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Summary With respect to rational (or natural) theology, Kant is best known for his criticism of the ontological proof for God's existence in the Ideal of Pure Reason (though he had already formulated this counter-argument in the pre-Critical period). While Kant also offers criticisms of cosmological and physico-theological (i.e., from design) proofs for God's existence, the notion of a supreme being, whether as an ens realissimum or as a practical postulate, plays an important role in Kant's mature thought.
Key works Wood 1978 is perhaps the most detailed and influential discussion of Kant's rational theology. Longuenesse offers one account of the positive role that the idea of God plays in Kant's thought in Longuenesse 2005. Some recent discussion has focused on the significance of Kant's conception of God as the most real being (ens realissimum) for the interpretation of his modal metaphysics, as in Chignell 2012
Introductions Michelle Grier's  contribution to the Cambridge Companion to the first Critique offers a useful introduction to the Ideal. Readers interested in Kant's pre-Critical presentation of the argument can consult the translation in Kant 1992, while those interested in the broader historical context in 18th century German school philosophy might consult (Lehner 2007).
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  1. W. E. Abraham (1962). Is the Concept of Necessary Existence Self-Contradictory? Inquiry 5 (1-4):143 – 157.
    In this article I have tried to rebut certain types of arguments which purport to show not merely that God does not exist but that the notion of necessary existence is itself either self-contradictory or senseless. In showing that it is not self-contradictory I have allowed myself the luxury of a negative and a positive approach. Negatively, I have had to show that when the accusation of self-contradiction is made, it is often accompanied, not by an argument but by a (...)
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  2. Robert Merrihew Adams (2000). God, Possibility, and Kant. Faith and Philosophy 17 (4):425-440.
    In one of his precritical works, Kant defends, as “the only possible” way of demonstrating the existence of God, an argument from the nature of possibility. Whereas Leibniz had argued that possibilities must be thought by God in order to obtain the ontological standing that they need, Kant argued that at least the most fundamental possibilities must be exemplified in God. Here Kant’s argument is critically examined in comparison with its Leibnizian predecessor, and it is suggested that an argument combining (...)
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  3. Jacob Archambault (2013). Aquinas, the a Priori/a Posteriori Distinction, and the Kantian Dependency Thesis. Religious Studies:1-18.
    This article re-examines the applicability of Kant's dependency thesis to Aquinas argument hinges respective logical apparatus that would have to be addressed prior to the more specific question of whether Kant's critique of the cosmological argument is applicable to Aquinas.
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  4. Robin Attfield (1978). God and the Secular: A Philosophical Assessment of Secular Reasoning From Bacon to Kant. University College Cardiff Press.
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  5. Oded Balaban & Asnat Avshalom (1990). The Ontological Argument Reconsidered. Journal of Philosophical Research 15:279-310.
    The ontological argument--first proposed by St. Anselm and subsequently deveIoped by Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel and Marx--furnishes a key to understanding the relationship between thought and reality. In this article we shall focus on Hegel’s attitude towards the ontological argument as set out in his Science of Logic, where it appears as a paradigm of the relationship between thought and reality. It should be remarked, moreover, that our choice of the subject was not random and that it was seIected for (...)
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  6. William H. Baumer (1967). Kant on Cosmological Arguments. The Monist 51 (4):519-535.
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  7. Jörg Baur (1997). Philosophie im Ausgriff auf konkrete Religion. Kants Umgang mit dem Topos» Orthodoxie «. Neue Zeitschrift für Systematische Theologie Und Religionsphilosophie 39 (2):191-203.
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  8. Günter Bleickert (1977). Proofs of God's Existence in German Idealism. The Justification of the Absolute by Means of Modal Theory in Kant, Hegel and Weisse. Philosophy and History 10 (1):24-27.
  9. Paul Richard Blum (2009). Kants Vorsehungskonzept Auf Dem Hintergrund der Deutschen Schulphilosophie Und -Theologie. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (1):161-164.
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  10. Omri Boehm (2012). Kant's Regulative Spinozism. Kant-Studien 103 (3):292-317.
    The question of Kant's relation to Spinozist thought has been virtually ignored over the years. I analyze Kant's pre-critical 'possibility-proof' of God's existence, elaborated in the Beweisgrund, as well as the echoes that this proof has in the first Critique, in beginning to uncover the connection between Kant's thought and Spinoza's. Kant's espousal of the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR] for the analysis of modality during the pre-critical period committed him, I argue, to Spinozist substance monism. Much textual evidence suggests (...)
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  11. Karl Bornhausen (1924). Die Religion der Vernunft. Kant-Studien 29 (2):377-385.
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  12. Archibald A. Bowman (1916). Kant's View of Metaphysics. Mind 25 (97):1-24.
  13. Keith Burgess-Jackson (1996). Mackie on Kant's Moral Argument. Sophia 35 (1):5-20.
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  14. Brian Chance (2011). Sensibilism, Psychologism, and Kant's Debt to Hume. Kantian Review 16 (3):325-349.
    Hume’s account of causation is often regarded a challenge Kant must overcome if the Critical philosophy is to be successful. But from Kant’s time to the present, Hume’s denial of our ability to cognize supersensible objects, a denial that relies heavily on his account of causation, has also been regarded as a forerunner to Kant’s critique of metaphysics. After identifying reasons for rejecting Wayne Waxman’s recent account of Kant’s debt to Hume, I present my own, more modest account of this (...)
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  15. Andrew Chignell (2012). Kant, Real Possibility, and the Threat of Spinoza. Mind 121 (483):635-675.
    In the first part of the paper I reconstruct Kant’s proof of the existence of a ‘most real being’ while also highlighting the theory of modality that motivates Kant’s departure from Leibniz’s version of the proof. I go on to argue that it is precisely this departure that makes the being that falls out of the pre-critical proof look more like Spinoza’s extended natura naturans than an independent, personal creator-God. In the critical period, Kant seems to think that transcendental idealism (...)
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  16. Andrew Chignell (2012). Review: Lehner, Kants Vorsehungskonzept Auf Dem Hintergrund der Deutschen Schulphilosophie Und -Theologie. [REVIEW] Journal of the Philosophy of History 6 (1):143-147.
  17. Andrew Chignell (2009). 'As Kant Has Shown:' Analytic Theology and the Critical Philosophy. In M. Rea & O. Crisp (eds.), Analytic Theology. Oxford University Press. 116--135.
    On why Kant may not have shown what modern theologians often take him to have shown. -/- .
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  18. Robert C. Coburn (1966). Animadversions on Plantinga's Kant. Journal of Philosophy 63 (19):546-548.
  19. Benjamin Crowe (2010). Fichte's Transcendental Theology. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 92 (1):68-88.
    The relationship between Fichte's Wissenschaftslehre and Kant's philosophy is as important as it is ambiguous. The aim of this paper is to explore one significant and under-examined aspect of this relationship, i.e., the respective views of Fichte and Kant on the concept of God. Fichte's noteworthy divergences from Kant's discussions are described and analyzed. Fichte's explication of the concept of God is considerably sparser than Kant's. Furthermore, Fichte excludes from philosophy some of the sub-disciplines of rational theology allowed by Kant. (...)
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  20. Michael E. Cuffaro (2012). Kant and Frege on Existence and the Ontological Argument. History of Philosophy Quarterly 29 (4):337-354.
    I argue that Kant's and Frege's refutations of the ontological argument are more similar than has generally been acknowledged. As I clarify, for both Kant and Frege, to say that something exists is to assert of a concept that it is instantiated. With such an assertion one expresses that there is a particular relation between the instantiating object and a rational subject - a particular mode of presentation for the object in question. By its very nature such a relation cannot (...)
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  21. James DiCenso (2012). Kant's Religion Within the Boundaries of Mere Reason: A Commentary. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. Introductory: religion through the lens of practical reason; 2. Kant's prefaces to the first and second editions; 3. Religion part one: concerning the indwelling of the evil principle alongside the good, or, of the radical evil in human nature; 4. Religion part two: concerning the battle of the good against the evil principle for dominion over the human being; 5. Religion part three: the victory of the good principle over the evil principle, and (...)
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  22. Bernd Dörflinger (2010). Kant Über Das Defizit der Physikotheologie Und Die Notwendigkeit der Idee Einer Ethikotheologie. In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Herder.
  23. Irene Borges Duarte (1999). La realidad del 'ens realissimum'. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 16:149-186.
    El llamado "argumento de los posibles" desarrollado por Kant en el Beweisgrund está destinado a demostrar la existencia del ens realissimum de la tradición metafísica moderna. El presente estudio pretende explorar la importancia de esta prueba en el contexto global del pensamiento kantiano, a partir de la ambigüedad del concepto de realidad y de su precisión en la filosofía crítica.
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  24. Steven M. Duncan, Kant's Critique of the Ontological Argument: FAIL.
    In this paper, I argue that Kant's famous critique of the Ontological Argument largely begs the question against that argument, and is no better when supplemented by the modern quantificational analysis of "exists." In particular, I argue that the claim, common to Hume and Kant, that conceptual truths can never entail substantive existential claims is false,and thus no ground for rejecting the Ontological Argument.
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  25. Steven M. Duncan, Kant's Pre-Critical Proof for God's Existence.
    In his Beweisgrund (1762), Kant presents a sketch of "the only possible basis" for a proof of God's existence. In this essay, I attempt to present that proof as a valid and sound argument for the existence of God.
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  26. Louis Dupré (1972). The Cosmological Argument After Kant. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 3 (3):131 - 145.
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  27. Klaus Düsing (2010). Kritik der Theologie Und Gottespostulat Bei Kant. In Norbert Fischer & Maximilian Forschner (eds.), Die Gottesfrage in der Philosophie Immanuel Kants. Herder.
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  28. G. A. Ellard (1931). Kant's Conception of God. Thought 5 (4):686-690.
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  29. S. Morris Engel (1963). Kant's `Refutation' of the Ontological Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24 (1):20-35.
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  30. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (2010). Moral Obligation After the Death of God: Critical Reflections on Concerns From Immanuel Kant, G.W.F. Hegel, and Elizabeth Anscombe. [REVIEW] In Ellen Frankel Paul, Fred Dycus Miller & Jeffrey Paul (eds.), Moral Obligation. Cambridge University Press. 317-340.
    Once God is no longer recognized as the ground and the enforcer of morality, the character and force of morality undergoes a significant change, a point made by G.E.M. Anscombe in her observation that without God the significance of morality is changed, as the word criminal would be changed if there were no criminal law and criminal courts. There is no longer in principle a God's-eye perspective from which one can envisage setting moral pluralism aside. In addition, it becomes impossible (...)
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  31. F. E. England (1929/1969). Kant's Conception of God. New York, Humanities Press.
    , WOKING PREFATORY NOTE THIS essay is an attempt to follow critically the development of Kants metaphysical thought with special reference to the concept of God ...
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  32. Georg Essen & Magnus Striet (eds.) (2005). Kant Und Die Theologie. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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  33. Nicholas Everitt (1995). Kant's Discussion of the Ontological Argument. Kant-Studien 86 (4):385-405.
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  34. Andrea Luisa Bucchile Faggion (2011). Refutação do Argumento Ontológico, ou Filosofia Crítica versus Filosofia Dogmática. Veritas 56 (2).
    Em seu artigo “Kant’s Critique of the Three Theistic Proofs [partial], from Kant’s Rational Theology”, incluído no livro Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason. Critical Essays, Allen Wood pretende mostrar que Kant não teria provado que a existência não poderia ser um predicado real ou determinante. Em seu artigo “Anselm’s Ontological Arguments”, publicado na revista The Philosophical Review, Norman Malcolm pretende mostrar que Kant não teria provado que a existência necessária não poderia ser um predicado real ou determinante. Lidando com as (...)
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  35. J. H. Farley (1925). Kant's Philosophy of Religion. The Monist 35 (2):259-279.
  36. Chris L. Firestone (2009). Towards and New Kantian Theology: Theology at the Transcendental Boundaries of Reason. Ashgate.
    Can theology go through Kant? -- Knowledge and cognition in Kant's theoretical philosophy -- Faith and cognition in Kant's philosophy of religion -- Kant's moral grounds for theology -- Kant's poetic grounds for theology -- Kant's ontological grounds for theology -- Rational religious faith and Kantian theology -- Concluding comments.
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  37. James E. Force (1982). God and the Secular: A Philosophical Assessment of Secular Reasoning From Bacon to Kant. Journal of the History of Philosophy 20 (3):315-317.
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  38. J. William Forgie (2008). How is the Question 'is Existence a Predicate?' Relevant to the Ontological Argument? International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 64 (3):117 - 133.
    It is often said that the ontological argument fails because it wrongly treats existence as a first-level property or predicate. This has proved a controversial claim, and efforts to evaluate it are complicated by the fact that the words ‘existence is not a property/predicate’ have been used by philosophers to make at least three different negative claims: (a) one about a first-level phenomenon possessed by objects like horses, stones, you and me; (b) another about the logical form of assertions of (...)
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  39. J. William Forgie (1995). The Cosmological and Ontological Arguments: How Saint Thomas Solved the Kantian Problem. Religious Studies 31 (1):89 - 100.
    Let us call the Dependency Theses (DT) the view, first stated by Kant, that certain versions of the cosmological argument depend on the ontological argument. At least two different reasons have been given for the supposed dependence. Given the DT, some of Aquinas' views about God's essence, and about our knowledge of God's existence, can seem, at least at first, to be inconsistent. I consider two different ways of defending Aquinas against this suspicion of inconsistency. On the first defence, based (...)
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  40. J. William Forgie (1993). Kant on the Relation Between the Cosmological and Ontological Arguments. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 34 (1):1 - 12.
  41. William Forgie (2007). Gassendi and Kant on Existence. Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (4):511 - 523.
    : In rejecting Descartes's ontological proof for the existence of God, Gassendi maintained that existence is not a property and Kant said that it is not a "real predicate." It is commonly supposed that both are making the same claim. Some have even thought that they advance essentially the same argument for that same claim. I believe none of this is correct. Gassendi and Kant offer different arguments. And they are arguing for different conclusions. These differences stem from a more (...)
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  42. Patrick Frierson (2011). Rational Faith: God, Immortality, Grace. In Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen Publishing Limited.
    This article offers an explanation and analysis of Kant’s philosophy of religion. It starts with Kant’s criticisms of the ontological, cosmological, and physico-teleological arguments for the existence of God from the ’Critique of Pure Reason’. It then explains Kant’s moral arguments in the ’Critique of Practical Reason’ for the existence and nature of God and for humans’ personal immorality. Finally, it lays out the argument for the necessity of grace from Kant’s ’Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reaso.'.
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  43. Sebastian Gardner (2011). Kant's Practical Postulates and the Limits of the Critical System. Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 63:187 - 215.
  44. Walford Gealy (1998). Review: Wood & Giovanni (Tr & Ed), Religion and Rational Theology. By Immanuel Kant. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2:143-149.
  45. Walford Gealy (1998). Review: Wood and di Giovanni (Trans/Ed), Kant's Religion and Rational Theology, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 2:143-149.
  46. Georg Geismann (2000). Sittlichkeit, Religion und Geschichte in der Philosophie Kants. Jahrbuch für Recht Und Ethik 8:437-531.
  47. Jerry H. Gill (1984). Kant, Analogy, and Natural Theology. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 16 (1):19 - 28.
  48. Alain Godet (2012). «Kant: Théologie Et Religion»: Xe Congrès International de la Société d'Études Kantiennes de Langue Française (Luxembourg, 5-8 Octobre 2011). [REVIEW] Revue Théologique de Louvain 43 (3):459-462.
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  49. S. Grapotte (2003). The Critical Concept of" Ens Realissimum" (Kant,'Critique of Pure Reason'). Revue Philosophique De Louvain 101 (3):434-455.
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  50. Michelle Gilmore Grier (1993). Illusion and Fallacy in Kant's First Paralogism. Kant-Studien 84 (3):257-282.
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