Results for 'Matti Lehtinen'

461 found
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  1.  19
    The Ethics of Implementing Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Developed Countries.Erik Malmqvist, Gert Helgesson, Johannes Lehtinen, Kari Natunen & Matti Lehtinen - 2011 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (1):19-27.
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the world’s most common sexually transmitted infection. It is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, the second most common cause of death in cancer among women worldwide, and is also believed to cause other anogenital and head and neck cancers. Vaccines that protect against the most common cancer-causing HPV types have recently become available, and different countries have taken different approaches to implementing vaccination. This paper examines the ethics of alternative HPV vaccination strategies. It devotes particular (...)
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  2.  23
    Intentions in Invisible-Hand Accounts.Aki Lehtinen - 2009 - Journal of Economic Methodology 16 (4):409-416.
    N. Emrah Aydinonat's account of the invisible-hand is analysed. One of the conditions for unintended social consequences is it requires that individuals' intentions are exclusively directed at the individual level. This condition is weakened in order to accommodate cases in which individuals may also aim at consequences at the social level but the model clearly depicts the invisible hand. Lehtinen's model of counterbalancing strategic votes is proposed as an example that satisfies Aydinonat's conditions, if they are modified as suggested.
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  3.  35
    A Farewell to IIA.Aki Lehtinen - unknown
    Arrow's Independence of Irrelevant Alternatives (IIA) has been under criticism for decades for not taking account of preference intensities. Computer-simulation results by Aki Lehtinen concerning strategic voting under various voting rules show that this intensity argument does not need to rest on mere intuition. Voters may express intensities by voting strategically, and that this has beneficial aggregate-level consequences: utilitarian efficiency is higher if voters engage in strategic behaviour than if they always vote sincerely. Strategic voting is thus unambiguously beneficial (...)
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  4.  81
    Economic Modelling as Robustness Analysis.J. Kuorikoski, A. Lehtinen & C. Marchionni - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):541-567.
    We claim that the process of theoretical model refinement in economics is best characterised as robustness analysis: the systematic examination of the robustness of modelling results with respect to particular modelling assumptions. We argue that this practise has epistemic value by extending William Wimsatt's account of robustness analysis as triangulation via independent means of determination. For economists robustness analysis is a crucial methodological strategy because their models are often based on idealisations and abstractions, and it is usually difficult to tell (...)
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  5.  90
    Incredible Worlds, Credible Results.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Aki Lehtinen - 2009 - Erkenntnis 70 (1):119-131.
    Robert Sugden argues that robustness analysis cannot play an epistemic role in grounding model-world relationships because the procedure is only a matter of comparing models with each other. We posit that this argument is based on a view of models as being surrogate systems in too literal a sense. In contrast, the epistemic importance of robustness analysis is easy to explicate if modelling is viewed as extended cognition, as inference from assumptions to conclusions. Robustness analysis is about assessing the reliability (...)
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  6.  41
    Robustness Analysis Disclaimer: Please Read the Manual Before Use!Jaakko Kuorikoski, Aki Lehtinen & Caterina Marchionni - 2012 - Biology and Philosophy 27 (6):891-902.
  7.  8
    Derivational Robustness and Indirect Confirmation.Aki Lehtinen - 2018 - Erkenntnis 83 (3):539-576.
    Derivational robustness may increase the degree to which various pieces of evidence indirectly confirm a robust result. There are two ways in which this increase may come about. First, if one can show that a result is robust, and that the various individual models used to derive it also have other confirmed results, these other results may indirectly confirm the robust result. Confirmation derives from the fact that data not known to bear on a result are shown to be relevant (...)
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  8. Unrealistic Assumptions in Rational Choice Theory.Aki Lehtinen & Jaakko Kuorikoski - 2007 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (2):115-138.
    The most common argument against the use of rational choice models outside economics is that they make unrealistic assumptions about individual behavior. We argue that whether the falsity of assumptions matters in a given model depends on which factors are explanatorily relevant. Since the explanatory factors may vary from application to application, effective criticism of economic model building should be based on model-specific arguments showing how the result really depends on the false assumptions. However, some modeling results in imperialistic applications (...)
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  9.  23
    Allocating Confirmation with Derivational Robustness.Aki Lehtinen - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (9):2487-2509.
    Robustness may increase the degree to which the robust result is indirectly confirmed if it is shown to depend on confirmed rather than disconfirmed assumptions. Although increasing the weight with which existing evidence indirectly confirms it in such a case, robustness may also be irrelevant for confirmation, or may even disconfirm. Whether or not it confirms depends on the available data and on what other results have already been established.
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  10.  59
    Computing the Perfect Model: Why Do Economists Shun Simulation?Aki Lehtinen & Jaakko Kuorikoski - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (3):304-329.
    Like other mathematically intensive sciences, economics is becoming increasingly computerized. Despite the extent of the computation, however, there is very little true simulation. Simple computation is a form of theory articulation, whereas true simulation is analogous to an experimental procedure. Successful computation is faithful to an underlying mathematical model, whereas successful simulation directly mimics a process or a system. The computer is seen as a legitimate tool in economics only when traditional analytical solutions cannot be derived, i.e., only as a (...)
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  11.  13
    Emerging Urban Mobility Technologies Through the Lens of Everyday Urban Aesthetics: Case of Self-Driving Vehicle.Miloš Mladenović, Sanna Lehtinen, Emily Soh & Karel Martens - 2019 - Essays in Philosophy 20 (2).
    The goal of this article is to deepen the concept of emerging urban mobility technology. Drawing on philosophical everyday and urban aesthetics, as well as the postphenomenological strand in the philosophy of technology, we explicate the relation between everyday aesthetic experience and urban mobility commoning. Thus, we shed light on the central role of aesthetics for providing depth to the important experiential and value-driven meaning of contemporary urban mobility. We use the example of self-driving vehicle (SDV), as potentially mundane, public, (...)
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  12.  19
    Economics for Real: Uskali Mäki and the Place of Truth in Economics.Aki Petteri Lehtinen, Jaakko Kuorikoski & Petri Ylikoski (eds.) - 2012 - Routledge.
    This book provides the first comprehensive and critical examination of Mäki's realist philosophy of economics.
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  13.  8
    Model Selection in Macroeconomics: DSGE and Ad Hocness.Jaakko Kuorikoski & Aki Lehtinen - 2018 - Journal of Economic Methodology 25 (3):252-264.
    ABSTRACTWe investigate the applicability of Rodrik’s accounts of model selection and horizontal progress to macroeconomic DSGE modelling in both academic and policy-oriented modelling contexts. We argue that the key step of identifying critical assumptions is complicated by the interconnectedness of the common structural core of DSGE models and by the ad hoc modifications introduced to model various rigidities and other market imperfections. We then outline alternative ways in which macroeconomic modelling could become more horizontally progressive.
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  14.  54
    Economics Imperialism and Solution Concepts in Political Science.J. Kuorikoski & A. Lehtinen - 2010 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 40 (3):347-374.
    Political science and economic science . . . make use of the same language, the same mode of abstraction, the same instruments of thought and the same method of reasoning. (Black 1998, 354) Proponents as well as opponents of economics imperialism agree that imperialism is a matter of unification; providing a unified framework for social scientific analysis. Uskali Mäki distinguishes between derivational and ontological unification and argues that the latter should serve as a constraint for the former. We explore whether, (...)
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  15.  76
    Economics as Robustness Analysis.Jaakko Kuorikoski, Aki Lehtinen & Caterina Marchionni - unknown
    All economic models involve abstractions and idealisations. Economic theory itself does not tell which idealizations are truly fatal or harmful for the result and which are not. This is why much of what is seen as theoretical contribution in economics is constituted by deriving familiar results from different modelling assumptions. If a modelling result is robust with respect to particular modelling assumptions, the empirical falsity of these particular assumptions does not provide grounds for criticizing the result. In this paper we (...)
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  16.  61
    The Welfare Consequences of Strategic Voting in Two Commonly Used Parliamentary Agendas.Aki Lehtinen - 2007 - Theory and Decision 63 (1):1-40.
    This paper studies the welfare consequences of strategic voting in two commonly used parliamentary agendas by comparing the average utilities obtained in simulated voting under two behavioural assumptions: expected utility maximising behaviour and sincere behaviour. The average utility obtained in simulations is higher with expected utility maximising behaviour than with sincere voting behaviour under a broad range of assumptions. Strategic voting increases welfare particularly if the distribution of preference intensities correlates with voter types.
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  17.  42
    On the Impossibility of Amalgamating Evidence.Aki Lehtinen - 2013 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 44 (1):101-110.
    It is argued in this paper that amalgamating confirmation from various sources is relevantly different from social-choice contexts, and that proving an impossibility theorem for aggregating confirmation measures directs attention to irrelevant issues.
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  18. Excursions Into Everyday Spaces: Mapping Aesthetic Potentiality of Urban Environments Through Preaesthetic Sensitivities.Sanna Lehtinen - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    This study examines the complex relation between spatial experience and aesthetic experience. It is argued that spatial experience specifically in the context of everyday spaces makes it possible to experience them aesthetically as well. A wide selection of research ranging from environmental and philosophical aesthetics to architectural theory, psychology, human geography, and other relevant disciplines is employed in order to achieve a more detailed picture of how spatial experience is formed in the first place. This experience is described mainly in (...)
     
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  19.  24
    How Does One Know What Shame Is? Epistemology, Emotions, and Forms of Life in Juxtaposition.Ullaliina Lehtinen - 1998 - Hypatia 13 (1):56 - 77.
    Do women conceptualize-understand, know about, and react to-shame differently from the way men do? Does the experience and knowledge of shame have a gender-specificity, and along what lines could it be analyzed? By introducing a distinction between life or enduring experiences, "Erfahrung," and episodic or occurrent experiences, "Erlebnis," and by juxtaposing this distinction with the Rylean notion that knowledge is dispositional this paper argues for the plausibility of a gender-specificity.
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  20.  12
    Three Kinds of ‘as-If’ Claims.Aki Lehtinen - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (2):184-205.
    As-if locutions are used (a) in order to indicate that an inaccurate or unrealistic assumption is being made because some inaccuracy or unrealisticness is negligible. This kind of claim has two sub-cases. (a1) The as-if locution is used to indicate that the as-if claim in itself is inaccurate and that its inaccuracy does not matter for the purposes of the investigation. (a2) It is used to indicate that claims are made without regard to the causal factors that are assumed to (...)
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  21. Luce Irigaray's Phenomenology of Feminine Being.Virpi Lehtinen - 2014 - State University of New York Press.
    _A dynamic interpretation of feminine identity capable of resistance, change, and transformation._.
     
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  22.  60
    Change and Contradiction: A Fourteenth-Century Controversy.Simo Knuuttila & Anja Inkeri Lehtinen - 1979 - Synthese 40 (1):189 - 207.
  23.  16
    Just Implementation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.E. Malmqvist, K. Natunen, M. Lehtinen & G. Helgesson - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):247-249.
    Many countries are now implementing human papillomavirus vaccination. There is disagreement about who should receive the vaccine. Some propose vaccinating both boys and girls in order to achieve the largest possible public health impact. Others regard this approach as too costly and claim that only girls should be vaccinated. We question the assumption that decisions about human papillomavirus vaccination policy should rely solely on estimates of overall benefits and costs. There are important social justice aspects that also need to be (...)
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  24.  12
    Some Remarks on the Relevance of Basic Research in Nursing Inquiry.Ullaliina Lehtinen, Joakim Ohlen & Kenneth Asplund - 2005 - Nursing Philosophy 6 (1):43-50.
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  25.  3
    Bruce B. Janz (Ed.): Place, Space and Hermeneutics. [REVIEW]Sanna Lehtinen - 2018 - Phenomenological Reviews 4.
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  26. The Illusion of Unity: Traces of Negativity in Schiller's Aesthetic Theory.M. Lehtinen - 2003 - Acta Philosophica Fennica 72:45-64.
     
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  27.  7
    No Sex Please, We're Mitochondria: A Hypothesis on the Somatic Unit of Inheritance of Mammalian mtDNA.Howard T. Jacobs, Sanna K. Lehtinen & Johannes N. Spelbrink - 2000 - Bioessays 22 (6):564-572.
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  28.  7
    On the Feasibility Ofin Situobservations of Recrystallization in the High Voltage Electron Microscope.William Roberts & Börje Lehtinen - 1972 - Philosophical Magazine 26 (5):1153-1166.
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  29.  24
    Against Nature - The Question of Mimesis in Heidegger's Philosophy of Art.Markku Lehtinen - 1999 - Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 11 (19).
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  30.  4
    A Welfarist Critique of Social Choice Theory: Interpersonal Comparisons in the Theory of Voting.Aki Lehtinen - 2015 - Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics 8 (2):34.
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  31.  15
    Preferences as Total Subjective Comparative Evaluations.Aki Lehtinen - 2013 - Journal of Economic Methodology 20 (2):206-210.
  32.  13
    Irrational Consumer Behavior in Financial Services.Jukka M. Laitamaki, Raija Järvinen & Uolevi Lehtinen - 2008 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 19:16-22.
    Consumer driven and globally competitive financial markets are crucial for the future prosperity of the Finnish society (Laitamäki, Lehti and Paasio 1996). The largest transfer of wealth in history is currently taking place as Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964) prepare for their retirement and inherit the assets of the previous generation. Due to cognitive limitations and emotional biases these consumers don’t always make rational decisions with financial services. This conceptual study addresses irrational financial consumer behavior and its impact on the Finnish (...)
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  33.  1
    New Public Monuments: Urban Art and Everyday Aesthetic Experience.Sanna Lehtinen - 2019 - Open Philosophy 2 (1):30-38.
    The role and function of public art is currently undergoing some large-scale changes. Many new artworks which are situated within the already existing urban sphere, seem to be changing the definition of public art, each in their own way. Simultaneously, there exists a trend that endorses more traditional forms of public art. Juxtaposing and comparing the aesthetic implications of different types of artworks, it is possible to see how they contribute to the contemporary understanding of the urban sphere. In this (...)
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  34.  19
    Practical Hermeneutics: Noticing in Bible Study Interaction. [REVIEW]Esa Lehtinen - 2009 - Human Studies 32 (4):461-485.
    This article presents an ethnomethodological respecification of the philosophical problem of the hermeneutics of ancient texts. I analyze an interactional practice, namely, noticing an aspect of the Bible text in Seventh-day Adventist Bible study. I show how noticings are used to make the text “speak” to the participants of the Bible study and discuss how the participants show their orientation to this action in the next turn and how they rely on various cultural resources to make sense of the text. (...)
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  35.  8
    Introduction to the Special Issue: Papers From the IX INEM Conference in Helsinki.Aki Lehtinen, Uskali Mäki & Caterina Marchionni - 2014 - Journal of Economic Methodology 21 (1):1-2.
    Following an established tradition, the current special issue collects five articles that originate from papers presented at the IX Conference of the International Network for Economic Method. The conference took place in Helsinki on 1–3 September 2011 and was hosted by TINT (Trends and Tensions in Intellectual Integration), University of Helsinki. The conference was successful both in terms of the number of participants and the quality of the presentations. Although the sample of papers that made it to this special issue (...)
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  36.  4
    The Feasibility Ofin Situobservations of Recrystallization in the High Voltage Electron Microscope.William Roberts & Börje Lehtinen - 1974 - Philosophical Magazine 29 (6):1431-1433.
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  37.  4
    Stimulus Generalization as a Function of Age in Children.Sarnoff A. Mednick & Laura E. Lehtinen - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (3):180.
  38.  3
    The Analysis of Dislocation Structures in Tungsten Carbide by Electron Microscopy.T. Johannesson & B. Lehtinen - 1971 - Philosophical Magazine 24 (191):1079-1085.
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  39. Representaatio: Tiedon Kivijalasta Tieteiden Työkaluksi.Tarja Knuuttila & Aki Petteri Lehtinen (eds.) - 2010 - Gaudeamus Helsinki University Press.
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  40. Aesthetic Perspectives to Urban Technologies – Conceptualizing and Evaluating the Technology-Driven Changes in the Urban Everyday Experience.Sanna Lehtinen & Vesa Vihanninjoki - forthcoming - In Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies. Springer.
    The pervasiveness of technology has undeniably changed the way the urban everyday is structured and experienced. Understanding the deep impact of this development on the everyday experience and its foundational aesthetic components is needed in order to determine how the skills and capacities to cope with the change, as well as to steer it, can be improved. Urban technology solutions – how they are defined, applied and used – are changing the sphere of everyday experience for urban dwellers. Philosophical and (...)
     
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  41. Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies.Sanna Lehtinen & Vesa Vihanninjoki - forthcoming - Springer.
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  42. Knowledge and Medieval Philosophy.Reijo Työrinoja, Anja Inkeri Lehtinen & Dagfinn Føllesdal (eds.) - 1990 - Annals of the Finnish Society for Missiology and Ecumenics.
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  43.  22
    Matti Sintonen, Review of Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge by Deborah Mayo. [REVIEW]Matti Sintonen - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (2):370-372.
  44.  27
    Matti Eklund, Choosing Normative Concepts , Ix + 219 Pp.Krister Bykvist & Jonas Olson - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (3):343-347.
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  45.  21
    A Dialogue with Jouni-Matti Kuukkanen.Frank Ankersmit - 2017 - Journal of the Philosophy of History 11 (1):38-58.
  46.  86
    Autonomy, Respect, and Genetic Information Policy: A Reply to Tuija Takala and Matti Häyry.Rosamond Rhodes - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (1):114 – 120.
  47.  75
    Learning to Work Together: Review of Consciousness In Philosophy And Cognitive Neuroscience Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen. [REVIEW]W. Haselager - 1998 - PSYCHE: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Research On Consciousness 4.
  48.  13
    Matti Eklund: Choosing Normative Concepts.Sebastian Köhler - 2019 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 22 (1):251-253.
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  49.  10
    Eklund, Matti. Choosing Normative Concepts. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. 224. $55.00.Sarah Zoe Raskoff - 2018 - Ethics 129 (1):122-127.
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  50.  35
    Response to “Abortion and Assent” by Rosamond Rhodes (CQ Vol 8, No 4) and “Abortion, Disability, Assent, and Consent” by Matti Häyry (CQ Vol 10, No 1). [REVIEW]Simo Vehmas - 2001 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 10 (4):433-440.
    It is now a widely shared opinion in the Western countries that a child's disability would probably place an unexpected burden on her parents, a burden that the parents have not committed themselves to dealing with. A child with a physical or mental disability is not, so to speak, a part of the package the parents ordered. This line of reasoning has recently been supported by Rosamond Rhodes in her article.
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