area still deserve to be taken into account in the current debates in philosophy of mathematics. For extremely useful criticisms on earlier versions (...)
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  22. Mathematical Aspects of Similarity and Quasi-Analysis - Order, Topology, and Sheaves.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The concept of similarity has had a rather mixed reputation in philosophy and the sciences. On the one hand, philosophers such as Goodman and Quine emphasized the „logically repugnant“ and „insidious“ character of the concept of similarity that allegedly renders it inaccessible for a proper logical analysis. On the other hand, a philosopher such as Carnap assigned a central role to similarity in his constitutional theory. Moreover, the importance and perhaps even indispensibility of the concept of similarity for many empirical (...)
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  23. Continuous Lattices and Whiteheadian Theory of Space.Thomas Mormann - 1998 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 6:35 - 54.
    In this paper a solution of Whitehead’s problem is presented: Starting with a purely mereological system of regions a topological space is constructed such that the class of regions is isomorphic to the Boolean lattice of regular open sets of that space. This construction may be considered as a generalized completion in analogy to the well-known Dedekind completion of the rational numbers yielding the real numbers . The argument of the paper relies on the theories of continuous lattices and “pointless” (...)
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  24. Updating Classical Mereology.Thomas Mormann - 2009 - In C. Glymour, D. Westerstahl & W. Wang (eds.), Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Proceedings of the 13th International Congress. King’s College.
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  25. Enlightenment and Formal Romanticism - Carnap’s Account of Philosophy as Explication.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 14:263 - 329.
    Carnap and Twentieth-Century Thought: Explication as En lighten ment is the first book in the English language that seeks to place Carnap's philosophy in a broad cultural, political and intellectual context. According to the author, Carnap synthesized many different cur rents of thought and thereby arrived at a novel philosophical perspective that remains strik ing ly relevant today. Whether the reader agrees with Carus's bold theses on Carnap's place in the landscape of twentieth-century philosophy, and his even bolder claims concerning (...)
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  26. Carnap's Aufbau in the Weimar Context.Thomas Mormann - 2016 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 18:115-136.
    Quine’s classical classic interpretation succinctly characterized characterizes Carnap’s Aufbau as an attempt “to account for the external world as a logical construct of sense-data....” Consequently, “Russell” was characterized as the most important influence on the Aufbau. Those times have passed. Formulating a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the Aufbau has turned out to be a difficult task and one that must take into account several disjointed sources. My thesis is that the core of the Aufbau rested on a problem that (...)
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  27. Husserl's Philosophy of Science and the Semantic Approach.Thomas Mormann - 1991 - Philosophy of Science 58 (1):61-83.
    Husserl's mathematical philosophy of science can be considered an anticipation of the contemporary postpositivistic semantic approach, which regards mathematics and not logic as the appropriate tool for the exact philosophical reconstruction of scientific theories. According to Husserl, an essential part of a theory's reconstruction is the mathematical description of its domain, that is, the world (or the part of the world) the theory intends to talk about. Contrary to the traditional micrological approach favored by the members of the Vienna Circle, (...)
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  28. Structural Mereology: A Formal Elucidation and Some Metaphysical Applications.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
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  29. Toward a Theory of the Pragmatic A Priori. From Carnap to Lewis and Beyond.Thomas Mormann - 2012 - Rudolf Carnap and the Legacy of Logical Empiricism 16:113 - 132.
    The aim of this paper is make a contribution to the ongoing search for an adequate concept of the a priori element in scientific knowledge. The point of departure is C.I. Lewis’s account of a pragmatic a priori put forward in his "Mind and the World Order" (1929). Recently, Hasok Chang in "Contingent Transcendental Arguments for Metaphysical Principles" (2008) reconsidered Lewis’s pragmatic a priori and proposed to conceive it as the basic ingredient of the dynamics of an embodied scientific reason. (...)
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  30.  93
    Zur mathematischen Wissenschaftsphilosophie des Marburger Neukantianismus.Thomas Mormann - forthcoming - In Christian Damböck (ed.), Philosophie und Wissenschaft bei Hermann Cohen. Springer.
  31. Wiener wissenschaftliche Weltanschauungen - zwischen Wissenschaft, Philosophie, Politik und "Leben".Thomas Mormann - 2013 - In Elisabeth Nemeth & Friedrich Stadler (eds.), Die Europäische Wissenschaftsphilosophie Und Das Wiener Erbe. Veröffentlichungen des Instituts Wiener Kreis Band 18, 105 - 127, Springer.
  32.  30
    La estación de Viena. ¿Un giro olvidado en la filosofía del siglo XX? [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 1994 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 9 (1):199-204.
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  33. From Mathematics to Quantum Mechanics - On the Conceptual Unity of Cassirer’s Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - 2015 - In Sebastian Luft & J. Tyler Friedman (eds.), The Philosophy of Ernst Cassirer: A Novel Assessment. De Gruyter. pp. 31-64.
  34. Theories as Representations.Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann - 1997 - Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 61:39 - 87.
    In this paper we argue for the thesis that theories are to be considered as representations. The term "representation" is used in a sense inspired by its mathematical meaning. Our main thesis asserts that theories of empirical theories can be conceived as geometrical representations. This idea may be traced back to Galileo. The geometric format of empirical theories should not be simply considered as a clever device for displaying a theory. Rather, the geometrical character deeply influences the theory s ontology. (...)
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  35. Wertphilosophische Abschweifungen Eines Logischen Empiristen: Der Fall Carnap.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - In Anne Siegetsleitner (ed.), Logischer Empirismus, Werte und Moral: eine Neubewertung. Springer.
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  36. Carnap's Boundless Ocean of Unlimited Possibilities: Between Enlightenment and Romanticism.Thomas Mormann - 2012 - In Pierre Wagner (ed.), Carnap’s Philosophy as Explication. Palgrave-Macmillan.
  37.  99
    Squares of Oppositions, Commutative Diagrams, and Galois Connections for Topological Spaces and Similarity Structures.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to elucidate the relationship between Aristotelian conceptual oppositions, commutative diagrams of relational structures, and Galois connections.This is done by investigating in detail some examples of Aristotelian conceptual oppositions arising from topological spaces and similarity structures. The main technical device for this endeavor is the notion of Galois connections of order structures.
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  38. McKinsey Algebras and Topological Models of S4.1.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to show that every topological space gives rise to a wealth of topological models of the modal logic S4.1. The construction of these models is based on the fact that every space defines a Boolean closure algebra (to be called a McKinsey algebra) that neatly reflects the structure of the modal system S4.1. It is shown that the class of topological models based on McKinsey algebras contains a canonical model that can be used to (...)
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  39. One Hundred Years of Philosophy of Science: The View From Munich.Thomas Mormann - 2011 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 15:297 - 309.
    These days, a number of philosophers of science indulge in lamenting about a crisis of their discipline. They complain about its loss of relevance, and bemoan the mar gi na lization of their dis cipline in the philosophical community and in the wider academia , Hardcastle and Richardson ). The Munich take on the philosophy of science does not succumb to this temptation. According to it, philosophy of science is well and alive. In Carlos Ulises Moulines’s Die Entwicklung der modernen (...)
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  40. Ilkka Niiniluoto, Sami Pihlström (Eds.), Reappraisals of Eino Kaila's Philosophy. [REVIEW]Thomas Mormann - 2016 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 18:281 - 285.
  41. Ist der Begriff der Repräsentation obsolet?Thomas Mormann - 1997 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Forschung 51 (3):349 - 366.
    Der Antirepräsentationalismus behauptet, es sei an der Zeit, das auf dem Begriff der Repräsentation basierende Paradigma der Philosophie zu verabschieden. Die von Rorty und anderen propagierte Unterscheidung von Repräsentationalismus und Antirepräsentationalismus beruht jedoch auf einem verkürzten Repräsentationsbegriff als Spiegelung. Der Begriff der Repräsentation, so wie er in der Philosophie und Wissenschaft gebraucht wird, hat nur wenig mit Spiegelung zu tun. Statt den Begriff der Repräsentation mit Hilfe der Spiegelungsmetapher zu explizieren, sollte man Repräsentation als strukturerhaltende Abbildung konzipieren. Dadurch lassen sich (...)
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  42.  94
    Carnap's Logical Empiricism, Values, and American Pragmatism.Thomas Mormann - 2006 - Journal of General Philosophy of Science 38 (1):127 - 146.
    Abstract. Value judgments are meaningless. This thesis was one of the notorious tenets of Carnap’s mature logical empiricism. Less well known is the fact that in the Aufbau values were con-sidered as philosophically respectable entities that could be constituted from value experiences. About 1930, however, values were banished to the realm of meaning-less me-taphysics, and Carnap came to endorse a strict emotivism. The aim of this paper is to shed new light on the question why Carnap abandoned his originally positive (...)
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  43.  35
    Not Much Higher-Order Vagueness in Williamson’s ’Logic of Clarity’.Nasim Mahoozi & Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    This paper deals with higher-order vagueness in Williamson's 'logic of clarity'. Its aim is to prove that for 'fixed margin models' (W,d,α ,[ ]) the notion of higher-order vagueness collapses to second-order vagueness. First, it is shown that fixed margin models can be reformulated in terms of similarity structures (W,~). The relation ~ is assumed to be reflexive and symmetric, but not necessarily transitive. Then, it is shown that the structures (W,~) come along with naturally defined maps h and s (...)
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  44.  73
    Scientific Worldviews as Promises of Science and Problems of Philosophy of Science.Thomas Mormann - forthcoming - Centaurus.
    The aim of this paper is to show that global scientific promises aka “scientific world-conceptions” have an interesting history that should be taken into account also for contemporary debates. I argue that the prototypes of many contemporary philosophical positions concerning the role of science in society can already be found in the philosophy of science of the 1920s and 1930s. First to be mentioned in this respect is the Scientific World-Conception of the Vienna Circle (The Manifesto) that promised to contribute (...)
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  45. Appropriating Kuhn’s Philosophical Legacy. Three Attempts: Logical Empiricism, Structuralism, and Neokantianism.Andoni Ibarra & Thomas Mormann - 2010 - Cadernos de Filosofia Das Ciencias 8:65 - 102.
    In this paper we discuss three examples of the appropriation of Kuhn’s ideas in philosophy of science. First we deal with classical logical empiricism. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, the arch-logical empiricist Carnap considered Kuhn’s socio-historical account as a useful complementation, and not as a threat of the philosophy of science of logical empiricism. As a second example we consider the attempt of the so-called struc- turalist philosophy of science to provide a “rational reconstruction” of Kuhn’s approach. Finally, we will deal with (...)
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  46. On the Vicissitudes of Idealism in Philosophy of Science: The Case of Cassirer's 'Critical Idealism'.Thomas Mormann - 2014 - Lectiones Et Acroases Philosophicae (1).
    In Anglo-Saxon philosophy of science there is strong conviction that idealist philosophy of science on the the one hand and serious science and philosophy of science on the other do not go well together. In this paper I argue that this sweeping dismissal of the idealist tradition may have been too hasty. They may be some valuable insights for which it is striving. A promising case in question is provided by Ernst Cassirer’s Neo-Kantian „Critical Idealism“ that he put forward in (...)
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  47.  35
    Is Leibnizian Calculus Embeddable in First Order Logic?Piotr BLaszczyk, Vladimir Kanovei, Karin U. Katz, Mikhail G. Katz, Taras Kudryk, Thomas Mormann & David Sherry - 2016 - Foundations of Science 22.
    To explore the extent of embeddability of Leibnizian infinitesimal calculus in first-order logic (FOL) and modern frameworks, we propose to set aside ontological issues and focus on pro- cedural questions. This would enable an account of Leibnizian procedures in a framework limited to FOL with a small number of additional ingredients such as the relation of infinite proximity. If, as we argue here, first order logic is indeed suitable for developing modern proxies for the inferential moves found in Leibnizian infinitesimal (...)
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  48. Wien Und München: Zwei Stationen der Deutschsprachigen Wissenschaftsphilosophie Im 20. Jahrhundert.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Vertreibung, Transformation und Rückkehr der Wissenschaftstheorie. Am Beispiel von Rudolf Carnap und Wolfgang Stegmüller. Lit Verlag.
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  49. Zwischen Weisheit und Wissenschaft - Schlicks weites philosophisches Spektrum.Thomas Mormann - 2010 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 80:263 - 285.
  50. Carnap's Metrical Conventionalism Versus Differential Topology.Thomas Mormann - 2005 - Proc. 2004 Biennial Meeting of the PSA, vol. I, Contributed Papers 72 (5):814 - 825.
    Geometry was a main source of inspiration for Carnap’s conventionalism. Taking Poincaré as his witness Carnap asserted in his dissertation Der Raum (Carnap 1922) that the metrical structure of space is conventional while the underlying topological structure describes "objective" facts. With only minor modifications he stuck to this account throughout his life. The aim of this paper is to disprove Carnap's contention by invoking some classical theorems of differential topology. By this means his metrical conventionalism turns out to be indefensible (...)
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