Results for 'comparisons'

998 found
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  1. Vague Comparisons.Cristian Constantinescu - 2016 - Ratio 29 (4):357-377.
    Some comparisons are hard. How should we think about such comparisons? According to John Broome, we should think about them in terms of vagueness. But the vagueness account has remained unpopular thus far. Here I try to bolster it by clarifying the notion of comparative vagueness that lies at its heart.
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  2. Are Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility Indeterminate?Christian List - 2003 - Erkenntnis 58 (2):229 - 260.
    On the orthodox view in economics, interpersonal comparisons of utility are not empirically meaningful, and "hence" impossible. To reassess this view, this paper draws on the parallels between the problem of interpersonal comparisons of utility and the problem of translation of linguistic meaning, as explored by Quine. I discuss several cases of what the empirical evidence for interpersonal comparisonsof utility might be and show that, even on the strongest of these, interpersonal comparisons are empirically underdetermined and, if (...)
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  3. Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility in Bargaining: Evidence From a Transcontinental Ultimatum Game.Romina Boarini, Jean-François Laslier & Stéphane Robin - 2009 - Theory and Decision 67 (4):341-373.
    This paper presents the experimental results of a “Transcontinental Ultimatum Game” implemented between India and France. We use a standard ultimatum game, but in one treatment Indian subjects made offers to French subjects (ItoF treatment) and, in another treatment, French subjects made offers to Indian subjects (FtoI treatment). We observed that FtoI treatment bargaining mostly ended up with unequal splits of money in favor of French, while nearly equal splits were the most frequent outcome in ItoF treatment interactions. The experimental (...)
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  4. A Simple Logic for Comparisons and Vagueness.Theodore J. Everett - 2000 - Synthese 123 (2):263-278.
    This article provide an intuitive semantic account of a new logic for comparisons (CL), in which atomic statements are assigned both a classical truth-value and a “how much” value or extension in the range [0, 1]. The truth-value of each comparison is determined by the extensions of its component sentences; the truth-value of each atomic depends on whether its extension matches a separate standard for its predicate; everything else is computed classically. CL is less radical than Casari’s comparative logics, (...)
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  5.  34
    Do Utility Comparisons Pose a Problem?Ruth Weintraub - 1998 - Philosophical Studies 92 (3):307-319.
    Comparisons between utilities pose a pressing problem if, while incapable of being grounded, they are required in ethical deliberation. My aim is to consider whether there are epistemological impediments to implementing such ethical choices. Can we find ourselves being persuaded of the ethical need to compare utilities of different individuals, yet unable to do so because the comparisons cannot be warranted? I argue that the problem cannot arise; no plausible moral principle will invoke magnitudes which are inscrutable.
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  6.  80
    Simulation Theory and Interpersonal Utility Comparisons Reconsidered.Mauro Rossi - 2014 - Synthese 191 (6):1185-1210.
    According to a popular strategy amongst economists and philosophers, in order to solve the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons, we have to look at how ordinary people make such comparisons in everyday life. The most recent attempt to develop this strategy has been put forward by Goldman in his “Simulation and Interpersonal Utility” (Ethics 4:709–726, 1995). Goldman claims, first, that ordinary people make interpersonal comparisons by simulation and, second, that simulation is reliable for making interpersonal comparisons. (...)
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  7.  16
    Comparisons of Digits and Dot Patterns.Paul B. Buckley & Clifford B. Gillman - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1131.
  8.  74
    The Impossibility of Interpersonal Utility Comparisons: A Critical Note.Ruth Weintraub - 1996 - Mind 105 (420):661-665.
    Hausman has recently provided an argument against identifying well-being with preference-satisfaction. I will focus on two of his premises. Hausman’s arguments for the first, I will suggest, fail. If the third premise is correct, I shall then argue, it can be used to undermine other plausible conceptions of the good.
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  9.  13
    Yoked Comparisons of Instrumental and Classical Eyelid Conditioning.John W. Moore & I. Gormezano - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (6):552.
  10.  8
    Intersensory Comparisons of Temporal Judgments.Sanford Goldstone, William K. Boardman & William T. Lhamon - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (4):243.
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  11.  17
    Clinicians' Views of Formats of Performance Comparisons.Dominique Allwood, Zoe Hildon & Nick Black - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (1):86-93.
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  12.  17
    Discussion: Optimal Orders in the Method of Paired Comparisons.R. T. Ross - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (4):414.
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  13.  8
    Orders for the Presentation of Pairs in the Method of Paired Comparisons.R. J. Wherry - 1938 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (6):651.
  14.  12
    Perceived Best Ages for Cats, Dogs, and Humans: Comparisons Across Species, Human Age, and Human Gender.Heidi Wallace, Sara Staats, Debby Miller & Tara Anderson - 2010 - Society and Animals 18 (3):273-290.
    In addition to chronological age, humans perceive themselves and others as possessing several different functional ages. We extended the boundaries of research on perceived age concepts to cats and dogs, asking people to report on the best physical, mental, emotional, and social ages for cats and dogs. We found that emotional age was the oldest of the best ages and that physical best age was the youngest perceived best age for humans, cats, and dogs. Subjective age concepts extend across species (...)
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  15.  10
    A Linear Relationship Between Paired Comparisons and Rank Order.Robert T. Ross - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 50 (6):352.
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  16.  8
    Same and Different Judgments for Word-Color Pairs with "Irrelevant" Words or Colors: Evidence for Word-Code Comparisons.Frederick N. Dyer - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):102.
  17.  1
    A Reply to Ross on Orders in Paired Comparisons.R. J. Wherry - 1939 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 25 (4):425-429.
  18. The Nature of Model-World Comparisons.Fiora Salis - 2016 - The Monist 99 (3):243-259.
    Upholders of fictionalism about scientific models have not yet successfully explained how scientists can learn about the real world by making comparisons between models and the real phenomena they stand for. In this paper I develop an account of model-world comparisons in terms of what I take to be the best antirealist analyses of comparative claims that emerge from the current debate on fiction.
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  19.  33
    A Challenge for Super-Humeanism: The Problem of Immanent Comparisons.Vera Matarese - forthcoming - Synthese:1-20.
    According to the doctrine of Super-Humeanism, the world’s mosaic consists only of permanent matter points and changing spatial relations, while all the other entities and features figuring in scientific theories are nomological parameters, whose role is merely to build the best law system. In this paper, I develop an argument against Super-Humeanism by pointing out that it is vulnerable to and does not have the resources to solve the well-known problem of immanent comparisons. Firstly, I show that it cannot (...)
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  20.  15
    Interpersonal Comparisons with Preferences and Desires.Jacob Barrett - forthcoming - Politics, Philosophy and Economics.
    Most moral and political theories require us to make interpersonal comparisons of welfare. This poses a challenge to the popular view that welfare consists in the satisfaction of preferences or desires, because interpersonal comparisons of preference or desire satisfaction are widely thought to be conceptually problematic, and purported solutions to this problem to lead to a hopeless subjectivism about these comparisons. In this article, I argue that the key to meeting this challenge lies in distinguishing preferences from (...)
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  21.  37
    Odious Comparisons: Incommensurability, the Case Study, and “Small N's” in Sociology.George Steinmetz - 2004 - Sociological Theory 22 (3):371-400.
    Case studies and "small-N comparisons" have been attacked from two directions, positivist and incommensurabilist. At the same time, some authors have defended small-N comparisons as allowing qualitative researchers to attain a degree of scientificity, yet they also have rejected the case study as merely "idiographic. " Practitioners of the case study sometimes agree with these critics, disavowing all claims to scientificity. A related set of disagreements concerns the role and nature of social theory in sociology, which sometimes is (...)
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  22.  13
    Improving Health Care Outcomes Through Personalized Comparisons of Treatment Effectiveness Based on Electronic Health Records.Sharona Hoffman & Andy Podgurski - 2011 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (3):425-436.
    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is one of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's significant initiatives that aims to improve treatment outcomes and lower health care costs. This article takes CER a step further and suggests a novel clinical application for it. The article proposes the development of a national framework to enable physicians to rapidly perform, through a computerized service, medically sound personalized comparisons of the effectiveness of possible treatments for patients' conditions. A treatment comparison for a given (...)
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  23.  84
    Evolutionary Game Theory, Interpersonal Comparisons and Natural Selection: A Dilemma.Till Grüne-Yanoff - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):637-654.
    When social scientists began employing evolutionary game theory (EGT) in their disciplines, the question arose what the appropriate interpretation of the formal EGT framework would be. Social scientists have given different answer, of which I distinguish three basic kinds. I then proceed to uncover the conceptual tension between the formal framework of EGT, its application in the social sciences, and these three interpretations. First, I argue that EGT under the biological interpretation has a limited application in the social sciences, chiefly (...)
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  24.  29
    Extended Preferences and Interpersonal Comparisons of Well‐Being.Hilary Greaves & Harvey Lederman - 2016 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research:636-667.
    An important objection to preference-satisfaction theories of well-being is that these theories cannot make sense of interpersonal comparisons of well-being. A tradition dating back to Harsanyi () attempts to respond to this objection by appeal to so-called extended preferences: very roughly, preferences over situations whose description includes agents’ preferences. This paper examines the prospects for defending the preference-satisfaction theory via this extended preferences program. We argue that making conceptual sense of extended preferences is less problematic than others have supposed, (...)
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  25.  30
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility: Why and How They Are and Should Be Made.Peter J. Hammond - 1991 - In Jon Elster & John E. Roemer (eds.), Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being. Cambridge University Press. pp. 200--254.
  26.  54
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being.Jon Elster & John E. Roemer (eds.) - 1991 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume a diverse group of economists, philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists address the problems, principles, and practices involved in comparing the well-being of different individuals. A series of questions lie at the heart of this investigation: What is the relevant concept of well-being for the purposes of comparison? How could the comparisons be carried out for policy purposes? How are such comparisons made now? How do the difficulties involved in these comparisons affect the status of (...)
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  27.  53
    The Moral Basis of Interpersonal Comparisons.Thomas M. Scanlon - 1991 - In Jon Elster & John E. Roemer (eds.), Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17--44.
  28. Interpersonal Comparisons of the Good: Epistemic Not Impossible.Mathew Coakley - 2016 - Utilitas 28 (3):288-313.
    To evaluate the overall good/welfare of any action, policy or institutional choice we need some way of comparing the benefits and losses to those affected: we need to make interpersonal comparisons of the good/welfare. Yet sceptics have worried either: that such comparisons are impossible as they involve an impossible introspection across individuals, getting ; that they are indeterminate as individual-level information is compatible with a range of welfare numbers; or that they are metaphysically mysterious as they assume the (...)
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  29.  66
    The Problem of Interpersonal Comparisons of Pleasure and Pain.Justin Klocksiem - 2008 - Journal of Value Inquiry 42 (1):23-40.
    Several philosophers have argued that interpersonal comparisons of utility are problematic or even impossible, and that this poses a problem for the thesis that pleasure is a legitimate, measurable quantity. This, in turn, is thought to pose a problem of some kind for a variety of normative ethical and axiological theories. Perhaps it is supposed to show that utilitarianism or hedonism is false, or is supposed to show that there is no genuine hedonic calculus, or that any view that (...)
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  30.  42
    The Argument From Nominal–Notable Comparisons, ‘Ought All Things Considered’, and Normative Pluralism.Mathias Slåttholm Sagdahl - 2014 - The Journal of Ethics 18 (4):405-425.
    The idea that morality and prudence are incommensurable normative domains—a central idea in normative pluralism—tends to be rejected because of the argument from nominal–notable comparisons. The argument relies on a premise that there are situations of moral–prudential conflict where we have a clear intuition that there are things we ought to do “all things considered”. It is usually concluded that this shows that morality and prudence must be comparable. I argue that normative pluralists, who defend this type of incommensurability, (...)
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  31.  35
    Abolition Then and Now: Tactical Comparisons Between the Human Rights Movement and the Modern Nonhuman Animal Rights Movement in the United States. [REVIEW]Corey Lee Wrenn - 2014 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 27 (2):177-200.
    This article discusses critical comparisons between the human and nonhuman abolitionist movements in the United States. The modern nonhuman abolitionist movement is, in some ways, an extension of the anti-slavery movement of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the ongoing human Civil Rights movement. As such, there is considerable overlap between the two movements, specifically in the need to simultaneously address property status and oppressive ideology. Despite intentional appropriation of terminology and numerous similarities in mobilization efforts, there has been (...)
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  32.  30
    Regular Probability Comparisons Imply the Banach–Tarski Paradox.Alexander R. Pruss - 2014 - Synthese 191 (15):3525-3540.
    Consider the regularity thesis that each possible event has non-zero probability. Hájek challenges this in two ways: there can be nonmeasurable events that have no probability at all and on a large enough sample space, some probabilities will have to be zero. But arguments for the existence of nonmeasurable events depend on the axiom of choice. We shall show that the existence of anything like regular probabilities is by itself enough to imply a weak version of AC sufficient to prove (...)
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  33.  39
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility for 2 of 3 Types of People.R. Duncan Luce - 2010 - Theory and Decision 68 (1-2):5-24.
    This article argues that there is a natural solution to carry out interpersonal comparisons of utility when the theory of gambles is supplemented with a group operation of joint receipts. If so, three types of people can exist, and the two types having multiplicative representations of joint receipt have, in contrast to most utility theories, absolute scales of utility. This makes possible, at least in principle, meaningful interpersonal comparisons of utility with desirable properties, thus resolving a long standing (...)
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  34.  7
    The Limits of Chimpanzee-Human Comparisons for Understanding Human Cognition.Simon M. Reader & Steven M. Hrotic - 2012 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):238-239.
    Evolutionary questions require specialized approaches, part of which are comparisons between close relatives. However, to understand the origins of human tool behavior, comparisons with solely chimpanzees are insufficient, lacking the power to identify derived traits. Moreover, tool use is unlikely a unitary phenomenon. Large-scale comparative analyses provide an alternative and suggest that tool use co-evolves with a suite of cognitive traits.
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  35.  20
    Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility: Positive, Normative or Value-Laden?Eckehard F. Rosenbaum - 1995 - Journal of Economic Methodology 2 (2):239-258.
    The paper examines whether interpersonal comparisons of utility have to be interpreted as positive, normative or value-laden. It suggests first that recent arguments advanced by John Davis which appeal to the functional role of utility comparisons neither suffice to characterise utility comparisons as value-laden nor warrant the derivation of specific normative conclusions. An alternative approach is then developed which focuses on the extent to which value judgements are necessary in the course of making utility-comparisons. This approach (...)
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  36.  52
    Interpersonal Utility Comparisons.Lars Bergström - 1982 - Grazer Philosophische Studien 16:283-312.
    Utilitarianism, as well as many other political and moral doctrines, presupposes that the problem of interpersonal utility comparisons can be solved. Otto Neurath gave a comparatively early (1912) and explicit statement of this problem, and he suggested that it cannot be solved. This may still be the dominant view. It is argued that recent attempts to solve the problem (by e.g. Schick, Rescher, Harsanyi, Brandt, Jeffrey, Arrow, and Hare) are unsatisfactory, but that the oldest suggestion - i.e. the method (...)
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  37.  17
    Inferring Probability Comparisons.Matthew Harrison-Trainor, Wesley H. Holliday & Thomas Icard - forthcoming - Mathematical Social Sciences.
    The problem of inferring probability comparisons between events from an initial set of comparisons arises in several contexts, ranging from decision theory to artificial intelligence to formal semantics. In this paper, we treat the problem as follows: beginning with a binary relation ≥ on events that does not preclude a probabilistic interpretation, in the sense that ≥ has extensions that are probabilistically representable, we characterize the extension ≥+ of ≥ that is exactly the intersection of all probabilistically representable (...)
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  38.  11
    For a Philosophy of Comparisons: The Problems of Comparative Studies in Relation with Daoism.Lacertosa Massimilliano - 2017 - Asian Philosophy 27 (4):324-339.
    This paper reflects on the problems of cross-cultural interpretations and translations analysing how these are rooted in theories and philosophical assumptions. Inquiring the concept of philosophy per se, the paper discusses key passages of Heidegger and the related problem of 有 and 無. The conclusion is that to translate such terms, it is necessary to revise the coercive onto-theological assumptions of metaphysics. This can trigger a process of re-grounding grounds with the consequent possibility of language transformation, which, in turn, activates (...)
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  39.  8
    For a Philosophy of Comparisons: The Problems of Comparative Studies in Relation with Daoism.Massimiliano Lacertosa - 2017 - Asian Philosophy 27 (4):324-339.
    This paper reflects on the problems of cross-cultural interpretations and translations analysing how these are rooted in theories and philosophical assumptions. Inquiring the concept of philosophy per se, the paper discusses key passages of Heidegger and the related problem of 有 and 無. The conclusion is that to translate such terms, it is necessary to revise the coercive onto-theological assumptions of metaphysics. This can trigger a process of re-grounding grounds with the consequent possibility of language transformation, which, in turn, activates (...)
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  40.  25
    Understanding Topological Relationships Through Comparisons of Similar Knots.Carol Strohecker - 1996 - AI and Society 10 (1):58-69.
    This paper examines an example of learning with artifacts using the commonplace materials of string and knots. Emphases include research into learning processes as well as construction of objects to assist learning. The inquiry concerns the development of mathematical thinking, topology in particular. The research methodology combines participant observation and clinical interview within a constructionist framework. The study was set in a self-styled, self-constructed environment that consisted of knots and a social substrate encouraging lively exchanges of ideas about them. (...) of certain knots helped to elicit conceptions of the fundamental topological relationships of neighborhood, continuity, and boundaries. The paper includes comments on the suitability of specific artifacts for specific kinds of thinking and learning, and emphasizes the importance for software design of considering different learning styles. (shrink)
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  41. Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being.Jon Elster & John E. Roemer (eds.) - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume a diverse group of economists, philosophers, political scientists, and psychologists address the problems, principles, and practices involved in comparing the well-being of different individuals. A series of questions lie at the heart of this investigation: What is the relevant concept of well-being for the purposes of comparison? How could the comparisons be carried out for policy purposes? How are such comparisons made now? How do the difficulties involved in these comparisons affect the status of (...)
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  42.  34
    Variable Population Poverty Comparisons.Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian - 2012 - Journal of Development Economics 98 (2):238-241.
    This paper demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable-population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable- and fixed-population axioms. This fact raises questions about what constitutes an appropriate headcount assessment of poverty, in terms of whether one should focus on the proportion, or the absolute numbers, of the population in poverty. This observation, in turn, has important implications for tracking poverty and setting targets (...)
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  43.  7
    Local Justice and Interpersonal Comparisons.Jon Elster - 1991 - In Jon Elster & John E. Roemer (eds.), Interpersonal Comparisons of Well-Being. Cambridge University Press. pp. 98--126.
  44.  55
    The Morally Obnoxious Comparisons of Evil: American Slavery and the Holocuast.Laurence Thomas - 2002 - In [Book Chapter].
    The essay discuss the issue of comparing the American Slavery and the Holocaust, and the extent to which the ideology of the American dream has fueled invidious comparisons between the two peoples. Just as murder and rape are wrongs to be understood in their own right, I argue that a like claim holds for American Slavery and the Holocuast. The essay further points out that we should be weary of supposing that wrongdoing is the sort of the thing for (...)
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  45.  32
    Simplificando el Analisis de las Comparaciones de Aproximacion (Simplifying the Analysis of the Approximation Comparisons).Juan Carlos García-Bermejo - 2000 - Theoria 15 (2):349-382.
    Con este artículo se pretende simplificar la propuesta presentada en un trabajo anterior, prescindiendo como conectiva del símbolo barra de la probabilidad condicionada. Haciéndolo, se consigue reducir a la mitad el número de condiciones postuladas, percibiéndose con ello mejor el lugar central de la condición de superioridad por implicación. También se aborda qué información pueda proporcionar el grado de aproximación de los modelos teórico-económicos sobre lo que vaya a terminar sucediendo en las situaciones empíricas correspondientes, se indican dos formar de (...)
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  46.  37
    Making Interpersonal Comparisons Coherently.Martin Barrett & Daniel Hausman - 1990 - Economics and Philosophy 6 (2):293.
    Many ethical theories, including in particular consequentialist moral the ories, require comparisons of the amount of good possessed or received by different people. In the case of some goods, such as monetary income, wealth, education, or health, such comparisons are relatively unproblematic. Even in the case of such goods there may be serious empirical measurement problems, but there appear to be no difficulties in principle. Thus Cooter and Rappoport maintained that there was no serious difficulty of making interpersonal (...)
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  47.  25
    Methodological and Conceptual Issues in Health Care System Comparisons: Canada, Norway, and the United States.B. A. Brody & R. K. Lie - 1993 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (5):437-463.
    There is a growing interest in comparison of international health care data with the hope that such studies will enable individual systems to learn from other systems. Such comparisons, however, presuppose that there exist common criteria for evaluating health care systems. The main thesis of this paper is that these comparative studies are misleading because they employ inappropriate operationalizations of these criteria because the operarionalizations are based upon mistaken global conceptualizations of the criteria in question. The essay provides a (...)
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  48.  15
    On Some Problems of Variable Population Poverty Comparisons.Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian - manuscript
    This note demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable- population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable-population axioms in the presence of specific canonical fixed-population axioms.
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  49.  14
    National Surveys and Organised International Comparisons - The Practical Building Blocks of National Medical Professions.Godelieve van Heteren - 1994 - Health Care Analysis 2 (3):247-252.
    In this third article on the role of international comparative practices in the formation of national health care systems I discuss a familiar group of systems-builders--medical professional organisations--and so focus on some early comparisons undertaken by organised groups of doctors. So far in this series I have argued that any attempt to make international comparisons--whether in the 19th-century or today--is bound to be based on a 'characteristically national' understanding. Not infrequently such an understanding finds its clearest expression in (...)
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  50.  14
    Comparing Forests Across Climates and Biomes: Qualitative Assessments, Reference Forests, and Regional Inter-Comparisons.Carl Salk, Ulrich J. Frey & Hannes Rusch - 2014 - PLoS ONE 9 (4):e94800.
    Communities, policy actors and conservationists benefit from understanding what institutions and land management regimes promote ecosystem services like carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. However, the definition of success depends on local conditions. Forests’ potential carbon stock, biodiversity, and rate of recovery following disturbance are known to vary with a broad suite of factors including temperature, precipitation, seasonality, species’ traits and land use history. Methods like forest changes over time , and comparison with 'pristine' reference forests have been proposed to compare (...)
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