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  1. Knowledge from multiple experiences.Simon Goldstein & John Hawthorne - 2021 - Philosophical Studies 179 (4):1341-1372.
    This paper models knowledge in cases where an agent has multiple experiences over time. Using this model, we introduce a series of observations that undermine the pretheoretic idea that the evidential significance of experience depends on the extent to which that experience matches the world. On the basis of these observations, we model knowledge in terms of what is likely given the agent’s experience. An agent knows p when p is implied by her epistemic possibilities. A world is epistemically possible (...)
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  2. Knowing Falsely: the Non-factive Project.Adam Michael Bricker - 2022 - Acta Analytica 37 (2):263-282.
    Quite likely the most sacrosanct principle in epistemology, it is near-universally accepted that knowledge is factive: knowing that p entails p. Recently, however, Bricker, Buckwalter, and Turri have all argued that we can and often do know approximations that are strictly speaking false. My goal with this paper is to advance this nascent non-factive project in two key ways. First, I provide a critical review of these recent arguments against the factivity of knowledge, allowing us to observe that elements of (...)
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  3. Fragile Knowledge.Simon Goldstein - 2022 - Mind 131 (522):487-515.
    This paper explores the principle that knowledge is fragile, in that whenever S knows that S doesn’t know that S knows that p, S thereby fails to know p. Fragility is motivated by the infelicity of dubious assertions, utterances which assert p while acknowledging higher-order ignorance whether p. Fragility is interestingly weaker than KK, the principle that if S knows p, then S knows that S knows p. Existing theories of knowledge which deny KK by accepting a Margin for Error (...)
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  4. Acquittal From Knowledge Laundering.Juan S. Piñeros Glasscock - 2022 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 103 (1):39-54.
    Subject-sensitive invariantism (SSI), the view that whether a subject knows depends on the practical stakes, has been charged with ‘knowledge laundering’: together with widely held knowledge-transmission principles, SSI appears to allow improper knowledge acquisition. I argue that this objection fails because it depends on faulty versions of transmission principles that would raise problems for any view. When transmission principles are properly understood, they are shown to be compatible with SSI because they do not give rise to improper knowledge acquisition. The (...)
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  5. Spirit Calls Nature: Bridging Science and Spirituality, Consciousness and Evolution in a Synthesis of Knowledge.Marco Masi - 2021 - Indy Edition.
    This is a technical treatise for the scientific-minded readers trying to expand their intellectual horizon beyond the straitjacket of materialism. It is dedicated to those scientists and philosophers who feel there is something more, but struggle with connecting the dots into a more coherent picture supported by a way of seeing that allows us to overcome the present paradigm and yet maintains a scientific and conceptual rigor, without falling into oversimplifications. Most of the topics discussed are unknown even to neuroscientists, (...)
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  6. The Concept of Knowledge.Michael Hannon - 2021 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Knowledge is central to epistemology. Indeed, the word ‘epistemology’ comes from the Greek word epistêmê, which is often translated as ‘knowledge.’ But what is knowledge? Why do we value it? How is it acquired? And how much of it do we have? This article explores the nature, significance, sources, and extent of human knowledge.
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  7. La Gran Moral. MacIntyre y el carácter integrador de la filosofía perenne.Carlos Andrés Gómez Rodas, Arjuna Gabriel Castellanos Muñoz & Tulio Rafael Amaya de Armas - 2020 - Prometeica - Revista De Filosofía Y Ciencias 20 (20):80-92.
    En el mundo académico contemporáneo han venido tomando fuerza, desde hace varias décadas, los temas de la interdisciplinariedad y la transdisciplinariedad, como respuesta de un sector de la comunidad científica a los problemas de la especialización y a la desconexión entre las ciencias. Como todo elemento o aspecto de la realidad, este tema requiere de una debida fundamentación filosófica que se encuentra en el pensamiento clásico. En el presente artículo se intenta mostrar la relación entre la tradición de la filosofía (...)
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  8. Book Review: Exemplars of Truth. [REVIEW]Theptawee Chokvasin - 2019 - Suranaree Journal of Social Science 13:142-144.
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  9. Topological Epistemology and the Gettier Problem.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to elaborate a topological semantics of knowledge and belief operators that can be used for an epistemological characterisation of Gettier cases. Relying on this semantics it will be shown that in Stalnaker’s logic KB every topological knowledge operator K is accompanied with a partially ordered family of belief operators B compatible with K in the sense that the pairs (K, B) of modal operators K and B satisfy all axioms of KB (except the contentious (...)
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  10. Mitopoética: La Construcción Simbólica de la Identidad Humana. Oscar E. Muñoz.Oscar Enrique Muñoz - 2013 - Madrid, España: Mandala Editorial.
    Entiendo la acción filosófica como un proceso doble de crítica axiomática y construcción teórica. Cuando esta acción se aplica a las construcciones simbólicas de nuestra identidad, la llamo mitopoética. Por motivos evidentes, este libro no puede sino aspirar a ser el bosquejo de un mapa epistemológico a gran escala de las narraciones de la identidad humana, esquema que he dividido en tres partes. En las dos primeras, defino una estructura conceptual que será utilizada en la tercera para desarrollar una teoría (...)
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  11. Folk Knowledge Attributions and the Protagonist Projection Hypothesis.Adrian Ziółkowski - forthcoming - In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy, vol 4. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 5-29.
    A growing body of empirical evidence suggests that folk knowledge attribution practices regarding some epistemological thought experiments differ significantly from the consensus found in the philosophical literature. More specifically, laypersons are likely to ascribe knowledge in the so-called Authentic Evidence Gettier-style cases, while most philosophers deny knowledge in these cases. The intuitions shared by philosophers are often used as evidence in favor (or against) certain philosophical analyses of the notion of knowledge. However, the fact that these intuitions are not universal, (...)
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  12. Close Error, Visual Perception, and Neural Phase: A Critique of the Modal Approach to Knowledge.Adam Michael Bricker - 2021 - Theoria 87 (5):1123-1152.
    The distinction between true belief and knowledge is one of the most fundamental in philosophy, and a remarkable effort has been dedicated to formulating the conditions on which true belief constitutes knowledge. For decades, much of this epistemological undertaking has been dominated by a single strategy, referred to here as the modal approach. Shared by many of the most widely influential constraints on knowledge, including the sensitivity, safety, and anti-luck/risk conditions, this approach rests on a key underlying assumption — the (...)
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  13. Epistemic Closure, Necessary Truths, and Safety.Bin Zhao - forthcoming - American Philosophical Quarterly.
  14. Believing in Dawkins: The New Spiritual Atheism. By Eric Steinhart. [REVIEW]Helen De Cruz - forthcoming - Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
    (in lieu of abstract, first paragraphs here) For philosophers, reading Richard Dawkins is often a frustrating experience. Many of Dawkins’ writings treat important philosophical topics, such as the existence of God, the meaning of life, the relationship of randomness to order. Dawkins has original ideas, but he lacks the philosophical training and vocabulary to articulate these ideas properly and to develop them coherently. In Believing in Dawkins, Eric Steinhart sets himself an ambitious task: to use the writings of Dawkins to (...)
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  15. Truth and Universality: A Necessary Antinomy?José Ramón Fabelo Corzo - 2021 - Sophia 31 (31):41-63.
    Throughout history, oppressors have used multiple forms of violence to impose their own logic on the human universe they oppress. One such form is epistemic violence, which is based on the monopoly control of truth and the hijacking of universality. Those who apply this violence seek to convince everyone of the absolute character of their supposed truths, of the quasi-natural universality of their ways of thinking, of living, of organizing socially. Truth and universality are ineludible objects in dispute between conservative (...)
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  16. Wissen, Wissenschaft, Wissenschaftslehre.Jens Lemanski - 2021 - In Nora Schleich (ed.), Philosophie als Wissenschaft. Hildesheim, Deutschland: Olms. pp. 113-133.
    The paper entitled "Knowledge, Science, and Science of Knowledge" uses two relevant texts from German idealism to ask whether philosophy is a science. It is first argued that science presupposes knowledge, but that the concept of knowledge has long been subject to strong scepticism due to Fitch's paradox of knowability and especially the Gettier problem. Only in recent years have historians of philosophy made it clear that the so-called standard analysis of knowledge was not even advocated by many classical authors. (...)
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  17. Knowledge From Falsehood, Ignorance of Necessary Truths, and Safety.Bin Zhao - 2021 - Philosophia 50 (2):833-845.
    According to the safety account of knowledge, one knows that p only if one’s belief could not easily have been false. An important issue for the account is whether we should only examine the target belief when evaluating whether a belief is safe or not. In this paper, it is argued that, if we should only examine the target belief, then the account fails to account for ignorance of necessary truths. But, if we should also examine beliefs in other relevant (...)
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  18. Can Knowledge Be Quantified and Qualified?Farshad Badie - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 1 (2):63-67.
    The opinion defended in this paper is that the interrelationships between the phenomena of data and information can provide a strong basis for analyzing knowledge as a quantified and qualified construction. As other models (e.g., Augusto’s General Theory of Knowledge) suggest, it is important to distinguish knowledge from both data and information in the complicated trio composed of data, information, and knowledge (DIK). However, data and information can be combined into informative data. Taking into account quantified and qualified informative data, (...)
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  19. Can Knowledge Be Quantified and Qualified?Farshad Badie - 2021 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 2 (1):63-67.
    The opinion defended in this paper is that the interrelationships between the phenomena of data and information can provide a strong basis for analyzing knowledge as a quantified and qualified construction. As other models (e.g., Augusto’s General Theory of Knowledge) suggest, it is important to distinguish knowledge from both data and information in the complicated trio composed of data, information, and knowledge (DIK). However, data and information can be combined into informative data. Taking into account quantified and qualified informative data, (...)
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  20. A Science of Concord: The Politics of Commercial Knowledge in Mid-Eighteenth-Century Britain.Jon Cooper - 2021 - Intellectual History Review 31 (2).
    This article recovers mid-century proposals for sciences of concord and contextualizes them as part of a broader politics of commercial knowledge in eighteenth-century Britain. It begins by showing how merchants gained authority as formulators of commercial policy during the Commerce Treaty debates of 1713–1714. This authority held fast during the Walpolean oligarchy, but collapsed by the 1740s, when lobbying and patronage were increasingly maligned as corrupt by a ferment of popular republicanism. The article then explores how the Anglican cleric Josiah (...)
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  21. Neutrosophy as a Model for Knowledge: The Influence of Representative Models on Thinking.Philippe Schweizer - 2020 - In Florentin Smarandache & Said Broumi (eds.), Neutrosophic Theories in Communication, Management and Information Technology. New York, État de New York, États-Unis:
    Thought is the primary force of humans for their survival, it consists in the use of knowledge and beliefs to determine the most appropriate action in the current situation according to a rationally inspired treatment. The usual knowledge used in practical life is based on models that are representative of reality, such as descriptions and pairs of opposites. We discuss here our thesis that these types of representations of knowledge induce restrictive effects on thought. Indeed, in particular, these two types (...)
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  22. The Epistemology of Thomas Reid.Derek R. Brookes - 1996 - Discipline Filosofiche 2 (VI):119-168.
    This paper is a reconstruction and analysis of Thomas Reid’s epistemology, based upon an examination of his extant manuscripts and publications. I argue that, in Reid’s view, a certain degree of “evidence” (or, as I shall say, ‘epistemic justification’) is that which distinguishes mere true belief from knowledge; and that this degree of justification may be ascribed to a person’s belief if and only if (i) the evidence upon which her belief is grounded is such that she holds it with (...)
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  23. Michael Ayers: Knowing and Seeing. [REVIEW]Simon Wimmer - 2021 - Zeitschrift für Philosophische Literatur 9:22-32.
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  24. Induzione e fondazione. Un caso di studio sulla ricezione tedesca del tardo empirismo inglese.Francesco Pisano - 2020 - Archivio di Storia Della Cultura 1 (XXXIII).
    The paper aims at outlining the conceptual frame in which nineteenth-century German philosophy inherits and pursues the British debate on induction. It investigates this debate as a case study for a broader inquiry about the German reception of late British empiricism. The Mill-Whewell controversy on induction is central to the late British empiricism´s project of a logic of natural sciences. It becomes significant in Germany during the second half of the nineteenth century, as a means of defining a theory of (...)
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  25. The Factual Genesis of Judgment : What is at Stake in the Husserl-Sigwart Debate.Francesco Pisano - 2020 - Azimuth : Philosophical Coordinates in Modern and Contemporary Age 1 (15):43-59.
    What is the logical form of judgments, if they have one? This question remains an enigma for any transcendental approach to logical thought. The paper addresses the matter by following the debate between Edmund Husserl and Christoph Sigwart from 1890 to 1904. It shows the pivotal role that the problem of judgment played in this discussion. Since judgments were thought to be both refined mental acts and fundamental logical elements, the related issue was a thumbnail version of the broader conflict (...)
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  26. A Causal Safety Criterion for Knowledge.Jonathan Vandenburgh - manuscript
    Safety purports to explain why cases of accidentally true belief are not knowledge, addressing Gettier cases and cases of belief based on statistical evidence. However, numerous examples suggest that safety fails as a condition on knowledge: a belief can be safe even when one's evidence is clearly insufficient for knowledge and knowledge is compatible with the nearby possibility of error, a situation ruled out by the safety condition. In this paper, I argue for a new modal condition designed to capture (...)
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  27. Is ‘Knowing That P’ Identical with ‘Knowing That “P” Is True’?Changsheng Lai - 2021 - Philosophia 48 (3):1075-1092.
    It is epistemological orthodoxy that the object of propositional knowledge is the truth of propositions. This traditional view is based on what I call the ‘KT-schema’, viz, ‘S knows that p, iff, S knows that “p” is true’. The purpose of this paper is to reject the KT-schema. By showing the paradoxical upshot of the KT-schema and providing counterexamples to the KT-schema, this paper argues that ‘knowing that p’ is more than ‘knowing that “p” is true’. Consequently, we shall rethink (...)
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  28. Introduction to Philosophy: Epistemology.Brian C. Barnett (ed.) - 2021 - Rebus Community.
    Introduction to Philosophy: Epistemology engages first-time philosophy readers on a guided tour through the core concepts, questions, methods, arguments, and theories of epistemology—the branch of philosophy devoted to the study of knowledge. After a brief overview of the field, the book progresses systematically while placing central ideas and thinkers in historical and contemporary context. The chapters cover the analysis of knowledge, the nature of epistemic justification, rationalism vs. empiricism, skepticism, the value of knowledge, the ethics of belief, Bayesian epistemology, social (...)
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  29. Völkerpsychologie and the Origins of Hermann Cohen’s Antipsychologism.Scott Edgar - 2020 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 10 (1):254-273.
    Some commentators on Hermann Cohen have remarked on what they take to be a puzzle about the origins of his mature anti-psychologism. When Cohen was young, he studied a kind of psychology, the Völkerpsychologie of Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and wrote apparently psycholgistic accounts of knowledge almost up until the moment he first articulated his anti-psychologistic neo-Kantianism. To be sure, Cohen's mature anti psycholgism does constitute a rejection of certain central commitments of Völkerpsychologie. However, the relation between Völkerpsychologie and (...)
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  30. О созидании, пещерном искусстве и восприятии: доксологический подход.Rosengren Mats & Dmitrii Vorobev - 2019 - Вопросы Философии 8:80-93.
    Представляя доксологию как постфеноменологический способ решения эпистемических и перцептивных проблем, автор обращается к истории открытия в конце XIX в. палеолитической наскальной живописи и к данным современных когнитивных наук. Восприятие и познание не являются отражением объективной реальности, это – особая творческая деятельность людей, обусловленная как биологическими, так и социокультурными факторами. Используя принципы Э. Кассирера, Л. Флека, П. Бурдье и Ж. Деррида, автор дает очерк сложного переплетения биологических и социальных факторов в процессе восприятия, анализируя первые попытки осмысления так называемого «пещерного искусства», и (...)
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  31. Introduction to the Special Issue ‘Knowledge and Justification: New Perspectives’.Rodrigo Borges - 2020 - Synthese 198 (Suppl 7):1473-1480.
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  32. Externalism About Knowledge.Luis R. G. Oliveira (ed.) - forthcoming - Oxford University Press.
    Externalism about knowledge is thriving in contemporary epistemology. Yet there is no collection devoted exclusively to it. Consequently, externalism about knowledge is too often caricatured as merely reliabilism, too often confused with externalism about justification, and hardly ever considered as a distinct family of related but importantly different views. This collection addresses all of these issues by bringing new essays from leading externalist epistemologists working on seven different branches of this tradition: Traditional Reliabilism, Sensitivity Views, Safety Views, Virtue Epistemology, Proper (...)
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  33. Chunglin Kwa, Styles of Knowing: A New History of Science From Ancient Times to the Present. [REVIEW]Sean F. Johnston - 2012 - Ambix 59:294-295.
  34. Beware of Safety.Christian Piller - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (4):01-29.
    Safety, as discussed in contemporary epistemology, is a feature of true beliefs. Safe beliefs, when formed by the same method, remain true in close-by possible worlds. I argue that our beliefs being safely true serves no recognisable epistemic interest and, thus, that this notion of safety should play no role in epistemology. Epistemologists have been misled by failing to distinguish between a feature of beliefs — being safely true — and a feature of believers, namely being safe from error. The (...)
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  35. Stanowisko epistemologiczne Alvina Plantingi w sporze o naturę, funkcję i wartość uprawnienia epistemicznego / Alvin Plantinga’s Position in Epistemological Debate about the Nature, Function and the Value of the Epistemic Warrant.Marek Pepliński & Dariusz Łukasiewicz - 2018 - Filo-Sofija 41 (2):73-92.
    This article presents Alvin Plantinga’s views on epistemic justification. The first part situates Plantinga’s epistemological views in the context of his epistemology of religion and debates of general epistemology. The second part discusses Plantinga’s argument that the internalism of 20th century epistemology stems from deontologism and that the views on the epistemic justification of analytic philosophers reflect the relationship between classical deontologism and classical internalism. The last part points to the objections with which the Plantinga’s conception met and tries to (...)
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  36. This is Epistemology.Clayton Littlejohn & J. Adam Carter - 2019 - Wiley.
    We have written an introduction to epistemology that is accessible, engaging, and up to date. (We hope.) -/- Introduction Chapter 1: The Regress Problem Chapter 2: Perception Chapter 3: The Apriori Chapter 4: Inference Chapter 5: On Knowing the Truth Chapter 6: Memory Chapter 7: Testimony Chapter 8: Kinds of Knowledge Chapter 9: Internalism vs. Externalism Chapter 10: The Ethics of Belief Chapter 11: Skepticism .
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  37. Coming-to-Know as a Way of Coming-to-Be: Aristotle’s De Anima III.5.Michael Baur - 2011 - In Michael Baur & Robert Wood (eds.), Person, Being, and History: Essays in Honor of Kenneth L. Schmitz. Washington, DC, USA: pp. 77-102.
    This chapter argues that it is possible to identify, in the coming to be of knowledge, the three elements that Aristotle says are involved in any kind of coming to be whatsoever (viz., matter, form, and the generated composite object). Specifically, it is argued that in this schema the passive intellect (pathetikos nous) corresponds to the matter, the active intellect (poetikos nous) corresponds to the form, and the composite object corresponds to the mind as actually knowing.
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  38. Accident, Evidence, and Knowledge.Jonathan Vogel - 2017 - In Peter Klein, Rodrigo Borges & Claudio Almeida (eds.), explaining knowledge: new essays on the Gettier problem. Oxford UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 117-133.
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  39. Enough is Enough: Austin on Knowing.Guy Longworth - 2018 - In Savas L. Tsohatzidis (ed.), Interpreting J. L. Austin: Critical Essays. Oxford, UK: pp. 186–205.
  40. Philosophie des modalités épistémiques (la logique assertorique revisitée).Fabien Schang - 2007 - Dissertation, Nancy Université
    The relevance of any logical analysis lies in its ability to solve paradoxes and trace conceptual troubles back; with this respect, the task of epistemic logic is to handle paradoxes in connection with the concept of knowledge. Epistemic logic is currently introduced as the logical analysis of crucial concepts within epistemology, namely: knowledge, belief, truth, and justification. An alternative approach will be advanced here in order to enlighten such a discourse, as centred upon the word assertion and displayed in terms (...)
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  41. Higher-Level Knowledge, Rational and Social Levels Constraints of the Common Model of the Mind.Antonio Lieto, William G. Kennedy, Christian Lebiere, Oscar Romero, Niels Taatgen & Robert West - forthcoming - Procedia Computer Science.
    In his famous 1982 paper, Allen Newell [22, 23] introduced the notion of knowledge level to indicate a level of analysis, and prediction, of the rational behavior of a cognitive arti cial agent. This analysis concerns the investigation about the availability of the agent knowledge, in order to pursue its own goals, and is based on the so-called Rationality Principle (an assumption according to which "an agent will use the knowledge it has of its environment to achieve its goals" [22, (...)
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  42. Infallibilism and Easy Counter-Examples.Alex Davies - 2018 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 95 (4):475-499.
    Infallibilism is commonly rejected because it is apparently subject to easy counter-examples. I describe a strategy that infallibilists can use to resist this objection. Because the sentences used in the counter-examples to express evidence and belief are context-sensitive, the infallibilist can insist that such counter-examples trade on a vacillation between different readings of these sentences. I describe what difficulties await those who try to produce counter-examples against which the proposed strategy is ineffective.
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  43. Plato's Theaetetus (Introduction, Translation, Commentary, K. Papalexiou).Kerasenia Papalexiou (ed.) - 2015 - Thessaloniki, Greece: Zitros.
    Theaetetus is a Logical And Critical Plato's Dialogue. There is an introduction about the major epistemological platonic problems (400 Pages), a translation in modern greek, and also Commentary.
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  44. Meaning and Language.Jesús Gerardo Martínez del Castillo - 2015 - International Journal of Language and Linguistics 3 (6-1):50-58.
    Meaning defines language because it is the internal function of language. At the same time, meaning does not exist unless in language and because of language. From the point of view of the speaking subject meaning is contents of conscience. From the point of view of a language, meaning is the objectification of knowledge in linguistic signs. And from the point of view of the individual speaking subject, meaning is the expressive intentional purpose to say something.
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  45. The Objectivity of Local Knowledge. Lessons From Ethnobiology.David Ludwig - 2017 - Synthese 194 (12):4705-4720.
    This article develops an account of local epistemic practices on the basis of case studies from ethnobiology. I argue that current debates about objectivity often stand in the way of a more adequate understanding of local knowledge and ethnobiological practices in general. While local knowledge about the biological world often meets criteria for objectivity in philosophy of science, general debates about the objectivity of local knowledge can also obscure their unique epistemic features. In modification of Ian Hacking’s suggestion to discuss (...)
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  46. Knowing How to Put Knowledge First in the Theory of Justification.Paul Silva - 2017 - Episteme 14 (4):393-412.
    I provide a novel knowledge-first account of justification that avoids the pitfalls of existing accounts while preserving the underlying insight of knowledge-first epistemologies: that knowledge comes first. The view I propose is, roughly, this: justification is grounded in our practical knowledge (know-how) concerning the acquisition of propositional knowledge (knowledge-that). I first refine my thesis in response to immediate objections. In subsequent sections I explain the various ways in which this thesis is theoretically superior to existing knowledge-first accounts of justification. The (...)
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  47. Tell Me Something I Don't Know: Dialogues in Epistemology.Michael Veber - 2018 - Broadview Press.
    _Tell Me Something I Don’t Know_ is a collection of original dialogues in epistemology, suitable for student readers but also of interest to experts. Familiar problems, theories, and arguments are explored: second-order knowledge, epistemic closure, the preface paradox, skepticism, pragmatic encroachment, the Gettier problem, and more. New ideas on each of these issues are also offered, defended, and critiqued, often in humorous and entertaining ways.
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  48. Friedrich Nietzsche's Flirt met Paradoxen en Chaos.Pouwel Slurink - 1992 - In Erik Heijerman & Winnie Wouters (eds.), Crisis van de rede. Perspectieven op cultuur. Assen, the Netherlands: van Gorcum. pp. 239-249.
    Lecture on Nietzsche's relativism and perspectivism given at a conference on the 'crisis of reason' in Amersfoort, the Netherlands, October 26, 1991. Nietzsche claims that truth does not exist and knowledge is not possible, because knowledge serves life and is bound to an organic position. In fact, this is a paradox that refutes itself. Knowledge has evolved precisely because organisms must have limited, perspectivistic knowledge of their environment from a subjective point of view. In science, subjectivity can even be transcended (...)
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  49. On Ian Hacking’s Notion of Style of Reasoning.Luca Sciortino - 2017 - Erkenntnis 82 (2):243-264.
    The analytical notion of ‘scientific style of reasoning’, introduced by Ian Hacking in the middle of the 1980s, has become widespread in the literature of the history and philosophy of science. However, scholars have rarely made explicit the philosophical assumptions and the research objectives underlying the notion of style: what are its philosophical roots? How does the notion of style fit into the area of research of historical epistemology? What does a comparison between Hacking’s project on styles of thinking and (...)
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  50. Conceptual Therapy: An Introduction to Framework-Relative Epistemology.Bartlett Steven James - 1983, 2014 - St. Louis, MO, USA: Studies in Theory and Behavior.
    Conceptual therapy seeks to eliminate from our vocabulary of concepts those that are conceptually pathological. The very use of such concepts—which is much of the time—brings about dysfunctional thinking: thought, that is to say, that leads us astray, paving the way for beliefs and claims to knowledge that are fundamentally nonsensical. A therapy for such concepts may be likened to holding a selective sieve and pouring the ideas with which we attempt to make sense of the world through it, allowing (...)
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