Results for 'method'

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  1.  10
    The Methods of Ethics.Henry Sidgwick - 1871 - Thoemmes Press.
    This Hackett edition, first published in 1981, is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the seventh edition as published by Macmillan and Company, Limited. From the forward by John Rawls: In the utilitarian tradition Henry Sidgwick has an important place. His fundamental work, The Methods of Ethics, is the clearest and most accessible formulation of what we may call 'the classical utilitarian doctorine.' This classical doctrine holds that the ultimate moral end of social and individual action is the greatest net (...)
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  2. Methods of Logic.W. V. O. Quine - 1950 - Harvard University Press.
  3. The Method of Levels of Abstraction.Luciano Floridi - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (3):303-329.
    The use of “levels of abstraction” in philosophical analysis (levelism) has recently come under attack. In this paper, I argue that a refined version of epistemological levelism should be retained as a fundamental method, called the method of levels of abstraction. After a brief introduction, in section “Some Definitions and Preliminary Examples” the nature and applicability of the epistemological method of levels of abstraction is clarified. In section “A Classic Application of the Method ofion”, the philosophical (...)
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  4. Methods of Ethics.Henry Sidgwick - 1901 - Kaplan.
    Introduction -- Ethics and politics -- Ethical judgments -- Pleasure and desire -- Free will -- Ethical principles and methods -- Egoism and self-love -- Chapter viii-intuitionism -- Good -- Book II: Egoism -- The principle and method of egoism -- Empirical hedonism -- Empirical hedonism (continued) -- Objective hedonism and common sense -- Happiness and duty -- Deductive hedonism -- Book III: Intuitionism -- Intuitionism -- Virtue and duty -- The intellectual virtues -- Benevolence -- Justice -- Laws (...)
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  5. The Methods of Ethics.Henry Sidgwick - 1962 - Cambridge University Press.
    One of the most influential of the Victorian philosophers, Henry Sidgwick also made important contributions to fields such as economics, political theory, and classics. An active promoter of higher education for women, he founded Cambridge's Newnham College in 1871. He attended Rugby School and then Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained his whole career. In 1859 he took up a lectureship in classics, and held this post for ten years. In 1869, he moved to a lectureship in moral philosophy, the (...)
     
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  6. Scientific Method.Brian Hepburn & Hanne Andersen - 2015 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    1. Overview and organizing themes 2. Historical Review: Aristotle to Mill 3. Logic of method and critical responses 3.1 Logical constructionism and Operationalism 3.2. H-D as a logic of confirmation 3.3. Popper and falsificationism 3.4 Meta-methodology and the end of method 4. Statistical methods for hypothesis testing 5. Method in Practice 5.1 Creative and exploratory practices 5.2 Computer methods and the ‘third way’ of doing science 6. Discourse on scientific method 6.1 “The scientific method” in (...)
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  7. Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference.Ronald Aylmer Fisher - 1956 - Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd.
  8. Against Method.P. Feyerabend - 1975 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 26 (4):331-342.
     
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  9.  28
    Methods for Practising Ethics in Research and Innovation: A Literature Review, Critical Analysis and Recommendations.Wessel Reijers, David Wright, Philip Brey, Karsten Weber, Rowena Rodrigues, Declan O’Sullivan & Bert Gordijn - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (5):1437-1481.
    This paper provides a systematic literature review, analysis and discussion of methods that are proposed to practise ethics in research and innovation. Ethical considerations concerning the impacts of R&I are increasingly important, due to the quickening pace of technological innovation and the ubiquitous use of the outcomes of R&I processes in society. For this reason, several methods for practising ethics have been developed in different fields of R&I. The paper first of all presents a systematic search of academic sources that (...)
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  10.  26
    The Methods of Science and Religion: Epistemologies in Conflict.Tiddy Smith - 2019 - Lexington Books.
    The Methods of Science and Religion is a philosophical analysis of the conflict between science and religion, which challenges the popular, contemporary view that science and religion are complementary worldviews. It exposes their methodological incompatibility and concludes that religious modes of investigation are unreliable.
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  11. Research Methods in Education.L. Cohen, L. Manion & K. Morrison - 2000 - British Journal of Educational Studies 48 (4):446-446.
  12.  35
    Method Pluralism, Method Mismatch, & Method Bias.Adrian Currie & Shahar Avin - 2019 - Philosophers' Imprint 19.
    Pluralism about scientific method is more-or-less accepted, but the consequences have yet to be drawn out. Scientists adopt different methods in response to different epistemic situations: depending on the system they are interested in, the resources at their disposal, and so forth. If it is right that different methods are appropriate in different situations, then mismatches between methods and situations are possible. This is most likely to occur due to method bias: when we prefer a particular kind of (...)
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  13.  24
    Experimental Methods for Inducing Basic Emotions: A Qualitative Review.Ewa Siedlecka & Thomas F. Denson - 2019 - Emotion Review 11 (1):87-97.
    Experimental emotion inductions provide the strongest causal evidence of the effects of emotions on psychological and physiological outcomes. In the present qualitative review, we evaluated five common experimental emotion induction techniques: visual stimuli, music, autobiographical recall, situational procedures, and imagery. For each technique, we discuss the extent to which they induce six basic emotions: anger, disgust, surprise, happiness, fear, and sadness. For each emotion, we discuss the relative influences of the induction methods on subjective emotional experience and physiological responses. Based (...)
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  14.  37
    Methods of Argumentation.Douglas Walton - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    Argumentation, which can be abstractly defined as the interaction of different arguments for and against some conclusion, is an important skill to learn for everyday life, law, science, politics and business. The best way to learn it is to try it out on real instances of arguments found in everyday conversational exchanges and legal argumentation. The introductory chapter of this book gives a clear general idea of what the methods of argumentation are and how they work as tools that can (...)
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  15.  47
    Method and Politics in Plato’s Statesman.M. S. Lane - 1998 - Cambridge University Press.
    Among Plato's works, the Statesman is usually seen as transitional between the Republic and the Laws. This book argues that the dialogue deserves a special place of its own. Whereas Plato is usually thought of as defending unchanging knowledge, Dr Lane demonstrates how, by placing change at the heart of political affairs, Plato reconceives the link between knowledge and authority. The statesman is shown to master the timing of affairs of state, and to use this expertise in managing the conflict (...)
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  16.  50
    Method in Ecology: Strategies for Conservation.K. S. Shrader-Frechette - 1993 - Cambridge University Press.
    In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in individual case (...)
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  17.  50
    Descartes' Method of Doubt.Janet Broughton - 2002 - Princeton University Press.
    "This stunning work is without question a major contribution to Cartesian studies, to the field of early modern philosophy, and to general epistemology- ...
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  18.  38
    Method and Continuity in Science.K. Wray - 2016 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 47 (2):363-375.
    Devitt has developed an interesting defense of realism against the threats posed by the Pessimistic Induction and the Argument from Unconceived Alternatives. Devitt argues that the best explanation for the success of our current theories, and the fact that they are superior to the theories they replaced, is that they were developed and tested with the aid of better methods than the methods used to develop and test the many theories that were discarded earlier in the history of science. It (...)
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  19.  63
    The Methods Used to Implement an Ethical Code of Conduct and Employee Attitudes.Avshalom M. Adam & Dalia Rachman-Moore - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (3):223-242.
    In the process of implementing an ethical code of conduct, a business organization uses formal methods. Of these, training, courses and means of enforcement are common and are also suitable for self-regulation. The USA is encouraging business corporations to self regulate with the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (FSG). The Guidelines prescribe similar formal methods and specify that, unless such methods are used, the process of implementation will be considered ineffective, and the business will therefore not be considered to have complied with (...)
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  20. Une Methode Linguistique d'Approche Contrastive.Critique de L'analyse Contrastive & A. Absence de Methode Propre - forthcoming - Contrastes: Revue de l'Association Pour le Developpement des Études Contrastives.
  21.  52
    Method, Model and Matter.Mario Augusto Bunge - 1972 - Boston: Reidel.
    This collection of essays deals with three clusters of problems in the philo sophy of science: scientific method, conceptual models, and ontological underpinnings. The disjointedness of topics is more apparent than real, since the whole book is concerned with the scientific knowledge of fact. Now, the aim of factual knowledge is the conceptual grasping of being, and this understanding is provided by theories of whatever there may be. If the theories are testable and specific, such as a theory of (...)
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  22.  62
    Methods and Principles in Biomedical Ethics.T. L. Beauchamp - 2003 - Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (5):269-274.
    The four principles approach to medical ethics plus specification is used in this paper. Specification is defined as a process of reducing the indeterminateness of general norms to give them increased action guiding capacity, while retaining the moral commitments in the original norm. Since questions of method are central to the symposium, the paper begins with four observations about method in moral reasoning and case analysis. Three of the four scenarios are dealt with. It is concluded in the (...)
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  23.  26
    A Method for Explaining Bayesian Networks for Legal Evidence with Scenarios.Charlotte S. Vlek, Henry Prakken, Silja Renooij & Bart Verheij - 2016 - Artificial Intelligence and Law 24 (3):285-324.
    In a criminal trial, a judge or jury needs to reason about what happened based on the available evidence, often including statistical evidence. While a probabilistic approach is suitable for analysing the statistical evidence, a judge or jury may be more inclined to use a narrative or argumentative approach when considering the case as a whole. In this paper we propose a combination of two approaches, combining Bayesian networks with scenarios. Whereas a Bayesian network is a popular tool for analysing (...)
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  24.  25
    Research Methods in Indigenous Contexts.Arnold Groh - 2018 - New York, USA: Springer.
    This forward-looking resource offers readers a modern contextual framework for conducting social science research with indigenous peoples. Foundational chapters summarize current UN-based standards for indigenous rights and autonomy, with their implications for research practice. Coverage goes on to detail minimally-invasive data-gathering methods, survey current training and competency issues, and consider the scientist’s role in research, particularly as a product of his/her own cultural background. From these guidelines and findings, students and professionals have a robust base for carrying out indigenous research (...)
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  25.  30
    Methods, Minds, Memory, and Kinds.Alison Springle - 2019 - Philosophical Psychology 32 (5):635-661.
    ABSTRACTThe acquisition of a skill, or knowledge-how, on the one hand, and the acquisition of a piece of propositional knowledge on the other, appear to be different sorts of epistemic achievements. Does this difference lie in the nature of the knowledge involved, marking a joint between knowledge-how and propositional knowledge? Intellectualists say no: All knowledge is propositional knowledge. Anti-intellectualists say yes: Knowledge-how and propositional knowledge are different in kind. What resources or methods may we legitimately and fruitfully employ to adjudicate (...)
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  26. Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Marcia W. Baron, Philip Pettit & Michael Slote - 1997 - Wiley-Blackwell.
    During the past decade ethical theory has been in a lively state of development, and three basic approaches to ethics - Kantian ethics, consequentialism, and virtue ethics - have assumed positions of particular prominence.
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  27.  54
    Algebraic Methods in Philosophical Logic.J. Michael Dunn - 2001 - Oxford University Press.
    This comprehensive text shows how various notions of logic can be viewed as notions of universal algebra providing more advanced concepts for those who have an introductory knowledge of algebraic logic, as well as those wishing to delve into more theoretical aspects.
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  28. Method Coherence and Epistemic Circularity.Will Fleisher - 2019 - Erkenntnis 84 (2):455-480.
    Reliabilism is an intuitive and attractive view about epistemic justification. However, it has many well-known problems. I offer a novel condition on reliabilist theories of justification. This method coherence condition requires that a method be appropriately tested by appeal to a subject’s other belief-forming methods. Adding this condition to reliabilism provides a solution to epistemic circularity worries, including the bootstrapping problem.
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  29.  9
    Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge.V. J. McGill - 1976 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 37 (1):129-130.
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  30. Mathematical Method and Proof.Jeremy Avigad - 2006 - Synthese 153 (1):105-159.
    On a traditional view, the primary role of a mathematical proof is to warrant the truth of the resulting theorem. This view fails to explain why it is very often the case that a new proof of a theorem is deemed important. Three case studies from elementary arithmetic show, informally, that there are many criteria by which ordinary proofs are valued. I argue that at least some of these criteria depend on the methods of inference the proofs employ, and that (...)
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  31.  20
    Proof Methods for Modal and Intuitionistic Logics.Melvin Fitting - 1985 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (3):855-856.
  32. Psychophysical Methods and the Evasion of Introspection.Mazviita Chirimuuta - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):914-926.
    While introspective methods went out of favour with the decline of Titchener’s analytic school, many important questions concern the rehabilitation of introspection in contemporary psychology. Hatfield rightly points out that introspective methods should not be confused with analytic ones, and goes on to describe their “ineliminable role” in perceptual psychology. Here I argue that certain methodological conventions within psychophysics reflect a continued uncertainty over appropriate use of subjects’ perceptual observations and the reliability of their introspective judgements. My first claim is (...)
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  33.  29
    Methods for Distance-Based Judgment Aggregation.M. K. Miller & D. Osherson - unknown
    Judgment aggregation theory, which concerns the translation of individual judgments on logical propositions into consistent group judgments, has shown that group consistency generally cannot be guaranteed if each proposition is treated independently from the others. Developing the right method of abandoning independence is thus a high-priority goal. However, little work has been done in this area outside of a few simple approaches. To fill the gap, we compare four methods based on distance metrics between judgment sets. The methods generalize (...)
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  34. Method in Analytic Metaphysics.Daniel Nolan - 2016 - In Herman Cappelen, Tamar Szabó Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophical Methodology. Oxford University Press.
    This article focuses on the main methods used in analytic metaphysics. It first considers five important sources of constraints on metaphysical theorizing: linguistic and conceptual analysis, consulting intuitions, employing the findings of science, respecting folk opinion, and applying theoretical virtues in metaphysical theory choice such as preferring simpler theories, or preferring more explanatory theories. It then examines the role of formal methods in metaphysics as well as the role of metaphysical communities, traditions, and the place of the history of metaphysics (...)
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  35.  51
    Method of Medicine. Galen & Galenus - 2011 - Loeb Classical Library.
    Method of Medicine, a systematic and comprehensive account of the principles of treating injury and disease and one of Galen's greatest and most influential works.
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  36.  30
    Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue: From the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason.Walter J. Ong - 1974 - New York: Octagon Books.
    Considered the most important work of Walter Ong's career, Ramus, Method, and the Decay of Dialogue is an elegant review of the history of Ramist scholarship ...
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  37.  13
    Experimental Method and the Spiritualist Soul: The Case of Victor Cousin.Delphine Antoine-Mahut - 2019 - Perspectives on Science 27 (5):680-703.
    Spiritualism designates a philosophy that lays claim to the separation of mind and body and the ontological and epistemological primacy of the former. In France, it is associated with the names of Victor Cousin and René Descartes, or more precisely with what Cousin made of Descartes as the founding father of a brittle rational psychology, closed off from the positive sciences, and as a critic in respect to the empiricist legacy of the idéologues. Moreover, by considering merely the end result, (...)
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  38.  16
    Against Method.Jonathan Lieberson - 1977 - Journal of Philosophy 74 (8):482-492.
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  39.  33
    Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate.Robert Shaver, Marcia W. Baron, Philip Pettit & Michael Slote - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (1):125.
    In The Methods of Ethics, Sidgwick took seriously egoism, utilitarianism, and commonsense morality. Virtue ethics was treated as part of commonsense morality. Three Methods, reflecting recent tastes, considers Kant, consequentialism, and virtue ethics. Oddly, it does not reflect the major development since Sidgwick—the revival of contractualism.
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  40.  29
    Research Methods in Taxation Ethics: Developing the Defining Issues Test (Dit) for a Tax-Specific Scenario. [REVIEW]Elaine Doyle, Jane Frecknall-Hughes & Barbara Summers - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):35 - 52.
    This paper reports on the development of a research instrument designed to explore ethical reasoning in a tax context. This research instrument is a version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT) originally developed by Rest [1979a, Development in Judging Moral Issues (Univer sity of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN); 1979b, Defining Issues Test (University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN)], but adapted to focus specifically on the environment encountered by tax practitioners. The paper explores reasons for developing a context-(and profession-) specific test, (...)
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  41. The Method of Truth in Metaphysics.Donald Davidson - 1977 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):244-254.
    Repr. as Essay 14 in Davidson, Donald, _Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation_, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK (Clarendon, 2001). 215-226.
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  42.  44
    A Method of Reflexive Balancing in a Pragmatic, Interdisciplinary and Reflexive Bioethics.Jonathan Ives - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (6):302-312.
    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an ‘abstract’ philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of ‘empirical’ (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but (...)
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  43.  19
    Mathematical Methods in Linguistics.Barbara H. Partee, Alice ter Meulen & Robert E. Wall - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (1):271-272.
  44.  49
    Research Method in the Postmodern.James Joseph Scheurich - 1997 - Falmer Press.
    In recent years, the debate over the merits of the qualitative method versus the quantitative method has dominated social science. Until the postmodernist theory appeared on the scene, challenging all our preconceptions about research methods, the debate appeared to have been won by those promoting the qualitative approach. The implications of this change are show in this book, essential reading for those undertaking their own research.
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  45.  47
    Methods of Cheating and Deterrents to Classroom Cheating: An International Study.Richard A. Bernardi, Ania V. Baca, Kristen S. Landers & Michael B. Witek - 2008 - Ethics and Behavior 18 (4):373 – 391.
    This study examines the methods students use to cheat on class examinations and suggests ways of deterring using an international sample from Australia, China, Ireland, and the United States. We also examine the level of cheating and reasons for cheating that prior research has highlighted as a method of demonstrating that our sample is equivalent to those in prior studies. Our results confirm the results of prior research that primarily employs students from the United States. The data indicate that (...)
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  46.  23
    Two Methods to Find Truth-Value Gaps and Their Application to the Projection Problem of Homogeneity.Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla - 2015 - Natural Language Semantics 23 (3):205-248.
    Presupposition, vagueness, and oddness can lead to some sentences failing to have a clear truth value. The homogeneity property of plural predication with definite descriptions may also create truth-value gaps: The books are written in Dutch is true if all relevant books are in Dutch, false if none of them are, and neither true nor false if, say, half of the books are written in Dutch. We study the projection property of homogeneity by deploying methods of general interest to identify (...)
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  47.  6
    Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology.Robert N. Brandon - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    Robert Brandon is one of the most important and influential of contemporary philosophers of biology. This collection of his recent essays covers all the traditional topics in the philosophy of evolutionary biology and as such could serve as an introduction to the field. There are essays on the nature of fitness, teleology, the structure of the theory of natural selection, and the levels of selection. The book also deals with newer topics that are less frequently discussed but are of growing (...)
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  48.  16
    Method in the Physical Sciences.G. Schlesinger - 1963 - New York: Routledge.
    Originally published in 1963. Can one discern certain regularities in the manoeuvrings and techniques employed by scientists and can these be formulated into the methodological principles of science? What is the origin and basis of such principles? Are they imposed by objective realities, do they derive from conceptual necessities or are they rooted in our own deep seated predilections? This volume investigates these questions and sheds light on the growth mechanism of the evolving structure of science itself.
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  49.  15
    Method Issues in Business Ethics Research: Finding Credible Answers to Questions That Matter.David Campbell & Christopher J. Cowton - 2015 - Business Ethics: A European Review 24:S3-S10.
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  50. A Method for Evaluation of Arguments From Analogy.Bo R. Meinertsen - 2016 - Cogency: Journal of Reasoning and Argumentation 7 (2):109-123.
    It is a common view that arguments from analogy can only be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. However, while this reflects an important insight, I propose instead a relatively simple method for their evaluation based on just (i) their general form and (ii) four core questions. One clear advantage of this proposal is that it does not depend on any substantial (and controversial) view of similarity, unlike influential current alternative methods, such as Walton’s. Following some initial clarification of the (...)
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