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  1. added 2018-10-25
    The Exploratory Role of Idealizations and Limiting Cases in Models.Elay Shech & Axel Gelfert - forthcoming - Studia Metodologiczne.
    In this article we argue that idealizations and limiting cases in models play an exploratory role in science. Four senses of exploration are presented: exploration of the structure and representational capacities of theory; proof-of-principle demonstrations; potential explanations; and exploring the suitability of target systems. We illustrate our claims through three case studies, including the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the emergence of anyons and fractional quantum statistics, and the Hubbard model of the Mott phase transitions. We end by reflecting on how our case (...)
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  2. added 2018-09-07
    Modelling with Words: Narrative and Natural Selection.Dominic K. Dimech - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 62:20-24.
    I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is (...)
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  3. added 2018-08-29
    Les notions de métaphore et d'analogie dans les épistémologies des modèles et des simulations.Franck Varenne - 2006 - Paris, France: Editions Petra.
    Le développement considérable des simulations informatiques dans les sciences contemporaines impose une remise à plat des épistémologies des modèles. Franck Varenne propose de revenir sur les limites des notions de métaphore et d'analogie pour penser les modèles, en particulier quand il s'agit des modèles composés, des pluri-modèles et des modèles de simulation (à objets ou à agents), tels qu'ils se développent depuis une dizaine d'années. Il suggère que le paradigme linguistique, à l'oeuvre aussi bien dans la pensée analytique anglo-saxonne que (...)
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  4. added 2018-08-28
    Théories et modèles en sciences humaines. Le cas de la géographie.Franck Varenne - 2017 - Paris, France: Editions Matériologiques.
    Face à la diversité et à la complexification des modes de formalisation, une épistémologie des méthodes scientifiques doit confronter directement ses analyses à une pluralité d’études de cas comparatives. C’est l’objectif de cet ouvrage. -/- Aussi, dans une première partie, propose-t-il d’abord une classification large et raisonnée des différentes fonctions de connaissance des théories, des modèles et des simulations (de fait, cette partie constitue un panorama d’épistémologie générale particulièrement poussé). C’est ensuite à la lumière de cette classification que les deux (...)
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  5. added 2018-08-28
    Théorie, Réalité, Modèle.Franck Varenne - 2012 - Paris, France: Editions Matériologiques.
    Dans cet ouvrage, Franck Varenne pose la question du réalisme scientifique, essentiellement dans sa forme contemporaine, et ce jusqu’aux années 1980. Il s’est donné pour cela la contrainte de focaliser l’attention sur ce que devenaient sa formulation et les réponses diverses qu’on a pu lui apporter en réaction spécifique à l’évolution parallèle qu’ont subie les notions de théories et surtout de modèles dans les sciences, à la même époque. Même si, bien sûr, on ne peut pas attribuer le considérable essor (...)
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  6. added 2018-08-28
    Formaliser le vivant : lois, théories, modèles.Franck Varenne - 2010 - Paris, France: Hermann.
    Peut-on formaliser le vivant ? Peut-on réduire une plante à une simple formule mathématique ? Goethe ne l’aurait pas admis. Pour beaucoup encore, cette question ne se pose même pas tant elle peut sembler provocante et contre-nature. Dans une perspective à la fois historique et épistémologique, ce livre rend compte de travaux contemporains qui ont pourtant tous tenté de braver cet interdit. -/- C’est en grande partie sur ce terrain, hautement problématique, que, dans les premières décennies du XXe siècle, on (...)
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  7. added 2018-08-27
    From Models to Simulations.Franck Varenne - 2018 - London, UK: Routledge.
    This book analyses the impact computerization has had on contemporary science and explains the origins, technical nature and epistemological consequences of the current decisive interplay between technology and science: an intertwining of formalism, computation, data acquisition, data and visualization and how these factors have led to the spread of simulation models since the 1950s. -/- Using historical, comparative and interpretative case studies from a range of disciplines, with a particular emphasis on the case of plant studies, the author shows how (...)
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  8. added 2018-07-29
    We Are Not Witnesses to a New Scientific Revolution.Gregor Schiemann - 2014 - In A. Nordmann & H. Radder (eds.), Science Transformed? Debating Claims of an Epochal Break. Velbrück. pp. 31-42.
    Do the changes that have taken place in the structures and methods of the production of scientific knowledge and in our understanding of science over the past fifty years justify speaking of an epochal break in the development of science? Gregor Schiemann addresses this issues through the notion of a scientific revolution and claims that at present we are not witnessing a new scientific revolution. Instead, Schiemann argues that after the so-called Scientific Revolution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a (...)
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  9. added 2018-06-09
    Semantics as Model-Based Science.Seth Yalcin - 2018 - In Derek Ball & Brian Rabern (eds.), The Science of Meaning: Essays on the Metatheory of Natural Language Semantics. Oxford University Press. pp. 334-360.
    This paper critiques a number of standard ways of understanding the role of the metalanguage in a semantic theory for natural language, including the idea that disquotation plays a nontrivial role in any explanatory natural language semantics. It then proposes that the best way to understand the role of a semantic metalanguage involves recognizing that semantics is a model-based science. The metalanguage of semantics is language for articulating features of the theorist's model. Models are understood as mediating instruments---idealized structures used (...)
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  10. added 2018-05-30
    Getting Serious About Shared Features.Donal Khosrowi - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    In Simulation and Similarity, Michael Weisberg offers a similarity-based account of the model-world relation, that is, the relation in virtue of which successful models are successful. Weisberg’s main idea is that models are similar to targets in virtue of sharing features. An important concern about Weisberg’s account is that it remains silent on what it means for models and targets to share features, and consequently on how feature-sharing contributes to models’ epistemic success. I consider three potential ways of concretizing the (...)
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  11. added 2018-03-14
    Intuition and Awareness of Abstract Models: A Challenge for Realists.Dimitris Kilakos - 2018 - Philosophies 3 (1):3-0.
    It is plausible to think that, in order to actively employ models in their inquiries, scientists should be aware of their existence. The question is especially puzzling for realists in the case of abstract models, since it is not obvious how this is possible. Interestingly, though, this question has drawn little attention in the relevant literature. Perhaps the most obvious choice for a realist is appealing to intuition. In this paper, I argue that if scientific models were abstract entities, one (...)
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  12. added 2018-02-18
    Models and Fiction.Roman Frigg - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):251-268.
    Most scientific models are not physical objects, and this raises important questions. What sort of entity are models, what is truth in a model, and how do we learn about models? In this paper I argue that models share important aspects in common with literary fiction, and that therefore theories of fiction can be brought to bear on these questions. In particular, I argue that the pretence theory as developed by Walton has the resources to answer these questions. I introduce (...)
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  13. added 2018-02-17
    Models and Inferences in Science.Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.) - 2016 - Springer.
    The book answers long-standing questions on scientific modeling and inference across multiple perspectives and disciplines, including logic, mathematics, physics and medicine. The different chapters cover a variety of issues, such as the role models play in scientific practice; the way science shapes our concept of models; ways of modeling the pursuit of scientific knowledge; the relationship between our concept of models and our concept of science. The book also discusses models and scientific explanations; models in the semantic view of theories; (...)
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  14. added 2018-02-17
    The Semantic Conception and the Structuralist View of Theories: A Critique of Suppe’s Criticisms.Pablo Lorenzano - 2013 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (4):600-607.
    Different conceptions of scientific theories, such as the state spaces approach of Bas van Fraassen, the phase spaces approach of Frederick Suppe, the set-theoretical approach of Patrick Suppes, and the structuralist view of Joseph Sneed et al. are usually put together into one big family. In addition, the definite article is normally used, and thus we speak of the semantic conception of theories and of its different approaches . However, in The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism , starting (...)
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  15. added 2018-02-17
    Missing Systems and the Face Value Practice.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):283-299.
    Call a bit of scientific discourse a description of a missing system when (i) it has the surface appearance of an accurate description of an actual, concrete system (or kind of system) from the domain of inquiry, but (ii) there are no actual, concrete systems in the world around us fitting the description it contains, and (iii) that fact is recognised from the outset by competent practitioners of the scientific discipline in question. Scientific textbooks, classroom lectures, and journal articles abound (...)
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  16. added 2018-02-17
    Keeping Quiet on the Ontology of Models.Steven French - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):231-249.
    Stein once urged us not to confuse the means of representation with that which is being represented. Yet that is precisely what philosophers of science appear to have done at the meta-level when it comes to representing the practice of science. Proponents of the so-called ‘syntactic’ view identify theories as logically closed sets of sentences or propositions and models as idealised interpretations, or ‘theoruncula, as Braithwaite called them. Adherents of the ‘semantic’ approach, on the other hand, are typically characterised as (...)
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  17. added 2018-02-17
    Theories: Tools Versus Models.Mauricio Suárez & Nancy Cartwright - 2008 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 39 (1):62-81.
    In “The Toolbox of Science” (1995) together with Towfic Shomar we advocated a form of instrumentalism about scientific theories. We separately developed this view further in a number of subsequent works. Steven French, James Ladyman, Otavio Bueno and Newton Da Costa (FLBD) have since written at least eight papers and a book criticising our work. Here we defend ourselves. First we explain what we mean in denying that models derive from theory – and why their failure to do so should (...)
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  18. added 2018-02-17
    The Semantic or Model-Theoretic View of Theories and Scientific Realism.Anjan Chakravartty - 2001 - Synthese 127 (3):325-345.
    The semantic view of theories is one according to which theories are construed as models of their linguistic formulations. The implications of this view for scientific realism have been little discussed. Contrary to the suggestion of various champions of the semantic view, it is argued that this approach does not make support for a plausible scientific realism any less problematic than it might otherwise be. Though a degree of independence of theory from language may ensure safety from pitfalls associated with (...)
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  19. added 2018-02-17
    Superconductivity and Structures: Revisiting the London Account.Steven French & James Ladyman - 1997 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 28 (3):363-393.
    Cartwright and her collaborators have elaborated a provocative view of science which emphasises the independence from theory &unknown;in methods and aims&unknown; of phenomenological model building. This thesis has been supported in a recent paper by an analysis of the London and London model of superconductivity. In the present work we begin with a critique of Cartwright's account of the relationship between theoretical and phenomenological models before elaborating an alternative picture within the framework of the partial structures version of the semantic (...)
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  20. added 2018-02-16
    Models as Signs: Extending Kralemann and Lattman’s Proposal on Modeling Models Within Peirce’s Theory of Signs.Sergio A. Gallegos - forthcoming - Synthese.
    In recent decades, philosophers of science have devoted considerable efforts to understand what models represent. One popular position is that models represent fictional situations. Another position states that, though models often involve fictional elements, they represent real objects or scenarios. Though these two positions may seem to be incompatible, I believe it is possible to reconcile them. Using a threefold distinction between different signs proposed by Peirce, I develop an argument based on a proposal recently made by Kralemann and Lattman (...)
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  21. added 2018-02-16
    Scientific Models and Fictional Objects.Gabriele Contessa - 2010 - Synthese 172 (2):215-229.
    In this paper, I distinguish scientific models in three kinds on the basis of their ontological status—material models, mathematical models and fictional models, and develop and defend an account of fictional models as fictional objects—i.e. abstract objects that stand for possible concrete objects.
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  22. added 2018-02-16
    Nancy Cartwright’s Philosophy of Science.Luc Bovens, Carl Hoefer & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) - 2008 - Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, there is neither a systematic exposition of Cartwright’s philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright’s philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing Cartwright's views on (...)
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  23. added 2018-02-02
    10 Truthlikeness and Economic Theories.Ilkka Niiniluoto - 2002 - In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 214.
    In a series of carefully argued and stimulating papers on realism, Usakli Maki has pointed out that economic theories typically are unrealistic in two senses: by violating "the-whole-truth" and "nothing-but-the-truth" (Maki 1989, 1992b, 1994b). He suggests that realism in economics can still be rescued by regarding theories as partially true descriptions of essences and as lawlike statements about tendencies. In this chapter, I defend realism by an alternative strategy: idealizational (or "isolational") statements are counterfactual conditional (Niiniluoto 1986), and the concepts (...)
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  24. added 2018-01-06
    I Models.John Woods - unknown
    The use of models in the construction of scientific theories is as widespread as it is philosophically interesting (and, one might say, vexing).1 In neither philosophical nor scientific practice do we find a univocal concept of model.2 But there is one established usage to which we want to direct our particular attention in this paper, in which a model is constituted by the theorist’s idealizations and abstractions. Idealizations are expressed by statements known to be false. Abstractions are achieved by suppressing (...)
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  25. added 2018-01-06
    Scientific Representation: A Bibliography.Mauricio Suárez - unknown
    Scientific representation is a booming field nowadays within the philosophy of science, with many papers published regularly on the topic every year, and several yearly conferences and workshops held on related topics. Historically, the topic originates in two different strands in 20th-century philosophy of science. One strand begins in the 1950s, with philosophical interest in the nature of scientific theories. As the received or “syntactic” view gave way to a “semantic” or “structural” conception, representation progressively gained the center stage. Yet, (...)
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  26. added 2018-01-06
    Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. HerfelWilliam (ed.) - 1995 - Rodopi.
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  27. added 2017-12-12
    Essay Review: Models and Exploratory Models.Fiora Salis - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 63:58-61.
    Review essay of How to do science with models. A philosophical primer. Springer briefs in philosophy, Axel Gelfert., 129, Price € 49,99 softcover, ISBN: 978-3-319-27954-1.
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  28. added 2017-12-12
    Representation in Science.Mauricio Suárez - 2016 - In Paul Humphreys (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science. New York, NY, USA: pp. 440-459.
    This article provides a state of the art review of the philosophical literature on scientific representation. It first argues that the topic emerges historically mainly out of what may be called the modelling tradition. It then introduces a number of helpful analytical distinctions, and goes on to divide contemporary approaches to scientific representation into two distinct kinds, substantive and deflationary. Analogies with related discussions of artistic representation in aesthetics, and of the nature of truth in metaphysics are pursued. It is (...)
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  29. added 2017-12-06
    A Methodological Critique of the Semantic Conception of Theories.Noretta Koertge - manuscript
    A new PhD slated to teach a beginning undergraduate course on scientific reasoning recently asked me to recommend topics. I launched into a description of my “baby-Popper-plus-statistics” class – give them enough deductive logic to understand the Duhemian problem, do the Galileo case study, use the notion of severe test to introduce a bit of probability theory, then segue to the problem of testing statistical hypotheses…. My interlocutor was looking impatient. “But I’m a strong adherent of the Semantic Conception of (...)
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  30. added 2017-11-28
    Models, Simulations, and Representations.Paul Humphreys & Cyrille Imbert (eds.) - 2011 - Routledge.
    Although scientific models and simulations differ in numerous ways, they are similar in so far as they are posing essentially philosophical problems about the nature of representation. This collection is designed to bring together some of the best work on the nature of representation being done by both established senior philosophers of science and younger researchers. Most of the pieces, while appealing to existing traditions of scientific representation, explore new types of questions, such as: how understanding can be developed within (...)
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  31. added 2017-11-28
    The Cognitive Structure of Scientific Theories.Ronald N. Giere - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (2):276-296.
    This paper explores a new reason for preferring a model-theoretic approach to understanding the nature of scientific theories. Identifying the models in philosophers' model-theoretic accounts of theories with the concepts in cognitive scientists' accounts of categorization suggests a structure to families of models far richer than has commonly been assumed. Using classical mechanics as an example, it is argued that families of models may be "mapped" as an array with "horizontal" graded structures, multiply hierarchical "vertical" structures, and local "radial" structures. (...)
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  32. added 2017-11-09
    Philosophy of Modeling: Neglected Pages of History.Karlis Podnieks - 2018 - Baltic Journal of Modern Computing 6 (3):279–303.
    The work done in the philosophy of modeling by Vaihinger (1876), Craik (1943), Rosenblueth and Wiener (1945), Apostel (1960), Minsky (1965), Klaus (1966) and Stachowiak (1973) is still almost completely neglected in the mainstream literature. However, this work seems to contain original ideas worth to be discussed. For example, the idea that diverse functions of models can be better structured as follows: in fact, models perform only a single function – they are replacing their target systems, but for different purposes. (...)
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  33. added 2017-09-19
    What Was the Syntax‐Semantics Debate in the Philosophy of Science About?Sebastian Lutz - 2017 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 95 (2):319-352.
    The debate between critics of syntactic and semantic approaches to the formalization of scientific theories has been going on for over 50 years. I structure the debate in light of a recent exchange between Hans Halvorson, Clark Glymour, and Bas van Fraassen and argue that the only remaining disagreement concerns the alleged difference in the dependence of syntactic and semantic approaches on languages of predicate logic. This difference turns out to be illusory.
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  34. added 2017-06-29
    Against the New Fictionalism: A Hybrid View of Scientific Models.Liu Chuang - 2016 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 30 (1):39-54.
    This article develops an approach to modelling and models in science—the hybrid view—that is against model fictionalism of a recent stripe. It further argues that there is a version of fictionalism about models to which my approach is neutral and which makes sense only if one adopts a special sort of antirealism. Otherwise, my approach strongly suggests that one stay away from fictionalism and embrace realism directly.
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  35. added 2017-05-08
    Measurement in Science.Eran Tal - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  36. added 2017-04-09
    Computer Simulation and the Features of Novel Empirical Data.Greg Lusk - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 56:145-152.
    In an attempt to determine the epistemic status of computer simulation results, philosophers of science have recently explored the similarities and differences between computer simulations and experiments. One question that arises is whether and, if so, when, simulation results constitute novel empirical data. It is often supposed that computer simulation results could never be empirical or novel because simulations never interact with their targets, and cannot go beyond their programming. This paper argues against this position by examining whether, and under (...)
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  37. added 2017-02-15
    On the Limits of Causal Modeling: Spatially-Structurally Complex Biological Phenomena.Marie I. Kaiser - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):921-933.
    This paper examines the adequacy of causal graph theory as a tool for modeling biological phenomena and formalizing biological explanations. I point out that the causal graph approach reaches it limits when it comes to modeling biological phenomena that involve complex spatial and structural relations. Using a case study from molecular biology, DNA-binding and -recognition of proteins, I argue that causal graph models fail to adequately represent and explain causal phenomena in this field. The inadequacy of these models is due (...)
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  38. added 2017-02-14
    Structuralism About Scientific Representation.Martin Thomson-Jones - 2011 - In Alisa Bokulich & Peter Bokulich (eds.), Scientific Structuralism. Springer Science+Business Media. pp. 119--141.
  39. added 2017-02-14
    Partial Possible Models: An Approach to Interpret Students' Physical Representation.Fernando Flores Camacho & Leticia Gallegos Cazares - 1998 - Science Education 82 (1):15-29.
  40. added 2017-02-12
    Modes, Media, and Formats of Scientific Representation.M. Vorms & T. Knuuttila - forthcoming - Erkenntnis: An International Journal of Analytic Philosophy.
  41. added 2017-02-10
    Reflexive, Symmetric and Transitive Scientific Representations.Aboutorab Yaghmaie - manuscript
    Theories of scientific representation, following Chakrawartty's categorization, are divided into two groups. Whereas cognitive-functional views emphasize agents' intentions, informational theories stress the objective relation between represented and representing. In the first part, a modified structuralist theory is introduced that takes into account agents' intentions. The second part is devoted to dismissing a criticism against the structural account of representation on which similarity as the backbone of representation raises serious problems, since it has definite logical features, i.e. reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity, (...)
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  42. added 2017-02-10
    Models as Fictions.Anouk Barberousse & Pascal Ludwig - unknown
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  43. added 2017-02-09
    Scientific Representation.Kathleen Okruhlik - 2009 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (4):671-694.
  44. added 2017-02-08
    Scientific Representation.Jeffrey A. Barrett - 2009 - Journal of Philosophy 106 (11):634-639.
  45. added 2017-02-07
    Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery.L. Magnani, N. J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (eds.) - 1999 - Kluwer/Plenum.
    The book Model-Based Reasoning in Scientific Discovery, aims to explain how specific modeling practices employed by scientists are productive methods of ...
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  46. added 2017-01-29
    Models: Representation and Scientific Understanding.M. W. Wartofsky - 1983 - Critica 15 (43):151-152.
  47. added 2017-01-26
    Questioning External and Internal Representation The Case of Scientific Models Tarja Knuuttila and Timo Honkela.Tarja Knuuttila - 2005 - In L. Magnani & R. Dossena (eds.), Computing, Philosophy and Cognition. pp. 4--209.
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  48. added 2017-01-26
    Models of Science: Fictions or Idealizations?Yemima Ben-Menahem - 1988 - Science in Context 2 (1).
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  49. added 2017-01-25
    Models and Scientific Representations Or: Who is Afraid of Inconsistency?Mathias Frisch - 2014 - Synthese 191 (13):3027-3040.
    I argue that if we make explicit the role of the user of scientific representations not only in the application but also in the construction of a model or representation, then inconsistent modeling assumptions do not pose an insurmountable obstacle to our representational practices.
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  50. added 2017-01-22
    Scientific Representations as Limiting Cases.Steffen Ducheyne - 2012 - Erkenntnis 76 (1):73-89.
    In this essay, I shall show that the so-called inferential (Suárez 2003 and 2004 ) and interpretational (Contessa 2007 ) accounts of scientific representation are respectively unsatisfactory and too weak to account for scientific representation ( pars destruens ). Along the way, I shall also argue that the pragmatic similarity (Giere 2004 and Giere 2010 ) and the partial isomorphism (da Costa and French 2003 and French 2003 ) accounts are unable to single out scientific representation. In the pars construens (...)
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1 — 50 / 443