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  1. [author unknown], .
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  3. B. A. (1998). R. A. Sharpe. The Moral Case Against Religious Belief. (London: SCM Press, 1997.) Pp. 102. £7.95 Pbk. Religious Studies 34 (2):231-234.
  4. William J. Abraham (2009). The Epistemology of Jesus : An Initial Investigation. In Paul K. Moser (ed.), Jesus and Philosophy: New Essays. Cambridge University Press
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  5. William J. Abraham (1991). Revelation in Religious Belief. Faith and Philosophy 8 (2):254-256.
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  6. Muhammad Iqbal Afaqi (2011). Knowledge of God: A Comparative Study of Christian and Islamic Epistemologies. National Book Foundation.
  7. Diogenes Allen (1965). Faith as a Ground for Religious Beliefs. Dissertation, Yale University
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  8. W. Alston & E. Fales (2004). Does Religious Experience Justify Religious Belief. In Michael L. Peterson & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Pub.
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  9. William P. Alston (2004). Religious Experience Justifies Religious Belief. In Michael L. Peterson & Raymond J. VanArragon (eds.), Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell Pub. 135--45.
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  10. William P. Alston (2001). Religious Belief and Values. Faith and Philosophy 18 (1):36-49.
    Receptivity to Christian or other religious proclamations is powerfully influenced by one’s value orientations. I distinguish five contrasts in such orientations that illustrate this point. 1. Finding “worldly” values most deeply satisfying vs. a sense that something that transcends those would be most fulfilling. 2. Extreme stress on human autonomy vs. a positive evaluation of deference to God, if such there be. 3. A sense of thorough sinfulness vs. a thoroughly positive self image. 4. A willingness to accept outside help (...)
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  11. William P. Alston (1999). The Distinctiveness of the Epistemology of Religious Belief. In G. Bruntrup & R. K. Tacelli (eds.), The Rationality of Theism. Kluwer 237--254.
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  12. William P. Alston (1983). Christian Experience and Christian Belief. In Alvin Plantinga & Nicholas Wolterstorff (eds.), Faith and Rationality: Reason and Belief in God. Niversity of Notre Dame Press
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  13. William P. Alston (1963). Religious Belief and Philosophical Thought. New York, Harcourt, Brace & World.
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  14. Richard Amesbury (2007). Kai Nielsen and D.Z. Phillips, Wittgensteinian Fideism? SCM Press, London, 2005, 383 Pages. Pb £35. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 61 (1):51-55.
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  15. Allan Anderson (1967). Faith, Truth, and Religious Language. World Futures 5 (4):62-71.
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  16. Miles Andrews (2014). Divine Hiddenness and Affective Forecasting. Res Cogitans 5 (1):102-110.
    In this paper I argue that J. L. Schellenberg’s Divine Hiddenness Argument is committed to a problematic implication that is weakened by research in cognitive psychology on affective forecasting. Schellenberg’s notion of a nonresistant nonbeliever logically implies that for any such person, it is true that she would form the proper belief in God if provided with what he calls “probabilifying” evidence for God’s existence. In light of Schellenberg’s commitment to the importance of both affective and propositional belief components for (...)
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  17. Michael V. Antony (forthcoming). Can We Acquire Knowledge of Ultimate Reality? In Jeanine Diller & Asa Kasher (eds.), Models of God and Other Ultimate Realities. Springer
    Can humans acquire knowledge of ultimate reality, even significant or comprehensive knowledge? I argue that for all we know we can, and that is so whether ultimate reality is divine or non-divine. My strategy involves arguing that we are ignorant, in the sense of lacking public or shared knowledge, about which possibilities, if any, obtain for humans to acquire knowledge of ultimate reality. This follows from a deep feature of our epistemic situation—that our current psychology strongly constrains what we can (...)
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  18. Karen Armstrong, A. Bell, J. Swenson-Wright & K. Tybjerg (2008). Evidence for Religious Faith: A Red Herring. In Andrew Bell, John Swenson-Wright & Karin Tybjerg (eds.), Evidence. Cambridge University Press 174.
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  19. Scott Atran (2005). In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. OUP Usa.
    This ambitious, interdisciplinary book seeks to explain the origins of religion using our knowledge of the evolution of cognition. A cognitive anthropologist and psychologist, Scott Atran argues that religion is a by-product of human evolution just as the cognitive intervention, cultural selection, and historical survival of religion is an accommodation of certain existential and moral elements that have evolved in the human condition.
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  20. Robert Audi (2013). Rationality and Religious Commitment: An Inquiry Into Faith and Reason. Heythrop Journal 54 (2):312-315.
    Can it be rational to be religious? Robert Audi gives a persuasive positive answer through an account of rationality and a rich, nuanced understanding of what religious commitment means. It is not just a matter of belief, but of emotions and attitudes such as faith and hope, of one's outlook on the world, and of commitment to live in certain ways.
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  21. Robert Audi (2011). Rationality and Religious Commitment. OUP Oxford.
    Can it be rational to be religious? Robert Audi gives a persuasive positive answer through an account of rationality and a rich, nuanced understanding of what religious commitment means. It is not just a matter of belief, but of emotions and attitudes such as faith and hope, of one's outlook on the world, and of commitment to live in certain ways.
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  22. Yuval Avnur (forthcoming). In Defense of Secular Belief. Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion.
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  23. Guy Axtell (2014). Possibility and Permission? Intellectual Character, Inquiry, and the Ethics of Belief. In Pihlstrom S. & Rydenfelt H. (eds.), William James on Religion. (Palgrave McMillan “Philosophers in Depth” Series
    This chapter examines the modifications William James made to his account of the ethics of belief from his early ‘subjective method’ to his later heightened concerns with personal doxastic responsibility and with an empirically-driven comparative research program he termed a ‘science of religions’. There are clearly tensions in James’ writings on the ethics of belief both across his career and even within Varieties itself, tensions which some critics think spoil his defense of what he calls religious ‘faith ventures’ or ‘overbeliefs’. (...)
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  24. Guy Axtell (2004). Review of Stuart Rosenbaum, Ed. Pragmatism and Religion: Classical Sources and Original Essays. [REVIEW] Contemporary Pragmatism 1 (2):182-191.
  25. Ramezan Mahdavi Azadboni (2013). Evil and Inborn Knowledge of God: Quranic Perspective. Iamure International Journal of Literature, Philosophy and Religion 2 (1).
    Since the modern age the attacks against faith and religious belief have been raised. One of the major arguments against the existence of God who is described in theistic religious holy books as Almighty and all loving God come in terms of suffering in human life and the presence of evil in the world created by God. The challenge according to the critics against the religious life and faith is how a believer can be considered rational in his faith while (...)
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  26. Khosrow Bagheri Noaparast (2009). The Idea Of a Religious Social Science. Alhoda.
    In this book, the words ‘science’ and ‘social science’ are used in their limited sense that refer to experience-based knowledge. This should not indicate that experience is being used in a positivistic sense. Rather, the important insights of all kinds of post-positivist views are embraced to give an extensive meaning to experience. However, the most important characteristic of experience and science that should never be excluded is its dependence on observation and observational evidence. Thus, when ‘science’ is used in combination (...)
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  27. Max Baker-Hytch (2014). Religious Diversity and Epistemic Luck. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (2):171-191.
    A familiar criticism of religious belief starts from the claim that a typical religious believer holds the particular religious beliefs she does just because she happened to be raised in a certain cultural setting rather than some other. This claim is commonly thought to have damaging epistemological consequences for religious beliefs, and one can find statements of an argument in this vicinity in the writings of John Stuart Mill and more recently Philip Kitcher, although the argument is seldom spelled out (...)
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  28. Erik Baldwin (2010). On the Prospects of an Islamic Externalist Account of Warrant. In Tymieniecka Anna-Teresa & Muhtaroglu Nazif (eds.), Classic Issues in Islamic Philosophy and Theology Today (Islamic Philosophy and Occidental Phenomenology in Dialogue, vol. 4. Springer
    Alvin Plantinga’s externalist religious epistemology, which incorporates a proper function account of warrant, forms the basis for his standard and extended Aquinas/Calvin models. Respectively, these models show how it could be that Theistic Belief and Christian Belief could be warranted for believers in a properly basic manner. Christianity and Islam share fundamental theses that underlie the plausibility of Plantinga’s models: the Dependency Thesis, the Design Thesis, and the Immediacy Thesis. Accordingly, an Islamic worldview can endorse the truth of the standard (...)
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  29. H. Barker (1901). Factors in the Efficiency of Religious Belief. International Journal of Ethics 11 (3):329-340.
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  30. Justin L. Barrett & Ian M. Church (2013). Should CSR Give Atheists Epistemic Assurance? On Beer-Goggles, BFFs, and Skepticism Regarding Religious Beliefs. The Monist 96 (3):311-324.
    Recent work in cognitive science of religion (CSR) is beginning to converge on a very interesting thesis—that, given the ordinary features of human minds operating in typical human environments, we are naturally disposed to believe in the existence of gods, among other religious ideas (e.g., seeAtran [2002], Barrett [2004; 2012], Bering [2011], Boyer [2001], Guthrie [1993], McCauley [2011], Pyysiäinen [2004; 2009]). In this paper, we explore whether such a discovery ultimately helps or hurts the atheist position—whether, for example, it lends (...)
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  31. Justin Barrett, David Leech & Aku Visala (2010). Can Religious Belief Be Explained Away? Reasons and Causes of Religious Belief. In Ulrich J. Frey (ed.), The Nature of God ––– Evolution and Religion. Tectum 1--75.
  32. David Basinger (2010). Review of Stephen R. L. Clark, Understanding Faith: Religious Belief and its Place in Society. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (8).
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  33. David Basinger (2002). Religious Diversity: A Philosophical Assessment. Ashgate.
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  34. J. D. Bastable (1965). Belief and Faith. Philosophical Studies 14:254-256.
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  35. David Bastow (1974). Philosophy and Religious Belief. Philosophical Books 15 (3):20-21.
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  36. James Beach (2013). John Bishop's Leaps of Faith: Doxastic Ventures and the Logical Equivalence of Religious Faith and Agnosticism. Religious Studies 50 (1):1-17.
    In recent essays John Bishop proposes a model of religious faith. This author notices that a so-called doxastic venture model of theistic faith is self-defeating for the following reason: a venture suggests a process with an outcome; by definition a venture into Christian faith denies itself an outcome in virtue of the transcendent character of its claims – for what is claimed cannot be settled. Taking instruction from logical positivism, I stress the nonsensical character of religious claims while attacking Bishop's (...)
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  37. Michael D. Beaty (1990). Religious Belief and the Will. Southwest Philosophy Review 6 (2):133-138.
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  38. Simon Beck (2011). Can Parables Work? Philosophy and Theology 23 (1):149-165.
    While theories about interpreting biblical and other parables have long realised the importance of readers’ responses to the topic, recent results in social psychology concerning systematic self-deception raise unforeseen problems. In this paper I first set out some of the problems these results pose for the authority of fictional thought-experiments in moral philosophy. I then consider the suggestion that biblical parables face the same problems and as a result cannot work as devices for moral or religious instruction in the way (...)
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  39. Burnham P. Beckwith (1986). The Effect of Intelligence on Religious Faith. Free Inquiry 6:46-53.
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  40. Michael Bell (2008). Modes of Faith: Secular Surrogates for Lost Religious Belief. [REVIEW] Clio 38 (1):110-113.
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  41. Matthew A. Benton (2014). Believing on Authority. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6:133-144.
    Linda Zagzebski's "Epistemic Authority" (Oxford University Press, 2012) brings together issues in social epistemology with topics in moral and political philosophy as well as philosophy of religion. In this paper I criticize her discussion of self-trust and rationality, which sets up the main argument of the book; I consider how her view of authority relates to some issues of epistemic authority in testimony; and I raise some concerns about her treatment of religious epistemology and religious authority in particular.
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  42. Matthew A. Benton (2006). The Modal Gap: The Objective Problem of Lessing's Ditch(Es) and Kierkegaard's Subjective Reply. Religious Studies 42 (1):27-44.
    This essay expands upon the suggestion that Lessing's infamous ‘ditch’ is actually three ditches: temporal, metaphysical, and existential gaps. It examines the complex problems these ditches raise, and then proposes that Kierkegaard's Fragments and Postscript exhibit a similar triadic organizational structure, which may signal a deliberate attempt to engage and respond to Lessing's three gaps. Viewing the Climacean project in this way offers an enhanced understanding of the intricacies of Lessing's rationalist approach to both religion and historical truth, and illuminates (...)
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  43. Michael Bergmann & Patrick Kain (2014). Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Overview and Future Directions. In Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution.
  44. Michael Bergmann & Patrick Kain (eds.) (2014). Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief: Disagreement and Evolution. Oxford University Press.
    Challenges to Moral and Religious Belief contains fourteen original essays by philosophers, theologians, and social scientists on challenges to moral and religious belief from disagreement and evolution. Three main questions are addressed: Can one reasonably maintain one's moral and religious beliefs in the face of interpersonal disagreement with intellectual peers? Does disagreement about morality between a religious belief source, such as a sacred text, and a non-religious belief source, such as a society's moral intuitions, make it irrational to continue trusting (...)
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  45. Purushottama Bilimoria (2012). Why is There Nothing Rather Than Something An Essay in the Comparative Metaphysic of Non-Being. Sophia 51 (4):509-530.
    This essay in the comparative metaphysic of nothingness begins by pondering why Leibniz thought of the converse question as the preeminent one. In Eastern philosophical thought, like the numeral 'zero' (śūnya) that Indian mathematicians first discovered, nothingness as non-being looms large and serves as the first quiver on the imponderables they seem to have encountered (e.g., 'In the beginning was neither non-being nor being: what was there, bottomless deep?' RgVeda X.129). The concept of non-being and its permutations of nothing, negation, (...)
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  46. Alexander Bird (2007). Scientific and Theological Realism. In A. Moore & M. Scott (eds.), Realism and Religion. Ashgate 61-81.
  47. John Bishop (2013). Evidence and Religious Belief, by Kelly James Clark and Raymond J. VanArragon (Eds). Mind 122 (486):fzt054.
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  48. John Bishop (2005). On the Possibility of Doxastic Venture: A Reply to Buckareff. Religious Studies 41 (4):447-451.
    In response to Buckareff, I agree that it is indeed impossible intentionally and directly to acquire a belief one judges not to be supported by one's evidence. But Jamesian doxastic venture does not involve any such direct self-inducing of belief: it is rather a matter of an agent's taking to be true in practical reasoning what she already, through some ‘passional’, non-epistemic, cause, holds true beyond the support of her evidence. To deny that beliefs may sometimes have passional causes is, (...)
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  49. John Bishop (2002). Faith as Doxastic Venture. Religious Studies 38 (4):471-487.
    A ‘doxastic venture’ model of faith – according to which having faith involves believing beyond what is rationally justifiable – can be defended only on condition that such venturesome believing is both possible and ethically acceptable. I show how a development of the position argued by William James in ‘The will to believe’ can succeed in meeting these conditions. A Jamesian defence of doxastic venture is, however, open to the objection that decision theory teaches us that there can be no (...)
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  50. John Bishop (1995). Deciding to Believe: The Ethics and Rationality of Religious Belief. Sophia 34 (1):9-31.
    A Jamesian defence of a moderate fideism which holds that acceptance of (religious) belief beyond, though not contrary to, the evidence is morally permissible--though only under quite tight conditions, which, I argue, include the requirement that the "passional basis" for such acceptance must itself be morally admirable. The claim that "suprarational" faith is virtuous thus remains open, even though vindicated against the objection that believing beyond the evidence is always vicious. I also explore the extent to which the proposal that (...)
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