Results for 'Shannon Hogarth'

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  1.  33
    Malament–Hogarth Machines.J. B. Manchak - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (3):1143-1153.
    This article shows a clear sense in which general relativity allows for a type of ‘machine’ that can bring about a spacetime structure suitable for the implementation of ‘supertasks’. 1Introduction2Preliminaries3Malament–Hogarth Spacetimes4Machines5Malament–Hogarth Machines6Conclusion.
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  2.  50
    Non-Turing Computers and Non-Turing Computability.Mark Hogarth - 1994 - Psa 1994:126--138.
    A true Turing machine (TM) requires an infinitely long paper tape. Thus a TM can be housed in the infinite world of Newtonian spacetime (the spacetime of common sense), but not necessarily in our world, because our world-at least according to our best spacetime theory, general relativity-may be finite. All the same, one can argue for the "existence" of a TM on the basis that there is no such housing problem in some other relativistic worlds that are similar ("close") to (...)
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  3. Does General Relativity Allow an Observer to View an Eternity in a Finite Time?Mark Hogarth - 1992 - Foundations Of Physics Letters 5:173--181.
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  4.  57
    Deciding Arithmetic Using SAD Computers.Mark Hogarth - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):681-691.
    Presented here is a new result concerning the computational power of so-called SADn computers, a class of Turing-machine-based computers that can perform some non-Turing computable feats by utilising the geometry of a particular kind of general relativistic spacetime. It is shown that SADn can decide n-quantifier arithmetic but not (n+1)-quantifier arithmetic, a result that reveals how neatly the SADn family maps into the Kleene arithmetical hierarchy. Introduction Axiomatising computers The power of SAD computers Remarks regarding the concept of computability.
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  5. On Direct Social Perception.Shannon Spaulding - 2015 - Consciousness and Cognition 36:472-482.
    Direct Social Perception (DSP) is the idea that we can non-inferentially perceive others’ mental states. In this paper, I argue that the standard way of framing DSP leaves the debate at an impasse. I suggest two alternative interpretations of the idea that we see others’ mental states: others’ mental states are represented in the content of our perception, and we have basic perceptual beliefs about others’ mental states. I argue that the latter interpretation of DSP is more promising and examine (...)
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  6.  16
    Heuristic and Linear Models of Judgment: Matching Rules and Environments.Robin M. Hogarth & Natalia Karelaia - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (3):733-758.
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  7.  77
    Revealing Whiteness: The Unconscious Habits of Racial Privilege.Shannon Sullivan - 2006 - Indiana University Press.
    "[A] lucid discussion of race that does not sell out the black experience." —Tommy Lott, author of The Invention of Race Revealing Whiteness explores how white privilege operates as an unseen, invisible, and unquestioned norm in society today. In this personal and selfsearching book, Shannon Sullivan interrogates her own whiteness and how being white has affected her. By looking closely at the subtleties of white domination, she issues a call for other white people to own up to their unspoken (...)
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  8.  4
    Corporate Philanthropy, Reputation Risk Management and Shareholder Value: A Study of Australian Corporate Giving.Kate Hogarth, Marion Hutchinson & Wendy Scaife - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 151 (2):375-390.
    This study examines the role of corporate philanthropy in the management of reputation risk and shareholder value of the top 100 ASX listed Australian firms for the 3 years 2011–2013. The results of this study demonstrate the business case for corporate philanthropy and hence encourage corporate philanthropy by showing increasing firms’ investment in corporate giving as a percentage of profit before tax, increases the likelihood of an increase in shareholder value. However, the proviso is that firms must also manage their (...)
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  9.  76
    Technology and the Virtues: A Philosophical Guide to a Future Worth Wanting.Shannon Vallor - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    New technologies from artificial intelligence to drones, and biomedical enhancement make the future of the human family increasingly hard to predict and protect. This book explores how the philosophical tradition of virtue ethics can help us to cultivate the moral wisdom we need to live wisely and well with emerging technologies.
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  10.  58
    “Take-the-Best” and Other Simple Strategies: Why and When They Work “Well” with Binary Cues.Robin M. Hogarth & Natalia Karelaia - 2006 - Theory and Decision 61 (3):205-249.
    The effectiveness of decision rules depends on characteristics of both rules and environments. A theoretical analysis of environments specifies the relative predictive accuracies of the “take-the-best” heuristic and other simple strategies for choices between two outcomes based on binary cues. We identify three factors: how cues are weighted; characteristics of choice sets; and error. In the absence of error and for cases involving from three to five binary cues, TTB is effective across many environments. However, hybrids of equal weights and (...)
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  11.  45
    How We Understand Others: Philosophy and Social Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
    In our everyday social interactions, we try to make sense of what people are thinking, why they act as they do, and what they are likely to do next. This process is called mindreading. Mindreading, Shannon Spaulding argues in this book, is central to our ability to understand and interact with others. Philosophers and cognitive scientists have converged on the idea that mindreading involves theorizing about and simulating others’ mental states. She argues that this view of mindreading is limiting (...)
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  12.  34
    Living Across and Through Skins: Transactional Bodies, Pragmatism, and Feminism.Shannon Sullivan - 2001 - Indiana University Press.
    According to Shannon Sullivan, thinking about the body as being in transaction with its social, political, cultural, and physical surroundings is not a new idea.
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  13.  28
    The Challenge of Representative Design in Psychology and Economics.Robin M. Hogarth - 2005 - Journal of Economic Methodology 12 (2):253-263.
    The demands of?representative design? set a high methodological standard. Both experimental participants and the situations with which they are faced should be representative of the populations to which researchers claim to generalize results. Failure to observe the latter has led to notable experimental failures in psychology from which economics could learn. It also raises questions about the meaning of testing economic theories in?abstract? environments. Logically, abstract tests can only be generalized to?abstract realities? and these may or may not have anything (...)
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  14. Embodied Cognition and Mindreading.Shannon Spaulding - 2010 - Mind and Language 25 (1):119-140.
    Recently, philosophers and psychologists defending the embodied cognition research program have offered arguments against mindreading as a general model of our social understanding. The embodied cognition arguments are of two kinds: those that challenge the developmental picture of mindreading and those that challenge the alleged ubiquity of mindreading. Together, these two kinds of arguments, if successful, would present a serious challenge to the standard account of human social understanding. In this paper, I examine the strongest of these embodied cognition arguments (...)
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  15. On Whether We Can See Intentions.Shannon Spaulding - 2017 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 98 (2).
    Direct Perception is the view that we can see others' mental states, i.e. that we perceive others' mental states with the same immediacy and directness that we perceive ordinary objects in the world. I evaluate Direct Perception by considering whether we can see intentions, a particularly promising candidate for Direct Perception. I argue that the view equivocates on the notion of intention. Disambiguating the Direct Perception claim reveals a troubling dilemma for the view: either it is banal or highly implausible.
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  16. Mirror Neurons and Social Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2013 - Mind and Language 28 (2):233-257.
    Mirror neurons are widely regarded as an important key to social cognition. Despite such wide agreement, there is very little consensus on how or why they are important. The goal of this paper is to clearly explicate the exact role mirror neurons play in social cognition. I aim to answer two questions about the relationship between mirroring and social cognition: What kind of social understanding is involved with mirroring? How is mirroring related to that understanding? I argue that philosophical and (...)
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  17. Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance.Shannon Sullivan & Nancy Tuana (eds.) - 2007 - State Univ of New York Pr.
    Leading scholars explore how different forms of ignorance are produced and sustained, and the role they play in knowledge practices.
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  18. Imagination Through Knowledge.Shannon Spaulding - 2016 - In Amy Kind & Peter Kung (eds.), Knowledge Through Imagination. Oxford University Press. pp. 207-226.
    Imagination seems to play an epistemic role in philosophical and scientific thought experiments, mindreading, and ordinary practical deliberations insofar as it generates new knowledge of contingent facts about the world. However, it also seems that imagination is limited to creative generation of ideas. Sometimes we imagine fanciful ideas that depart freely from reality. The conjunction of these claims is what I call the puzzle of knowledge through imagination. This chapter aims to resolve this puzzle. I argue that imagination has an (...)
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  19.  77
    Moral Deskilling and Upskilling in a New Machine Age: Reflections on the Ambiguous Future of Character.Shannon Vallor - 2015 - Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):107-124.
    This paper explores the ambiguous impact of new information and communications technologies on the cultivation of moral skills in human beings. Just as twentieth century advances in machine automation resulted in the economic devaluation of practical knowledge and skillsets historically cultivated by machinists, artisans, and other highly trained workers , while also driving the cultivation of new skills in a variety of engineering and white collar occupations, ICTs are also recognized as potential causes of a complex pattern of economic deskilling, (...)
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  20. Mind Misreading.Shannon Spaulding - 2016 - Philosophical Issues 26 (1).
    Most people think of themselves as pretty good at understanding others’ beliefs, desires, emotions, and intentions. Accurate mindreading is an impressive cognitive feat, and for this reason the philosophical literature on mindreading has focused exclusively on explaining such successes. However, as it turns out, we regularly make mindreading mistakes. Understanding when and how mind misreading occurs is crucial for a complete account of mindreading. In this paper, I examine the conditions under which mind misreading occurs. I argue that these patterns (...)
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  21. Do You See What I See? How Social Differences Influence Mindreading.Spaulding Shannon - 2018 - Synthese 195 (9):4009-4030.
    Disagreeing with others about how to interpret a social interaction is a common occurrence. We often find ourselves offering divergent interpretations of others’ motives, intentions, beliefs, and emotions. Remarkably, philosophical accounts of how we understand others do not explain, or even attempt to explain such disagreements. I argue these disparities in social interpretation stem, in large part, from the effect of social categorization and our goals in social interactions, phenomena long studied by social psychologists. I argue we ought to expand (...)
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  22.  9
    Confidence in Judgment: Persistence of the Illusion of Validity.Hillel J. Einhorn & Robin M. Hogarth - 1978 - Psychological Review 85 (5):395-416.
  23. Social Networking Technology and the Virtues.Shannon Vallor - 2010 - Ethics and Information Technology 12 (2):157-170.
    This paper argues in favor of more widespread and systematic applications of a virtue-based normative framework to questions about the ethical impact of information technologies, and social networking technologies in particular. The first stage of the argument identifies several distinctive features of virtue ethics that make it uniquely suited to the domain of IT ethics, while remaining complementary to other normative approaches. I also note its potential to reconcile a number of significant methodological conflicts and debates in the existing literature, (...)
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  24. Mirror Neurons Are Not Evidence for the Simulation Theory.Shannon Spaulding - 2012 - Synthese 189 (3):515-534.
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in theories of mindreading. New discoveries in neuroscience have revitalized the languishing debate. The discovery of so-called mirror neurons has revived interest particularly in the Simulation Theory (ST) of mindreading. Both ST proponents and theorists studying mirror neurons have argued that mirror neurons are strong evidence in favor of ST over Theory Theory (TT). In this paper I argue against the prevailing view that mirror neurons are evidence for the ST of mindreading. (...)
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  25. White Ignorance and Colonial Oppression.Shannon Sullivan - 2007 - In Shannon Sullivan & Nancy Tuana (eds.), Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance. Albany, NY: pp. 153-172.
  26.  14
    Queering Freedom.Shannon Winnubst (ed.) - 2006 - Indiana University Press.
    "Radically reorienting, challenging, provocative, this book moves progressive philosophy, feminist and queer theory, critical discussions of race and racism forward. Prophetically, it calls for an interrogation of all our oppositional theory and politics, offering new and alternative visions." —bell hooks In Queering Freedom, Shannon Winnubst examines contemporary categories of difference—sexuality, race, gender, class, and nationality—and how they operate within the politics of domination. Drawing on the work of Georges Bataille, Michel Foucault, and others, Winnubst engages feminist theory, race theory, (...)
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  27.  7
    Ionia and the East. Six Lectures Delivered Before the University of London.D. G. Hogarth - 1909 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 29:134.
  28.  44
    Technology and the Virtues: A Response to My Critics.Shannon Vallor - 2018 - Philosophy and Technology 31 (2):305-316.
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  29.  54
    Malament–Hogarth Machines and Tait’s Axiomatic Conception of Mathematics.Sharon Berry - 2014 - Erkenntnis 79 (4):893-907.
    In this paper I will argue that Tait’s axiomatic conception of mathematics implies that it is in principle impossible to be justified in believing a mathematical statement without being justified in believing that statement to be provable. I will then show that there are possible courses of experience which would justify acceptance of a mathematical statement without justifying belief that this statement is provable.
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  30. Carebots and Caregivers: Sustaining the Ethical Ideal of Care in the Twenty-First Century.Shannon Vallor - 2011 - Philosophy and Technology 24 (3):251-268.
    In the early twenty-first century, we stand on the threshold of welcoming robots into domains of human activity that will expand their presence in our lives dramatically. One provocative new frontier in robotics, motivated by a convergence of demographic, economic, cultural, and institutional pressures, is the development of “carebots”—robots intended to assist or replace human caregivers in the practice of caring for vulnerable persons such as the elderly, young, sick, or disabled. I argue here that existing philosophical reflections on the (...)
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  31.  31
    Predicting the Future in Relativistic Spacetimes.Mark Hogarth - 1993 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 24 (5):721-739.
  32. What is Shannon Information?Olimpia Lombardi, Federico Holik & Leonardo Vanni - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):1983-2012.
    Despite of its formal precision and its great many applications, Shannon’s theory still offers an active terrain of debate when the interpretation of its main concepts is the task at issue. In this article we try to analyze certain points that still remain obscure or matter of discussion, and whose elucidation contribute to the assessment of the different interpretative proposals about the concept of information. In particular, we argue for a pluralist position, according to which the different views about (...)
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  33. Flourishing on Facebook: Virtue Friendship & New Social Media.Shannon Vallor - 2012 - Ethics and Information Technology 14 (3):185-199.
    The widespread and growing use of new social media, especially social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter, invites sustained ethical reflection on emerging forms of online friendship. Social scientists and psychologists are gathering a wealth of empirical data on these trends, yet philosophical analysis of their ethical implications remains comparatively impoverished. In particular, there have been few attempts to explore how traditional ethical theories might be brought to bear upon these developments, or what insights they might offer, if any. (...)
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  34. How We Think and Act Together.Shannon Spaulding - 2017 - Philosophical Psychology 30 (3):298-314.
    In this paper, I examine the challenges socially extended minds pose for mainstream, individualistic accounts of social cognition. I argue that individualistic accounts of social cognition neglect phenomena important to social cognition that are properly emphasized by socially extended mind accounts. Although I do not think the evidence or arguments warrant replacing individualistic explanations of social cognition with socially extended explanations, I argue that we have good reason to supplement our individualistic accounts so as to include the ways in which (...)
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  35. Imagination, Desire, and Rationality.Shannon Spaulding - 2015 - Journal of Philosophy 112 (9):457-476.
    We often have affective responses to fictional events. We feel afraid for Desdemona when Othello approaches her in a murderous rage. We feel disgust toward Iago for orchestrating this tragic event. What mental architecture could explain these affective responses? In this paper I consider the claim that the best explanation of our affective responses to fiction involves imaginative desires. Some theorists argue that accounts that do not invoke imaginative desires imply that consumers of fiction have irrational desires. I argue that (...)
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  36. Overextended Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2012 - Philosophical Psychology 25 (4):469 - 490.
    Extended cognition is the view that some cognitive processes extend beyond the brain. One prominent strategy of arguing against extended cognition is to offer necessary conditions on cognition and argue that the proposed extended processes fail to satisfy these conditions. I argue that this strategy is misguided and fails to refute extended cognition. I suggest a better way to evaluate the case for extended cognition that should be acceptable to all parties, captures the intuitiveness of previous objections, and avoids the (...)
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  37. The Definability of Objective Becoming in Minkowski Spacetime.Rob Clifton & Mark Hogarth - 1995 - Synthese 103 (3):355 - 387.
    In his recent article On Relativity Theory and Openness of the Future (1991), Howard Stein proves not only that one can define an objective becoming relation in Minkowski spacetime, but that there is only one possible definition available if one accepts certain natural assumptions about what it is for becoming to occur and for it to be objective. Stein uses the definition supplied by his proof to refute an argument due to Rietdijk (1966, 1976), Putnam (1967) and Maxwell (1985, 1988) (...)
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  38.  25
    Review of Marybeth Gasman and Louis W. Sullivan, The Morehouse Mystique: Becoming a Doctor at the Nation's Newest African American Medical School 1. [REVIEW]Rana Asali Hogarth - 2012 - American Journal of Bioethics 12 (11):51-52.
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  39. Dretske, Shannon’s Theory and the Interpretation of Information.Olimpia I. Lombardi - 2005 - Synthese 144 (1):23-39.
  40.  35
    Excavations at Ephesus: The Archaic Artemisia.David G. Hogarth - 1908 - Journal of Hellenic Studies 28:341.
  41.  16
    Ambiguity and Uncertainty in Probabilistic Inference.Hillel J. Einhorn & Robin M. Hogarth - 1985 - Psychological Review 92 (4):433-461.
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  42.  17
    When Does Ethical Leadership Affect Workplace Incivility? The Moderating Role of Follower Personality.Shannon G. Taylor & Marshall W. Pattie - 2014 - Business Ethics Quarterly 24 (4):595-616.
  43.  13
    Just a Cog in the Machine? The Individual Responsibility of Researchers in Nanotechnology is a Duty to Collectivize.Shannon L. Spruit, Gordon D. Hoople & David A. Rolfe - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):871-887.
    Responsible Research and Innovation provides a framework for judging the ethical qualities of innovation processes, however guidance for researchers on how to implement such practices is limited. Exploring RRI in the context of nanotechnology, this paper examines how the dispersed and interdisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field somewhat hampers the abilities of individual researchers to control the innovation process. The ad-hoc nature of the field of nanotechnology, with its fluid boundaries and elusive membership, has thus far failed to establish a (...)
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  44. Phenomenology of Social Cognition.Shannon Spaulding - 2015 - Erkenntnis 80 (5):1069-1089.
    Can phenomenological evidence play a decisive role in accepting or rejecting social cognition theories? Is it the case that a theory of social cognition ought to explain and be empirically supported by our phenomenological experience? There is serious disagreement about the answers to these questions. This paper aims to determine the methodological role of phenomenology in social cognition debates. The following three features are characteristic of evidence capable of playing a substantial methodological role: novelty, reliability, and relevance. I argue that (...)
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  45.  7
    Harm Reduction: A Research Agenda.Shannon Dea & Daniel Weinstock - 2020 - Health Care Analysis 28 (4):299-301.
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  46.  5
    Sequentially Simulated Outcomes: Kind Experience Versus Nontransparent Description.Robin M. Hogarth & Emre Soyer - 2011 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 140 (3):434-463.
  47.  97
    Organizational Factors Encouraging Ethical Decision Making: An Exploration Into the Case of an Exemplar.Shannon Bowen - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):311-324.
    What factors in the organizational culture of an ethically exemplary corporation are responsible for encouraging ethical decision making? This question was analyzed through an exploratory case study of a top pharmaceutical company that is a global leader in ethics. The participating organization is renowned in public opinion polls of ethics, credibility, and trust. This research explored organizational culture, communication in issues management and public relations, management theory, and deontological or utilitarian moral philosophy as factors that might encourage ethical analysis. Our (...)
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  48.  10
    Hogarth's Post-Newtonian Universe.Amal Asfour - 1999 - Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (4):693-716.
  49.  23
    The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression.Shannon Sullivan - 2015 - Oxford University Press USA.
    While gender and race often are considered socially constructed, this book argues that they are physiologically constituted through the biopsychosocial effects of sexism and racism. This means that to be fully successful, critical philosophy of race and feminist philosophy need to examine not only the financial, legal, political and other forms of racist and sexism oppression, but also their physiological operations. Examining a complex tangle of affects, emotions, knowledge, and privilege, The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression develops an understanding (...)
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  50. A Remark Concerning Prediction and Spacetime Singularities.Mark Hogarth - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28 (1):63-71.
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