Results for 'Lesser evil reasoning'

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  1.  23
    Lesser Evil Reasoning and its Pitfalls.Georg Spielthenner - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (2):139-152.
    We are often faced with dilemmatic situations in which we must choose between alternative courses of action, both of which will have a bad outcome. It is commonly held that in such cases it is both uncontroversial and unproblematic that we have to choose the lesser evil. However, despite its frequent application in ethical decision-making, lesser evil reasoning is not well understood by most of its advocates and it thus occasions much misunderstanding and it presents (...)
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  2.  61
    Lesser-Evil Justifications for Harming: Why We’Re Required to Turn the Trolley.Helen Frowe - 2018 - Philosophical Quarterly 68 (272):460-480.
    Much philosophical attention has been paid to the question of whether, and why, one may divert a runaway trolley away from where it will kill five people to where it will kill one. But little attention has been paid to whether the reasons that ground a permission to divert thereby ground a duty to divert. This paper defends the Requirement Thesis, which holds that one is, ordinarily, required to act on lesser-evil justifications for harming for the sake of (...)
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  3. The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror.Michael Ignatieff - 2004 - Edinburgh University Press.
    Must we fight terrorism with terror and torture with torture? Must we sacrifice civil liberty to protect public safety?In the age of terrorism Michael Ignatieff argues that we must not shrink from the use of violence. But its use - in a liberal democracy - must be measured. And we must not fool ourselves that whatever we do in the name of freedom and democracy is good. We may need to kill to fight the greater evil of terrorism, but (...)
     
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  4.  56
    Aristotle, Epicurus, Morgenthau and the Political Ethics of the Lesser Evil.Seán Molloy - 2009 - Journal of International Political Theory 5 (1):94-112.
    This article explores one of the key themes of Hans J. Morgenthau's moral theory, the concept of the lesser evil. Morgenthau developed this concept by reference to classical political theory, especially the articulation of the lesser evil found in Aristotle and Epicurus. The article begins by differentiating Morgenthau's work from that of E. H. Carr, whom he regards as engaged in a Quixotic quest to provide Machiavellism with greater ethical purpose. The article also contrasts the ethics (...)
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  5. Dehumanization, Lesser Evil and the Supreme Emergency Exemption.Yitzhak Benbaji - 2010 - Diametros 23:5-21.
    Many believe that if the indiscriminate bombings of German cities at the beginning of World War II were necessary for preventing unlimited spread of Nazism, then the bombings were justified. For, the outcome, in which innocent Germans living in Nazi Germany are killed, was not as bad as the outcome in which the Nazis inflict ethnic cleansing and enslavement on a massive scale. Recently, however, Daniel Statman has advanced a powerful case against this type of justification. I aim in this (...)
     
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  6.  13
    Against a “Combined Liability-Lesser-Evil Justification”.Uwe Steinhoff - 2019 - Philosophia 47 (2):533-553.
    Jeff McMahan has recently proposed what he calls a “combined liability-lesser-evil justification.” Its core idea is that the fact that someone has no right against the infliction of a certain lesser harm makes it easier for the necessity or lesser evil justification to justify inflicting a greater harm on him. This idea has been taken up by authors like Saba Bazargan or Helen Frowe. I will argue that McMahan’s basic idea is implausible to begin with, (...)
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  7.  87
    Moral Purity and the Lesser Evil.Thomas E. Hill Jr - 1983 - The Monist 66 (2):213 - 232.
    In a morally perfect world we would not face many of the hard choices which confront us in the real world. If everyone were fully conscientious, moral dilemmas might still be posed by natural circumstances; but many of our most difficult and tragic choices would not arise. In particular, we would never need to decide whether we should ourselves do a lesser evil in order to prevent someone else from doing a greater one. Unfortunately we do not live (...)
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  8.  18
    II—Claim Rights, Duties, and Lesser-Evil Justifications.Helen Frowe - 2015 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 89 (1):267-285.
    This paper explores the relationship between a person's claim right not to be harmed and the duties this claim confers on others. I argue that we should reject Jonathan Quong's evidence-based account of this relationship, which holds that an agent A's possession of a claim against B is partly determined by whether it would be reasonable for A to demand B's compliance with a correlative duty. When B's evidence is that demanding compliance would not be reasonable, A cannot have a (...)
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  9.  10
    Do East Asians Perceive Democracy as a Lesser Evil? Retesting Churchill's Lesser-Evil Notion of Democracy in East Asia.Doh Chull Shin - 2009 - Japanese Journal of Political Science 10 (1):59-77.
    Winston Churchill once asserted . In this conception, democracy is , something that is not good but is less bad than its alternatives. This study offers a rigorous test of this concept in the context of East Asia. Analysis of the East Asia Barometer surveys conducted in five new democracies in the region reveals that small minorities of these countries actually perceive the current democratic regime as a lesser evil. A large majority of these , moreover, refuse to (...)
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  10.  5
    Moral Purity and the Lesser Evil.Thomas E. Hill Jr - 1983 - The Monist 66 (2):213-232.
    In a morally perfect world we would not face many of the hard choices which confront us in the real world. If everyone were fully conscientious, moral dilemmas might still be posed by natural circumstances; but many of our most difficult and tragic choices would not arise. In particular, we would never need to decide whether we should ourselves do a lesser evil in order to prevent someone else from doing a greater one. Unfortunately we do not live (...)
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  11. Realm of Lesser Evil.Jean-Claude Michea - 2009 - Polity.
    Winston Churchill said of democracy that it was ‘the worst form of government, except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.’ The same could be said of liberalism. While liberalism displays an unfailing optimism with regard to the capacity of human beings to make themselves ‘masters and possessors of nature’, it displays a profound pessimism when it comes to appreciating their moral capacity to build a decent world for themselves. As Michea shows, the roots (...)
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  12.  49
    Torture: The Lesser Evil?Raimond Gaita - 2006 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 68 (2):251 - 278.
    Although torture is prohibited in international law, a consequentialist justification of it has occasionally been professed on the belief that torture is indispensable andeven morally obligatory as an information-gathering device in so-called 'ticking bomb' situations. The author adheres to the conviction that torture is an evil that could never justifiably be done. Objecting to the moral stand of consequentialism, he emphasizesthe distinctive terribleness of torture, drawing attention to the victim's infinite preciousness or 'sacredness', which even the concept of autonomy, (...)
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  13.  30
    The Lesser Evil.Avishai Margalit - 2004 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 54:187-201.
    ‘The Russian Revolution and the National Socialist ascendancy in Germany are the two most important sources of evidence of moral philosophy in our time, as the French Revolution was for Hegel and Marx, and later to Tocqueville and for Mill. Although both revolutions produced, both in intention and in effect, a triumph on a gigantic scale, there are often remarked differences between the evil effects planned and achieved.’ This is an observation made by Stuart Hampshire, a keen philosophical connoisseur (...)
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  14. ‘Is “Arming the Future” with Geoengineering Really the Lesser Evil? Some Doubts About the Ethics of Intentionally Manipulating the Climate System’.Stephen Gardiner - 2010 - In Stephen Gardiner, Simon Caney, Dale Jamieson & Henry Shue (eds.), Gardiner, Caney, Jamieson and Shue, eds. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 284-312.
  15.  15
    Mandatory Neurointervention: A Lesser Evil Than Incarceration?Adam B. Shniderman & Lauren B. Solberg - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 9 (3):148-149.
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  16.  39
    Comparing Harms: The Lesser-Evil Defense and the Trolley Problem.Robert Hallborg - 1997 - Legal Theory 3 (4):291-316.
    “The Trolley Problem” is the name Judith Jarvis Thomson has given to a difficult problem in moral philosophy and legal theory. The problem arises by considering a series of cases, all of which involve a choice of evils. Many, but not all of these cases, involve an out-of-control trolley about to run over a group of five people. In each case we are asked for our intuitive judgment as to whether it would be permissible to save the five people at (...)
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  17. Is Geoengineering the ‘Lesser Evil’?Stephen Gardiner - manuscript
    Environmental Research Web, April 18, 2007.
     
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  18.  43
    A Critique of Exceptions: Torture, Terrorism, and the Lesser Evil Argument.Andrew Fiala - 2005 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):127-142.
    There are good reasons to beware of arguments that allow for exceptions to principles about the proper limit of violence. Justifications of such exceptions occur in recent discussions of torture and terrorism. One of the reasons to be skeptical of these arguments is that when political agents make exceptions to moral principles, these exceptions can become precedents that serve to normalize immoral behavior. This aspect of political reality is ignored in contemporary attempts to justify torture and terrorism. The present paper (...)
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  19.  71
    Lesser Evil and Responsibility: Comments on Jeff McMahan's Analysis of the Morality of War.Re'em Segev - 2007 - Israel Law Review 40 (3):709-729.
    The main aim of Jeff McMahan's manuscript on the morality of war is to answer the question: why and accordingly when is it justified or permissible to kill people in war? However, McMahan argues that the same principles apply to individual actions and to war. McMahan rejects all doctrines of collective responsibility and liability. His claim is that every individual is liable for what he has done and not for the actions of others - even if both are part of (...)
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  20.  2
    Two Views on Political Lesser Evil.Francisco Garcia Gibson - 2018 - Filosofia Unisinos 19 (1).
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  21.  45
    Review of Michael Ignatieff, The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror. [REVIEW]Re’em Segev - 2005 - Ethics 115 (4):821-824.
    How should a democratic state fight terrorism? This is the question discussed by Michael Ignatieff in his latest book. Ignatieff explores several possible positions as a response to this question. The review considers the analysis of these positions.
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  22.  7
    The Lesser Evil Dilemma for Sparing Civilians.Yitzhak Benbaji - 2018 - Law and Philosophy 37 (3):243-267.
    The rule I call ‘Civilian Immunity’ – the rule that prohibits targeting civilians in war – is the heart of the accepted jus in bello code. It prohibits targeting civilians in a wide variety of war circumstances. Seth Lazar's brilliant book, Sparing Civilians, attempts to defend Civilian Immunity. In this essay I show, first, that his ‘Risky-Killing based argument’ fails to provide civilians with the robust protection Sparing Civilians promises. I argue, secondly, that the moral framework that Sparing Civilians employs, (...)
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  23.  2
    Moral Purity and the Lesser Evil. Hill - 1983 - The Monist 66 (2):213-232.
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  24.  20
    Review: Jean-Claude Michéa, The Realm of Lesser Evil. An Essay on Liberal Civilization. [REVIEW]Johan De Tavernier - 2012 - Ethical Perspectives 19 (1):173-174.
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  25.  30
    The Laws of War and the 'Lesser Evil'.Gabriella Blum - unknown
    Why is it that the laws of war, or international humanitarian law (IHL), allow no justification for breaking the law even if where such conduct would actually produce less humanitarian harm than following the law? In introducing the concept of a humanitarian necessity justification, and complementing existing work on humanitarian exceptions to the jus ad bellum, this paper suggests that it should. It first addresses the puzzle of IHL's existing absolutist stance with regard to compliance with IHL norms; to demonstrate (...)
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  26.  9
    Michael Ignatieff,The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror.Avery Plaw - 2005 - Politics and Ethics Review 1 (1):103-106.
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  27.  5
    The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror, Michael Ignatieff , 160 Pp., $22.95 Cloth. [REVIEW]Jedediah Purdy - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (2):115-117.
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  28.  3
    Book Review: The Lesser Evil: Political Ethics in an Age of Terror. [REVIEW]A. Plaw - 2005 - Journal of International Political Theory 1 (1):103-106.
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  29. On Counseling the Lesser Evil.L. Kevin & Sj Flannery - 2011 - The Thomist 75 (2):245-289.
     
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  30. Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil.T. A. Cavanaugh - 2006 - Oxford University Press.
    T. A. Cavanaugh defends double-effect reasoning (DER), also known as the principle of double effect. DER plays a role in anti-consequentialist ethics (such as deontology), in hard cases in which one cannot realize a good without also causing a foreseen, but not intended, bad effect (for example, killing non-combatants when bombing a military target). This study is the first book-length account of the history and issues surrounding this controversial approach to hard cases. It will be indispensable in theoretical ethics, (...)
  31. Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good & Avoiding Evil.T. A. Cavanaugh - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    T. A. Cavanaugh defends double-effect reasoning, also known as the principle of double effect. DER plays a role in anti-consequentialist ethics, in hard cases in which one cannot realize a good without also causing a foreseen, but not intended, bad effect. This study is the first book-length account of the history and issues surrounding this controversial approach to hard cases. It will be indispensable in theoretical ethics, applied ethics, and moral theology. It will also interest legal and public policy (...)
     
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  32.  13
    Residual Natural Evil and Anthropic Reasoning.Murdith McLean - 1991 - Religious Studies 27 (2):173 - 188.
    Bad things happen; and not just to bad people, but with apparent indifference to the moral or other qualities of the victims. For the theist who believes that the world is created and governed by an all-powerful and perfectly good God, this is a notorious difficulty. In fact the problem of evil is surely the most persuasive consideration available in favour of atheism.
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  33.  61
    Double Effect, All Over Again: The Case of Sister Margaret McBride.Bernard G. Prusak - 2011 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (4):271-283.
    As media reports have made widely known, in November 2009, the ethics committee of St. Joseph’s Hospital in Phoenix, Arizona, permitted the abortion of an eleven-week-old fetus in order to save the life of its mother. This woman was suffering from acute pulmonary hypertension, which her doctors judged would prove fatal for both her and her previable child. The ethics committee believed abortion to be permitted in this case under the so-called principle of double effect, but Thomas J. Olmsted, the (...)
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  34. Book Review: T. A. Cavanaugh, Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil . Xxiv + 220 Pp. £45 , ISBN 978—0—19— 927219—8. [REVIEW]Daniel P. Sulmasy - 2008 - Studies in Christian Ethics 21 (3):438-442.
  35.  5
    The Nature of Moral Reasoning: The Framework and Activities of Ethical Deliberation, Argument and Decision-Making; the President of Good and Evil: The Ethics of George W. Bush.Michael Schwartz - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (4):617-622.
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  36. T. A. Cavanaugh, Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil[REVIEW]Robert D. Anderson - 2010 - Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (1):113-116.
  37.  23
    Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil[REVIEW]Jason T. Eberl - 2009 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (2):295-298.
  38.  63
    Review: T. A. Cavanaugh: Double Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil[REVIEW]A. Ellis - 2009 - Mind 118 (469):160-163.
  39.  31
    Dubious Premises—Evil Conclusions: Moral Reasoning at the Nuremberg Trials.Edmund D. Pellegrino & David C. Thomasma - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (2):261-274.
    Fifty years ago, 23 Nazi physicians were defendants before a military tribunal in Nuremberg, charged with crimes against humanity. During that trial, the world learned of their personal roles in human experimentation with political and military prisoners, mass eugenic sterilizations, state-ordered euthanasia of the and the program of genocide we now know as the Holocaust. These physicians, and their colleagues who did not stand trial, were universally condemned in the free world as ethical pariahs. The term became the paradigm for (...)
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  40.  34
    Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil – T.A. Cavanaugh.Joseph Shaw - 2009 - Philosophical Quarterly 59 (234):186-190.
  41.  24
    Review of T. A. Cavanaugh, Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil[REVIEW]Neil Delaney - 2007 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (10).
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  42.  11
    Response to “Dubious Premises— Evil Conclusions: Moral Reasoning at the Nuremberg Trials” by Edmund D. Pellegrino and David C. Thomasma (CQ Vol 9, No 2). [REVIEW]Michael L. Gross - 2001 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (1):99-102.
    Because we are often nagged by the thought that we might not have behaved any differently than those good citizens whose respect for the law and fear of punishment led them to support the Nazi regime, we are fascinated with the behavior of ordinary Germans. Careful to first strip away the pathological explanations of German behavior, Pellegrino and Thomasma ask simply whether ordinary Germans could have reasoned and, by implication, acted differently. Although their affirmative answer is consistent with the activism (...)
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  43.  13
    Double-Effect Reasoning: Doing Good and Avoiding Evil (Oxford Studies in Theological Ethics). By T. A. Cavanaugh.Patrick Madigan - 2010 - Heythrop Journal 51 (2):338-339.
  44. Dilemmas of Institutional Evil. Modes of Moral Reasoning in Uncle Tom's Cabin.Joel Johnson - 2010 - In Margaret S. Hrezo & John M. Parrish (eds.), Damned If You Do: Dilemmas of Action in Literature and Popular Culture. Lexington Books.
     
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  45.  28
    A Critique of Exceptions: Torture, Terrorism, and the Lesser Evil Argument.Andrew Fiala - 2006 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):127-142.
    There are good reasons to beware of arguments that allow for exceptions to principles about the proper limit of violence. Justifications of such exceptions occur in recent discussions of torture and terrorism. One of the reasons to be skeptical of these arguments is that when political agents make exceptions to moral principles, these exceptions can become precedents that serve to normalize immoral behavior. This aspect of political reality is ignored in contemporary attempts to justify torture and terrorism. The present paper (...)
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  46. Beyond Moral Responsibility and Lesser-Evils: Moral Desert as a Supplementary Justification for Defensive Killing.James Murray - 2014 - Dissertation, Queen's University
    In recent years, philosopher Jeff McMahan has solidified an influential view that moral desert is irrelevant to the ethics of self-defense. This work aims to criticize this view by demonstrating that there are cases in which moral desert has a niche position in determining whether it may be permissible to kill a person in self- (or other-)defense. This is done by criticizing McMahan’s Responsibility Account of liability as being overly punitive against minimally responsible threateners (MRTs), and by demonstrating, through reference (...)
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  47.  25
    The Case for Climate Engineering Research: An Analysis of the “Arm the Future” Argument.Gregor Betz - 2012 - Climatic Change 111 (2):473-485.
    With the evidence for anthropogenic climate change piling up, suggesting that climate impacts of GHG emissions might have been underestimated in the past (Allison et al. 2009; WBGU 2009), and mitigation policies apparently lagging behind what many scientists consider as necessary reductions in order to prevent dangerous climate change, the debate about intentional climate change, or “climate engineering”, as we shall say in the following, has gained momentum in the past years. While efforts to technically modify earth’s climate had been (...)
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  48. On Bazargan’s “Hybrid Account” of the Permissibility of Killing Minimally Responsible Threats.Uwe Steinhoff - manuscript
    Saba Bazargan proposes a novel “hybrid” justification for the killing of minimally responsible threats (MRTs). His account allegedly combines two elements, namely “the complex account of liability” and “the lesser-evil discounting view.” I argue that Bazargan’s conclusion that minimally responsible threats can sometimes be killed as well as certain other conclusions that Bazargan regards as a particular advantage of his hybrid account are single-handedly generated by one element of the “hybrid account,” namely by the lesser-evil discounting (...)
     
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  49.  10
    Responsibility and Justificatory Defenses.Re’em Segev - 2017 - Criminal Law and Philosophy 11 (1):97-110.
    Criminal prohibitions typically forbid harming people. Justificatory defenses, such as lesser evil, justifying necessity and justifying self-defense, provide exceptions to such prohibitions if certain conditions are met. One common condition is that the agent is not responsible for the conflict. The questions whether justificatory defenses should include such a condition, and if so what should be its content, are controversial. I argue that responsibility for a conflict counts against protecting the responsible person at the expense of a non-responsible (...)
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  50. Zika Virus: Can Artificial Contraception Be Condoned?Marvin J. H. Lee, Ravi S. Edara, Peter A. Clark & Andrew T. Myers - 2016 - Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases 15 (1).
    As the Zika virus pandemic continues to bring worry and fear to health officials and medical scientists, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended that residents of the Zika-infected countries, e.g., Brazil, and those who have traveled to the area should delay having babies which may involve artificial contraceptive, particularly condom. This preventive policy, however, is seemingly at odds with the Roman Catholic Church’s position on the contraceptive. As least since the promulgation of (...)
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