This paper argues for the hypothesis of direct compositionality (as in, e.g., Montague 1974), according to which the combinatory syntactic rules specify a set of well-formed expressions while the semantic combinatory rules work in tandem to directly supply a model-theoretic interpretation to each expression as it is "built" in the syntax. (This thus obviates the need for any level like LF and, concomitantly, for any rules mapping surface structures to such a level.) I focus here on one related group of (...) phenomena: the interaction of "paycheck" pronouns with Weak Crossover effects and i-within-i effects. These interactions were studied in Jacobson (1977) as they show up in Back-Peters sentences. There I argued that these interactions show that paycheck pronouns have a complex representation at LF; here I show that all of the observations in this earlier work are compatible with the hypothesis of direct compositionality. The key tool is the adoption of a variation-free semantics (a semantics which makes no use of variables as part of the semantic machinery). In addition to the general consequences for the syntax/semantics interface, there are two other main results. First, I provide new arguments for a variable-free semantics. For example, it will be shown that under this view the paycheck reading of a pronoun comes for free; most other theories posit additional mechanisms and/or an additional lexical meaning for pronouns, and thus paycheck and regular pronouns are only accidentally homophonous. Second, I reiterate one of the central points in Jacobson (1977): this is that the first pronoun in a Bach-Peters sentence is indeed a paycheck pronoun, and hence nothing special needs to be said about these sentences nor does any new machinery need to be invoked for them. (shrink)
This book moves toward building a new and more comprehensive theory of literature, philosophy, psychology, and art. The extremely popular work of Ken Wilber, unites the best of both western and eastern thought and affirms that the stages of consciousness, more refined than that of the reasoning mind, do exist.
Ethical challenges in public health can have a significant impact on the health of communities if they impede efficiencies and best practices. Competing needs for resources and a plurality of values can challenge public health policymakers and practitioners to make fair and effective decisions for their communities. In this paper, the authors offer an analytic framework designed to assist policymakers and practitioners in managing the ethical tensions they face in daily practice. Their framework is built upon the following set of (...) six considerations: determining population-level utility of the proposed action; demonstrating evidence of need and effectiveness of actions; establishing fairness of goals and proposed implementation strategies; ensuring accountability; and, assessing expected efficiencies and costs associated with the proposed action. Together, these considerations create a structured guide to assist decision-makers in identifying potential ethical challenges and in assessing the moral considerations that underlie public health practice - and possibly even, if the conditions are met, reduce the creation of ethical tension. Although the authors’empirical experiences provide the basis for the framework advanced here, their approach remains to be tested and evaluated by public health practitioners. (shrink)
Despite evidence indicating that public health services are the most effective means of improving the population's health status, health care services receive the bulk of funding and political support. The recent passage of the Affordable Care Act, which focused on improving access to health care services through insurance reform, reflects the primacy of health care over public health. Although policymakers typically conceptualize health care and public health as two distinct systems, gains in health status are most effectively and cost-efficiently achieved (...) through their integration into a single health system. The Act does little to compel integration; however, there are numerous opportunities to encourage the coordination of public health and health care in the Act's implementation. (shrink)
Evidence that placebo acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic pain presents a puzzle: how do placebo needles appearing to patients to penetrate the body, but instead sitting on the skin’s surface in the manner of a tactile stimulus, evoke a healing response? Previous accounts of ritual touch healing in which patients often described enhanced touch sensations suggest an embodied healing mechanism. In this qualitative study, we asked a subset of patients in a singleblind randomized trial in irritable bowel syndrome (...) to describe their treatment experiences while undergoing placebo treament. Analysis focused on patients’ unprompted descriptions of any enhanced touch sensations and any significance patients assigned to the sensations. We found in 5/6 cases, patients associated sensations including “warmth” and “tingling” with treatment efficacy. The conclusion offers a “neurophenomenological” account of the placebo effect by considering dynamic effects of attentional filtering on early sensory cortices, possibly underlying the phenomenology of placebo acupuncture. (shrink)
This work aims at elucidate the reasons for appropriating the sentiments and emotions in the approach of moral dilemmas. Therefore, first it will start with an analysis of Williams in his article Ethical Consistency where the author approaches de role of the emotions such as remorse and regret, and also introduces the idea of “moral remainder” in moral dilemmas. In a second moment, this work will be concentrated in the analysis of Statman in his article The debate over the so-called (...) reality of moral dilemmas and his systematization of the “sentiments argument” in favor of moral dilemmas. In a third moment, the analysis will focus on the article Sentiment and Value, of D’arms and Jacobson which approaches important questions concerning the possibility of a moral sentimentalism with a rational basis. Finally, the focus will be in the question if in such approaches the appeal of “moral facts” could possibly justify the feelings of regret, guilty or remorse experienced by the agent in moral dilemmas, then these feelings cannot be disregarded in a more intuitive and broader approach of the issue. (shrink)
The strong weak truth table (sw) reducibility was suggested by Downey, Hirschfeldt, and LaForte as a measure of relative randomness, alternative to the Solovay reducibility. It also occurs naturally in proofs in classical computability theory as well as in the recent work of Soare, Nabutovsky, and Weinberger on applications of computability to differential geometry. We study the sw-degrees of c.e. reals and construct a c.e. real which has no random c.e. real (i.e., Ω number) sw-above it.
A necessidade de homens e mulheres de fé esclarecida e bem fundamentada na política tornou-se preponderante na contemporaneidade. Vive-se em um contexto em que muitos perderam a esperança e não acreditam mais na política. Na perspectiva cristã, a fé se traduz na prática do amor e é alimentada pela esperança. Não é possível sonhar com uma qualidade de vida melhor, em âmbito pessoal e coletivo, se não houver pessoas de fé na política, imbuídas dessa missão. O Movimento Nacional Fé e (...) Política – MF&P, criado em 1989, e constituído por grupos de pessoas atuantes em comunidades eclesiais, movimentos populares, partidos políticos, sindicatos e outros espaços de organização social, surgiu para promover estratégias em favor da justiça social e da dignidade humana. O trabalho é feito através da reflexão, da celebração, do aprofundamento e estudo, em grupos, seminários, retiros e encontros, tendo como lema principal, atualmente, a Cultura do Bem-Viver. O objetivo deste trabalho, a partir do material bibliográfico do MF&P e de outros pesquisadores, foi analisar o contexto do nascimento e o desenvolvimento do MF&P no Brasil. Para isso, identificou a produção editorial e o histórico dos encontros e seminários, das fases do movimento, chegando à época atual, quando, a partir de 2011, o movimento incluiu a Cultura do Bem-Viver como novo horizonte ético e político. A metodologia utilizada foi a revisão de literatura e análise do material publicado de forma impressa e também na forma digital, no site do movimento, e em publicações de membros que fazem parte do MF&P. Pode-se concluir que, através de sua história, das publicações e dos encontros regionais e nacionais, o movimento abriu perspectivas sobre novas formas de se fazer política, que contemplam e reforçam a atenção para com a ética, o cuidado, a dignidade e a justiça social. É um movimento dinâmico que contribui como um caminho para uma nova sociedade que possa usufruir de seus direitos fundamentais. (shrink)
Este artigo tem por objetivo proceder à relação entre as teorias da linguagem e o estudo das religiões, notadamente por meio da apresentação do quadro epistemológico da semiótica greimasiana de linha francesa. O artigo, de natureza teórica, ao observar as recorrências dos mecanismos de construção do sentido dos textos, presentes nos enunciados de interpretação religiosa, efetivados pela semiótica, procura realizar um breve histórico desses estudos, traçando algumas considerações acerca de como se processa o projeto da semiótica no que concerne ao (...) tratamento de enunciados das linguagens da religião. Do mesmo modo que a área que trata das Linguagens da Religião, a semiótica greimasiana da qual trabalhamos, difere-se de propostas centradas nos aspectos de comunicação religiosa e nos aspectos de relações midiáticas, tomando por base os aspectos mais elementares da relação entre religião e linguagem. Ao tomarmos a religião como prática social, presente no espaço tensivo das práticas, esperamos contribuir com a apresentação de uma epistemologia diferenciada no que concerne ao tratamento das linguagens da religião. (shrink)
O artigo apresenta e interpreta a gravura De smalle en de brede Weg de Hieronymus Wierix, criada no ano de 1619 na cidade de Antuérpia, já sob domínio espanhol. O objetivo é analisar uma expressão da cultura visual religiosa católica que influenciou as Américas e o Brasil colônia e que inspirou a cultura visual evangélica brasileira, no caso, mediante a xilogravura de Charlotte Reihlen no século 19. Como método aplicam-se os três passos de interpretação de arte religiosa renascentista propostos por (...) Ernst Panofsky, a descrição pré-iconográfica, a análise iconográfica e a interpretação iconológica. Espera-se enriquecer a compreensão da cultura visual religiosa na América Latina e no Brasil, inclusive em sua transconfessionalidade, investigando seu rico fundo imaginário. (shrink)
Riassunto: Se anche i concetti astratti possono essere spiegati completamente attraverso un approccio embodied e grounded è argomento di un crescente dibattito. Tuttavia, le teorie proposte tendono a trattarli come un insieme unitario opposto a quello dei concetti concreti; e nelle ricerche empiriche non c’è concordanza sui criteri per selezionare gli stimoli. Questo studio investiga le implicazioni di tali limitazioni con l’obiettivo di proporre un approccio di ricerca alternativo. Verranno brevemente esaminate le differenze fra parole astratte e concrete, nonché i (...) modelli che ne descrivono la relazione. Dopo aver presentato le recenti prospettive di ricerca, si vedrà come le ipotesi delle teorie a rappresentazione multipla trovano riscontro in alcuni parametri psicolinguistici utili ad analizzare le differenze fra tipi di concetti astratti sulla base delle loro molteplici dimensioni. Si suggerisce così di integrare il modello del continuum monodimensionale della concretezza/astrattezza, al fine di rendere conto della rappresentazione delle varietà dei concetti astratti. Parole chiave: Embodied e Grounded Cognition; Varietà dei Concetti Astratti; Continuum; Rappresentazione Multipla; Dimensioni Semantiche Embodied Cognition and the Challenge ofConcepts. A Multidimensional Approach Abstract: Whether abstract concepts can also be fully explained by an embodied and grounded approach, is a topic of increasing debate. However, the theories that have been put forward tend to treat abstract concepts as a unitary whole in opposition to [the category of] concrete concepts; furthermore, in empirical research there is no agreement on the criteria for selecting stimuli. This study investigates the implications of these limitations with the aim of proposing an alternative research approach. We briefly analyze the differences between abstract and concrete concepts and the models used to describe their relationships. After introducing recent research perspectives, we highlight how the hypotheses of multiple representation theories are reflected in various psycholinguistic parameters that are useful for analyzing differences between types of abstract concepts across multiple dimensions. We suggest integrating the model of the monodimensional continuum of concreteness/abstractness, in order to provide an account for the varieties of abstract concepts. Keywords: Embodied and Grounded Cognition; Varieties of Abstract Concepts; Continuum; Multiple Representation; Semantic Dimensions. (shrink)
Riassunto: In letteratura è nota la tendenza delle persone a punire i comportamenti sleali, anche nel caso in cui tali comportamenti non li riguardino direttamente, e tale punizione possa implicare un costo personale. Sono stati individuati differenti comportamenti di punizione: la punizione altruistica, la punizione di comportamenti sleali ; l’altruismo parrocchiale, la tendenza attraverso la punizione a proteggere e favorire, anche senza alcun guadagno personale, i membri del proprio gruppo a scapito di quelli di altri gruppi, e la punizione antisociale, (...) la punizione a proprio costo di comportamenti di tipo leale, cooperativo. Recentemente l’interesse scientifico nell’ambito delle neuroscienze si è orientato sui processi neuronali coinvolti nei comportamenti di cooperazione e punizione modulati dai propri o differenti contesti di appartenenza di gruppo. Studi recenti hanno indagato non soltanto le differenze comportamentali, ma anche i correlati neurali sottostanti i processi di punizione di comportamenti sleali, che possono violare la cooperazione nei diversi contesti di gruppo. Studi comportamentali mostrano come la punizione di un comportamento sleale si verifichi in differenti contesti di gruppo. Recenti ricerche relative ai correlati neurali evidenziano, durante questo tipo di comportamento, il reclutamento delle aree del reward, del sistema della gratificazione. Esso, quindi, potrebbe rivestire un ruolo centrale nella motivazione e gratificazione della punizione di un comportamento sleale. Parole chiave: Punizione altruistica; Altruismo parrocchiale; Punizione antisociale; Contesti Ingroup e Outgroup; fMRI Punishment and Cooperation in Ingroup and Outgroup Context: The tendency of people to punish unfair behavior, even when this behavior does not directly affect them, or the punishment implies a personal cost, has been reported in the literature. Different types of punishment have been identified: altruistic punishment, the punishment of unfair behaviour; parochial altruism, the tendency to use punishment to protect and favor members of one’s group at the expense of members of other groups, even when it involves no personal gain; and anti-social punishment, punishment of loyal or cooperative behaviors which entails a personal cost. Recently, research in neuroscience has focused on how neuronal processes involved in cooperation and punishment behaviors may be modulated across different personal and group membership contexts. Recent studies have investigated not only behavioral differences, but also the neural correlates of punishing unfair behaviors, which may violate the principle of cooperation in certain group contexts. Behavioral studies show how the punishment of unfair behavior occurs in different group settings. Recent research into the neural correlates of punishment shows the recruitment of the reward areas and the gratification system, suggesting these play a central role in motivation and gratification for punishment of unfair behavior. Keywords: Altruistic Punishment; Parochial Altruism; Antisocial Punishment; Ingroup and Outgroup Settings; fMRI. (shrink)
Resenha da obra Aparecida: significados e perspectivas, organizada pelo Professor Doutor Wagner Lopez Sanchez. Referência: SANCHEZ, Wagner Lopes. Aparecida: significados e perspectivas. Aparecida: Editora Santuário, 2018. 214 p.
Apresenta-se neste artigo o papel desempenhado pelo bispo e arcebispo de Cuiabá Dom Francisco de Aquino Corrêa na construção da identidade mato-grossense, entre as décadas de 1910 a 1930. Como governador de Mato Grosso, interveio na esfera cultural a fim de fortalecer as elites cuiabanas e superar as crises política, econômica e social. Para tal, arregimentou um grupo de intelectuais que se empenharam na construção da identidade regional assentada na idealização das terras e do homem mato-grossense, superando os estigmas de (...) fronteira-sertão. Para tal, criou o Instituto Histórico e Geográfico de Mato Grosso e a Academia Mato-grossense de Letras, símbolos regionais, e realizou sucessivas manifestações culturais. Como membro da hierarquia eclesiástica, empenhou-se em recuperar o prestígio da Igreja Católica, valorizar os aspectos religiosos da cultura brasileira e propagar o regionalismo, o nacionalismo e o culto à nação. (shrink)
G. E. Moore's ‘A Defence of Common Sense’ has generated the kind of interest and contrariety which often accompany what is new, provocative, and even important in philosophy. Moore himself reportedly agreed with Wittgenstein's estimate that this was his best article, while C. D. Broad has lamented its very great but largely unfortunate influence. Although the essay inspired Wittgenstein to explore the basis of Moore's claim to know many propositions of common sense to be true, A. J. Ayer judges its (...) enduring value to lie in provoking a more sophisticated conception of the very type of metaphysics which disputes any such unqualified claim of certainty. (shrink)
Esse artigo mostra o significado da unicidade da ética e da estética no Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Primeiro, ele apresenta os principais aspectos ética tractatiana: que ela não hierarquiza fatos, que ela é eudemonista, e que ela não propõe qualquer finalidade externa às ações do sujeito ético. Segundo, ele mostra que a obra de arte é a expressão da vida de um ponto de vista ético, ou seja, ela é a expressão do significado da vida de um ponto de vista da eternidade. (...) Concluindo, ele mostra que essa concepção propõe uma delimitação absoluta que separa o que é arte e que não é arte. (shrink)
O artigo tenta compreender como o software livre tornou-se vetor de um movimento social militante para criação e difusão de bens comuns. Como, para além de suas características de “meio” esses softwares foram transformados em questões de política, economia, sociedade, cultura e ética? São emergência, os modos de organização e as ideologias desse movimento que o artigo se propõe a analisar.
Assim como em outras partes do mundo, a situação midiática na Ásia sofre a influência dos poderes políticos, econômicos e culturais, refletidos em uma variedade de sistemas de funcionamento da mídia. Este artigo é trecho de tese de doutorado defendida em 2007 e analisa os discursos jornalísticos em três jornais (da Indonésia, da Malásia e de Cingapura) referentes aos atentados de Bali em 2002; contra o hotel JW Marriott em Jacarta em 2003; contra a embaixada da Austrália em Jacarta em (...) 2004 e ao atentado suicida em Bali em 2005. (shrink)
The study aimed to identify E- Learning strategies and their relation to the efficiency of research performance in foreign and Palestinian universities (University of Ottawa, Munster, Suez Canal, Al-Azhar, Islamic, Al-Aqsa). The analytical descriptive approach was used for this purpose, and relying on the questionnaire as a main tool for data collection. The study society is from the senior management, where the number of senior management in the universities in question is 206. The random stratified sample was selected and (SPSS) (...) was used for statistical data analysis. The study found a significant relationship between E- Learning strategies and the efficiency of research performance in universities. It also reached the participation of senior management in the research that develops the university performance in the Palestinian universities. The senior management indicated that they do not care to follow the policies of implementing the development of scientific research. While the senior management in foreign universities indicated that they are interested in following up the policies of implementing the development of scientific research. The study also showed that senior management in Palestinian universities does not care about providing the appropriate budget for E- Learning. The study recommended that the senior management of Palestinian universities should provide an E- Learning budget and encourage employees to continue using E- Learning strategies. The administration in the Palestinian universities should adopt and support outstanding research, and the need to encourage interest in the implementation of policies for the development of scientific research. (shrink)
The E-Z Reader model (Reichle et al. 1998; 1999) provides a theoretical framework for understanding how word identification, visual processing, attention, and oculomotor control jointly determine when and where the eyes move during reading. In this article, we first review what is known about eye movements during reading. Then we provide an updated version of the model (E-Z Reader 7) and describe how it accounts for basic findings about eye movement control in reading. We then review several alternative models of (...) eye movement control in reading, discussing both their core assumptions and their theoretical scope. On the basis of this discussion, we conclude that E-Z Reader provides the most comprehensive account of eye movement control during reading. Finally, we provide a brief overview of what is known about the neural systems that support the various components of reading, and suggest how the cognitive constructs of our model might map onto this neural architecture. Key Words: attention; eye-movement control; E-Z Reader; fixations; lexical access; models; reading; regressions; saccades. (shrink)
This paper provides a new analysis of e - trust , trust occurring in digital contexts, among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. The analysis endorses a non-psychological approach and rests on a Kantian regulative ideal of a rational agent, able to choose the best option for itself, given a specific scenario and a goal to achieve. The paper first introduces e-trust describing its relevance for the contemporary society and then presents a new theoretical analysis of this phenomenon. (...) The analysis first focuses on an agent’s trustworthiness , this one is presented as the necessary requirement for e-trust to occur. Then, a new definition of e-trust as a second-order-property of first-order relations is presented. It is shown that the second-order-property of e-trust has the effect of minimising an agent’s effort and commitment in the achievement of a given goal. On this basis, a method is provided for the objective assessment of the levels of e-trust occurring among the artificial agents of a distributed artificial system. (shrink)
The study aimed to identify e-learning strategies and their relation to increasing the efficiency of research performance in foreign and Palestinian universities (University of Ottawa, Munster, Suez Canal, Al-Azhar, Islamic, Al-Aqsa). The analytical descriptive approach was used for this purpose, and relying on the questionnaire as a main tool for data collection. The study society consists of senior management in Palestinian universities, where the number of senior management personnel in the universities was 206. The random stratified sample was selected, and (...) the Statistical Analysis of Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used. The study found a significant relationship between e-learning strategies and the efficiency of research performance in universities. It also reached the participation of senior management in the research that develops the university performance in the Palestinian universities. The senior management indicated that they care to follow the policies of implementing the development of scientific research. While the senior management in foreign universities indicated that they are interested in the sequence of policies to implement the development of scientific research. The study also showed that senior management in Palestinian universities interested in providing the appropriate budget for elearning. The study recommended that the senior management of Palestinian universities should provide an e-learning budget and encourage employees to continue using e-learning strategies. The administration in the Palestinian universities should adopt and support outstanding research, and the need to encourage interest in the implementation of policies for the development of scientific research. (shrink)
E. F. Carritt (1876-1964) was educated at and taught in Oxford University. He made substantial contributions both to aesthetics and to moral philosophy. The focus of this entry is his work in moral philosophy. His most notable works in this field are The Theory of Morals (1928) and Ethical and Political Thinking (1947). Carritt developed views in metaethics and in normative ethics. In meta-ethics he defends a cognitivist, non-naturalist moral realism and was among the first to respond to A. J. (...) Ayer’s emotivist challenge to this view. In normative ethics he advocates a deontological view in which there is a plurality of obligations and of non-instrumental goods. In the context of defending this view he raised some penetrating and novel criticisms of ideal utilitarianism. He held that it is not acceptable to revise our reflective common-sense moral attitudes in the face of philosophical moral theories, and that moral philosophy is only indirectly practical. (shrink)
We present a general theory of scope and binding in which both crossover and superiority violations are ruled out by one key assumption: that natural language expressions are normally evaluated (processed) from left to right. Our theory is an extension of Shan’s (2002) account of multiple-wh questions, combining continuations (Barker, 2002) and dynamic type-shifting. Like other continuation-based analyses, but unlike most other treatments of crossover or superiority, our analysis is directly compositional (in the sense of, e.g., Jacobson, 1999). In (...) particular, it does not postulate a level of Logical Form or any other representation distinct from surface syntax. One advantage of using continuations is that they are the standard tool for modeling order-of-evaluation in programming languages. This provides us with a natural and independently motivated characterization of what it means to evaluate expressions from left to right. We give a combinatory categorial grammar that models the syntax and the semantics of quantifier scope and wh-question formation. It allows quantificational binding but not crossover, in-situ wh but not superiority violations. In addition, the analysis automatically accounts for a variety of sentence types involving binding in the presence of pied piping, including reconstruction cases such as Whose criticism of hisi mother did each personi resent? (shrink)
I have two aims in this paper. In §§2-4 I contend that Moore has two arguments (not one) for the view that that ‘good’ denotes a non-natural property not to be identified with the naturalistic properties of science and common sense (or, for that matter, the more exotic properties posited by metaphysicians and theologians). The first argument, the Barren Tautology Argument (or the BTA), is derived, via Sidgwick, from a long tradition of anti-naturalist polemic. But the second argument, the Open (...) Question Argument proper (or the OQA), seems to have been Moore’s own invention and was probably devised to deal with naturalistic theories, such as Russell’s, which are immune to the Barren Tautology Argument. The OQA is valid and not (as Frankena (1939) has alleged) question-begging. Moreover, if its premises were true, it would have disposed of the desire-to-desire theory. But as I explain in §5, from 1970 onwards, two key premises of the OQA were successively called into question, the one because philosophers came to believe in synthetic identities between properties and the other because it led to the Paradox of Analysis. By 1989 a philosopher like Lewis could put forward precisely the kind of theory that Moore professed to have refuted with a clean intellectual conscience. However, in §§6-8 I shall argue that all is not lost for the OQA. I first press an objection to the desire-to-desire theory derived from Kripke’s famous epistemic argument. On reflection this argument looks uncannily like the OQA. But the premise on which it relies is weaker than the one that betrayed Moore by leading to the Paradox of Analysis. This suggests three conclusions: 1) that the desire-to-desire theory is false; 2) that the OQA can be revived, albeit in a modified form; and 3) that the revived OQA poses a serious threat to what might be called semantic naturalism. (shrink)
Combinatory logic (Curry and Feys 1958) is a “variable-free” alternative to the lambda calculus. The two have the same expressive power but build their expressions differently. “Variable-free” semantics is, more precisely, “free of variable binding”: it has no operation like abstraction that turns a free variable into a bound one; it uses combinators—operations on functions—instead. For the general linguistic motivation of this approach, see the works of Steedman, Szabolcsi, and Jacobson, among others. The standard view in linguistics is that (...) reflexive and personal pronouns are free variables that get bound by an antecedent through some coindexing mechanism. In variable free semantics the same task is performed by some combinator that identifies two arguments of the function it operates on (a duplicator). This combinator may be built into the lexical semantics of the pronoun, into that of the antecedent, or it may be a free-floating operation applicable to predicates or larger chunks of texts, i.e. a typeshifter. This note is concerned with the case of cross-sentential anaphora. It adopts Hepple’s and Jacobson’s interpretation of pronouns as identity maps and asks how this can be extended to the cross-sentential case, assuming the dynamic semantic view of anaphora. It first outlines the possibility of interpreting indefinites that antecede non-ccommanded pronouns as existential quantifiers enriched with a duplicator. Then it argues that it is preferable to use the duplicator as a type-shifter that applies “on the fly”. The proposal has consequences for two central ingredients of the classical dynamic semantic treatment: it does away with abstraction over assignments and with treating indefinites as inherently existentially quantified. However, cross-sentential anaphora remains a matter of binding, and the idea of propositions as context change potentials is retained. (shrink)
La metafísica después de ser ignorada por años ha regresado al centro de la escena en la filosofía contemporánea. Tomás de Aquino ha vivido una historia muy parecida, lo que dio nacimiento al tomismo analítico. A pesar de los trabajos desarrollados en esta línea de investigación, la metafísica del Aquinate ha sido fuertemente ignorada. Sin embargo, la metafísica de Tomás de Aquino tiene una ventaja, poco discutida entre los tomistas y tomasinos, y es la de ser una metafísica esencialista. Así, (...) en armonía con el trabajo del metafísico E. J. Lowe, quien presenta su metafísica como “esencialista seria”, se quiere mostrar que la metafísica del Aquinate tiene las mismas virtudes del “esencialismo serio”, lo que permite postularla como una posición válida y plausible para la metafísica contemporánea. (shrink)