Results for 'replaceability'

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  1.  61
    Replacement in Logic.Lloyd Humberstone - 2013 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 42 (1):49-89.
    We study a range of issues connected with the idea of replacing one formula by another in a fixed context. The replacement core of a consequence relation ⊢ is the relation holding between a set of formulas {A1,..., Am,...} and a formula B when for every context C, we have C,..., C,... ⊢ C. Section 1 looks at some differences between which inferences are lost on passing to the replacement cores of the classical and intuitionistic consequence relations. For example, we (...)
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  2. Replacing Truth.Kevin Scharp - 2007 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 50 (6):606 – 621.
    Of the dozens of purported solutions to the liar paradox published in the past fifty years, the vast majority are "traditional" in the sense that they reject one of the premises or inference rules that are used to derive the paradoxical conclusion. Over the years, however, several philosophers have developed an alternative to the traditional approaches; according to them, our very competence with the concept of truth leads us to accept that the reasoning used to derive the paradox is sound. (...)
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  3.  33
    Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.Anthony Wrigley, Stephen Wilkinson & John B. Appleby - 2015 - Bioethics 29 (9):631-638.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer and Maternal Spindle Transfer. It examines how questions of identity impact (...)
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  4. Replacing Recipe Realism.Juha Saatsi - 2017 - Synthese 194 (9):3233-3244.
    Many realist writings exemplify the spirit of ‘recipe realism’. Here I characterise recipe realism, challenge it, and propose replacing it with ‘exemplar realism’. This alternative understanding of realism is more piecemeal, robust, and better in tune with scientists’ own attitude towards their best theories, and thus to be preferred.
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  5.  20
    Replacing Epiphenomenalism: A Pluralistic Enactive Take on the Metaplasticity of Early Body Ornamentation.Duilio Garofoli & Antonis Iliopoulos - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (2):215-242.
    In the domain of evolutionary cognitive archaeology, the early body ornaments from the Middle Stone Age/Palaeolithic are generally treated as mere by-products of an evolved brain-bound cognitive architecture selected to cope with looming social problems. Such adaptive artefacts are therefore taken to have been but passive means of broadcasting a priori envisaged meanings, essentially playing a neutral role for the human mind. In contrast to this epiphenomenalist view of material culture, postphenomenology and the Material Engagement Theory have been making a (...)
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  6. The Replaceability Argument in the Ethics of Animal Husbandry.Nicolas Delon - 2016 - Encyclopedia of Food and Agricultural Ethics.
    Most people agree that inflicting unnecessary suffering upon animals is wrong. Many fewer people, including among ethicists, agree that painlessly killing animals is necessarily wrong. The most commonly cited reason is that death (without pain, fear, distress) is not bad for them in a way that matters morally, or not as significantly as it does for persons, who are self-conscious, make long-term plans and have preferences about their own future. Animals, at least those that are not persons, lack a morally (...)
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  7.  82
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques and Mexico’s Rule of Law: On the Legality of the First Maternal Spindle Transfer Case.César Palacios-González - 2017 - Journal of Law and the Biosciences 4 (1):50–69.
    News about the first baby born after a mitochondrial replacement technique (MRT; specifically maternal spindle transfer) broke on September 27, 2016 and, in a matter of hours, went global. Of special interest was the fact that the mitochondrial replacement procedure happened in Mexico. One of the scientists behind this world first was quoted as having said that he and his team went to Mexico to carry out the procedure because, in Mexico, there are no rules. In this paper, we explore (...)
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  8. Hormone Replacement Therapy: Informed Consent Without Assessment?Toni C. Saad, Bruce Philip Blackshaw & Daniel Rodger - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (12):1-2.
    Florence Ashley has argued that requiring patients with gender dysphoria to undergo an assessment and referral from a mental health professional before undergoing hormone replacement therapy is unethical and may represent an unconscious hostility towards transgender people. We respond, first, by showing that Ashley has conflated the self-reporting of symptoms with self-diagnosis, and that this is not consistent with the standard model of informed consent to medical treatment. Second, we note that the model of informed consent involved in cosmetic surgery (...)
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  9. Replaceability, Career Choice, and Making a Difference.William MacAskill - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (2):269-283.
  10.  79
    Replacing Truth?Matti Eklund - 2014 - In Brett Sherman & Alexis Burgess (eds.), Metasemantics.
  11. Replacing Development: An Afro-Communal Approach to Global Justice.Thaddeus Metz - 2017 - Philosophical Papers 46 (1):111-137.
    In this article, I consider whether there are values intrinsic to development theory and practice that are dubious in light of a characteristically African ethic. In particular, I focus on what a certain philosophical interpretation of the sub-Saharan value of communion entails for appraising development, drawing two major conclusions. One is that a majority of the criticisms that have been made of development by those sympathetic to African values are weak; I argue that, given the value of communion, development should (...)
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  12.  25
    Replacement—A Sheffer Stroke for Belief Change.Sven Ove Hansson - 2009 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (2):127-149.
    By replacement is meant an operation that replaces one sentence by another in a belief set. Replacement can be used as a kind of Sheffer stroke for belief change, since contraction, revision, and expansion can all be defined in terms of it. Replacement can also be defined either in terms of contraction or in terms of revision. Close connections are shown to hold between axioms for replacement and axioms for contraction and revision. Partial meet replacement is axiomatically characterized. It is (...)
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  13.  14
    On Replacement Body Parts.Mary Jean Walker - 2019 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 16 (1):61-73.
    Technological advances are making devices that functionally replace body parts—artificial organs and limbs—more widely used, and more capable of providing patients with lives that are close to “normal.” Some of the ethical issues this is likely to raise relate to how such prostheses are conceptualized. Prostheses are ambiguous between being inanimate objects and sharing in the status of human bodies—which already have an ambiguous status, as both objects and subjects. At the same time, the possibility of replacing body parts with (...)
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  14.  13
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Egg Donation, Genealogy and Eugenics.César Palacios-González - 2016 - Monash Bioethics Review 34 (1):37-51.
    Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry. Finally, I examine the claim that mitochondrial (...)
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  15. Replacing Race: Interactive Constructionism About Racialized Groups.Adam Hochman - 2017 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 4:61-92.
    In this paper I defend anti-realism about race and a new theory of racialization. I argue that there are no races, only racialized groups. Many social constructionists about race have adopted racial formation theory to explain how ‘races’ are formed. However, anti-realists about race cannot adopt racial formation theory, because it assumes the reality of race. I introduce interactive constructionism about racialized groups as a theory of racialization for anti-realists about race. Interactive constructionism moves the discussion away from the dichotomous (...)
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  16.  46
    Do Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques Affect Qualitative or Numerical Identity?S. Matthew Liao - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):20-26.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques, known in the popular media as 'three-parent' or 'three-person' IVFs, have the potential to enable women with mitochondrial diseases to have children who are genetically related to them but without such diseases. In the debate regarding whether MRTs should be made available, an issue that has garnered considerable attention is whether MRTs affect the characteristics of an existing individual or whether they result in the creation of a new individual, given that MRTs involve the genetic manipulation of (...)
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  17.  26
    The Mitochondrial Replacement ‘Therapy’ Myth.Tina Rulli - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (4):368-374.
    This article argues that two forms of mitochondrial replacement therapy, maternal spindle transfer and pro-nuclear transfer, are not therapies at all because they do not treat children who are coming into existence. Rather, these technologies merely create healthy children where none was inevitable. Even if creating healthy lives has some value, it is not to be confused with the medical value of a cure or therapy. The article addresses a recent Bioethics article, ‘Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity,’ by Wrigley, Wilkinson, (...)
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  18. Replacement of the “Genetic Program” Program.Ronald J. Planer - 2014 - Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):33-53.
    Talk of a “genetic program” has become almost as common in cell and evolutionary biology as talk of “genetic information”. But what is a genetic program? I understand the claim that an organism’s genome contains a program to mean that its genes not only carry information about which proteins to make, but also about the conditions in which to make them. I argue that the program description, while accurate in some respects, is ultimately misleading and should be abandoned. After that, (...)
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  19.  35
    A Mitochondrial Story: Mitochondrial Replacement, Identity and Narrative.Jackie Leach Scully - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):37-45.
    Mitochondrial replacement techniques are intended to avoid the transmission of mitochondrial diseases from mother to child. MRT represent a potentially powerful new biomedical technology with ethical, policy, economic and social implications. Among other ethical questions raised are concerns about the possible effects on the identity of children born from MRT, their families, and the providers or donors of mitochondria. It has been suggested that MRT can influence identity directly, through altering the genetic makeup and physical characteristics of the child, or (...)
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  20.  28
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Who Are the Potential Users and Will They Benefit?Cathy Herbrand - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):46-54.
    In February 2015 the UK became the first country to legalise high-profile mitochondrial replacement techniques, which involve the creation of offspring using genetic material from three individuals. The aim of these new cell reconstruction techniques is to prevent the transmission of maternally inherited mitochondrial disorders to biological offspring. During the UK debates, MRTs were often positioned as a straightforward and unique solution for the ‘eradication’ of mitochondrial disorders, enabling hundreds of women to have a healthy, biologically-related child. However, many questions (...)
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  21.  46
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques, Scientific Tourism, and the Global Politics of Science.Sarah Chan, César Palacios-González & María De Jesús Medina Arellano - 2017 - Hastings Center Report 47 (5):7-9.
    The United Kingdom is the first and so far only country to pass explicit legislation allowing for the licensed use of the new reproductive technology known as mitochondrial replacement therapy. The techniques used in this technology may prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA diseases, but they are controversial because they involve the manipulation of oocytes or embryos and the transfer of genetic material. Some commentators have even suggested that MRT constitutes germline genome modification. All eyes were on the United Kingdom (...)
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  22.  28
    Replacement and Irreversibility: The Problem with Ecological Restoration as Moral Repair.Eric Katz - 2018 - Ethics and the Environment 23 (1):17.
    Should the process of ecological restoration be considered a type of moral reparation? Defenders of the restoration process have recently proposed an affirmative answer to this question. The idea itself is not new. Paul Taylor considered the possibility of reparations to the natural world in his seminal work in environmental ethics, Respect for Nature, although Taylor was not directly considering the process of ecological restoration as the means to secure the reparations. In a recent issue of this journal, Ben Almassi (...)
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  23.  41
    The Harm Principle Cannot Replace the Best Interest Standard: Problems With Using the Harm Principle for Medical Decision Making for Children.Johan Christiaan Bester - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (8):9-19.
    For many years the prevailing paradigm for medical decision making for children has been the best interest standard. Recently, some authors have proposed that Mill’s “harm principle” should be used to mediate or to replace the best interest standard. This article critically examines the harm principle movement and identifies serious defects within the project of using Mill’s harm principle for medical decision making for children. While the harm principle proponents successfully highlight some difficulties in present-day use of the best interest (...)
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  24. The Replacement of Time.Steven F. Savitt - 1994 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 72 (4):463 – 474.
  25.  13
    Replacement of Auxiliary Expressions.W. C. - 1956 - Philosophical Review 65 (1):38-55.
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  26.  44
    Gatekeeping Hormone Replacement Therapy for Transgender Patients is Dehumanising.Florence Ashley - 2019 - Journal of Medical Ethics 45 (7):480-482.
    Although informed consent models for prescribing hormone replacement therapy are becoming increasingly prevalent, many physicians continue to require an assessment and referral letter from a mental health professional prior to prescription. Drawing on personal and communal experience, the author argues that assessment and referral requirements are dehumanising and unethical, foregrounding the ways in which these requirements evidence a mistrust of trans people, suppress the diversity of their experiences and sustain an unjustified double standard in contrast to other forms of clinical (...)
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  27.  6
    Replacement of Auxiliary Expressions.W. C. - 1956 - Philosophical Review 65:38.
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  28.  20
    Replacing One Theory by Another Under Preservation of a Given Feature.Rolf A. Eberle - 1971 - Philosophy of Science 38 (4):486-501.
    The conditions are examined under which one theory is said to be replaceable by another, while preserving those features of the original theory which made it serviceable for a given purpose. Among such replacements, special attention is given to ones which qualify as so-called reductions of a theory, and some theorems are proved concerning the notion of a reduction.
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  29.  34
    Lesbian Motherhood and Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Reproductive Freedom and Genetic Kinship.Giulia Cavaliere & César Palacios-González - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (12):835-842.
    In this paper, we argue that lesbian couples who wish to have children who are genetically related to both of them should be allowed access to mitochondrial replacement techniques. First, we provide a brief explanation of mitochondrial diseases and MRTs. We then present the reasons why MRTs are not, by nature, therapeutic. The upshot of the view that MRTs are non-therapeutic techniques is that their therapeutic potential cannot be invoked for restricting their use only to those cases where a mitochondrial (...)
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  30.  5
    Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Examining Collective Representation in Emerging Technologies Governance.Jacquelyne Luce - 2018 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 15 (3):381-392.
    In this article, I draw on research carried out in Europe, primarily in Germany, on patients’ and scientists’ perspectives on mitochondrial replacement techniques in order to explore some of the complexities related to collective representation in health governance, which includes the translation of emerging technologies into clinical use. Focusing on observations, document analyses, and interviews with eight mitochondrial disease patient organization leaders, this contribution extends our understanding of the logic and meanings behind the ways in which patient participation and collective (...)
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  31.  6
    Replacing the Persecution Condition for Refugeehood.Eilidh Beaton - 2020 - Archiv Fuer Rechts Und Sozialphilosphie 106 (1):4-18.
    In order to be eligible for refugee status under the 1951 Refugee Convention, an individual must have a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. A major problem with this condition for refugee status is that it leaves significant protection gaps, for it is generally agreed that individuals fleeing indiscriminate violence or generalized harm do not satisfy this requirement. In this paper, I evaluate existing arguments both defending and (...)
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  32.  26
    Epistemic Replacement Relativism Defended.Martin Kusch - 2009 - In M. Suàrez, Mauro Dorato & M. Rédei (eds.), EPSA Epistemology and Methodology of Science. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 165--175.
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  33.  5
    Replacement Versus Collection and Related Topics in Constructive Zermelo–Fraenkel Set Theory.Michael Rathjen - 2005 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 136 (1-2):156-174.
    While it is known that intuitionistic ZF set theory formulated with Replacement, IZFR, does not prove Collection, it is a longstanding open problem whether IZFR and intuitionistic set theory ZF formulated with Collection, IZF, have the same proof-theoretic strength. It has been conjectured that IZF proves the consistency of IZFR. This paper addresses similar questions but in respect of constructive Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory, CZF. It is shown that in the latter context the proof-theoretic strength of Replacement is the same as (...)
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  34. Replacing the Ideal of Value-Free Science.Janet A. Kourany - 2008 - In Martin Carrier, Don Howard & Janet A. Kourany (eds.), The Challenge of the Social and the Pressure of Practice: Science and Values Revisited. University of Pittsburgh Press. pp. 87--111.
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  35.  17
    Replacing the Singlet Spinor of the EPR-B Experiment in the Configuration Space with Two Single-Particle Spinors in Physical Space.Michel Gondran & Alexandre Gondran - 2016 - Foundations of Physics 46 (9):1109-1126.
    Recently, for spinless non-relativistic particles, Norsen and Norsen et al. show that in the de Broglie–Bohm interpretation it is possible to replace the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle wave functions in physical space. In this paper, we show that this replacment of the wave function in the configuration space by single-particle functions in the 3D-space is also possible for particles with spin, in particular for the particles of the EPR-B experiment, the Bohm version of the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment.
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  36.  10
    Replacement of Auxiliary Expressions.Nelson Goodman - 1957 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 22 (3):317-318.
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  37. Replacing Causal Faithfulness with Algorithmic Independence of Conditionals.Jan Lemeire & Dominik Janzing - 2013 - Minds and Machines 23 (2):227-249.
    Independence of Conditionals (IC) has recently been proposed as a basic rule for causal structure learning. If a Bayesian network represents the causal structure, its Conditional Probability Distributions (CPDs) should be algorithmically independent. In this paper we compare IC with causal faithfulness (FF), stating that only those conditional independences that are implied by the causal Markov condition hold true. The latter is a basic postulate in common approaches to causal structure learning. The common spirit of FF and IC is to (...)
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  38.  19
    Replacing Development: An Afro-Communal Approach to Global Justice (Repr.).Thaddeus Metz - forthcoming - In Bolaji Bateye, Mahmoud Masaeli, Louise Muller & Angela Roothaan (eds.), Beauty in African Thought: Critique of the Western Idea of Development. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. ch. 6.
    Shortened version of an article that first appeared in Philosophical Papers (2017).
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  39.  22
    Ethics of Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: A Habermasian Perspective.César Palacios‐González - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (1):27-36.
    Jürgen Habermas is regarded as a central bioconservative commentator in the debate on the ethics of human prenatal genetic manipulations. While his main work on this topic, The Future of Human Nature, has been widely examined in regard to his position on prenatal genetic enhancement, his arguments regarding prenatal genetic therapeutic interventions have for the most part been overlooked. In this work I do two things. First, I present the three necessary conditions that Habermas establishes for a prenatal genetic manipulation (...)
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  40.  8
    Reduction, Replacement, and Molecular Biology.Michael E. Ruse - 1971 - Dialectica 25 (1):39-72.
  41.  15
    Finite Replacement and Finite Hilbert‐Style Axiomatizability.B. Herrmann & W. Rautenberg - 1992 - Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):327-344.
    We define a property for varieties V, the f.r.p. . If it applies to a finitely based V then V is strongly finitely based in the sense of [14], see Theorem 2. Moreover, we obtain finite axiomatizability results for certain propositional logics associated with V, in its generality comparable to well-known finite base results from equational logic. Theorem 3 states that each variety generated by a 2-element algebra has the f.r.p. Essentially this implies finite axiomatizability of a 2-valued logic in (...)
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  42.  1
    Replacement of Auxiliary Expressions.William Craig - 1956 - Philosophical Review 65 (1):38-55.
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  43.  10
    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy: Cautiously Replace the Master Manipulator.Neil Gemmell & Jonci N. Wolff - 2015 - Bioessays 37 (6):584-585.
    Mitochondria, the powerhouses of our cells, are essential to life. Normal mitochondrial function is achieved through the cooperative interaction of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. New IVF approaches intended to circumvent devastating mitochondrial disease look set to change the ancient pattern of mtDNA inheritance and interaction with unknown consequences.
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  44.  18
    Replacing Modus Ponens With One-Premiss Rules.Lloyd Humberstone - 2008 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 16 (5):431-451.
    After some motivating remarks in Section 1, in Section 2 we show how to replace an axiomatic basis for any one of a broad range of sentential logics having finitely many axiom schemes and Modus Ponens as the sole proper rule, by a basis with the same axiom schemes and finitely many one-premiss rules. Section 3 mentions some questions arising from this replacement procedure , explores another such procedure, and discusses some aspects of the consequence relations associated with the different (...)
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  45.  20
    Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy and Identity: A Comment on an Exchange Between Inmaculada de Melo-Martin and John Harris.Søren Holm - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (3):487-491.
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  46. Can Mechanisms Really Replace Laws of Nature?Bert Leuridan - 2010 - Philosophy of Science 77 (3):317-340.
    Today, mechanisms and mechanistic explanation are very popular in philosophy of science and are deemed a welcome alternative to laws of nature and deductive‐nomological explanation. Starting from Mitchell's pragmatic notion of laws, I cast doubt on their status as a genuine alternative. I argue that (1) all complex‐systems mechanisms ontologically must rely on stable regularities, while (2) the reverse need not hold. Analogously, (3) models of mechanisms must incorporate pragmatic laws, while (4) such laws themselves need not always refer to (...)
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  47.  16
    Meal Replacement: Calming the Hot-State Brain Network of Appetite.Brielle M. Paolini, Paul J. Laurienti, James Norris & W. Jack Rejeski - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  48.  30
    The Replacement of Scientific Theories: Reduction and Explication.James Gaa - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (4):349-372.
    An examination of earlier views yields an account of theoretic change on which changes in theory which do involve changes in meanings of terms are classified as a special (and by no means exhaustive) case of theoretic change which, latter, is construed as a more general phenomenon. Only the general problem is given detailed consideration here. The account given considers the problem of how replacement of intensional theories by extensional ones may be treated within the general framework provided. Among its (...)
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  49.  18
    Meal Replacement and Functional Connectivity in the Brain Network for Appetite: Connecting the Dots.Tanya Zilberter - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  50. Inconsistency and Replacement.Matti Eklund - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):387-402.
    The article is an extended critical discussion of Kevin Scharp’s Replacing Truth. Scharp’s case for the claim that the concept of truth is inconsistent is criticized, and so is his case for the claim that the concept of truth must be replaced because of its inconsistency.
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