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  1. R. Lanier Anderson (2005). The Wolffian Paradigm and its Discontent: Kant's Containment Definition of Analyticity in Historical Context. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 87 (1):22-74.
    I defend Kant’s definition of analyticity in terms of concept “containment”, which has engendered widespread scepticism. Kant deployed a clear, technical notion of containment based on ideas standard within traditional logic, notably genus/species hierarchies formed via logical division. Kant’s analytic/synthetic distinction thereby undermines the logico-metaphysical system of Christian Wolff, showing that the Wolffian paradigm lacks the expressive power even to represent essential knowledge, including elementary mathematics, and so cannot provide an adequate system of philosophy. The results clarify the extent to (...)
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  2. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). Containment Analyticity and Kant's Problem of Synthetic Judgment. Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 25 (2):161-204.
  3. R. Lanier Anderson (2004). It Adds Up After All: Kant's Philosophy of Arithmetic in Light of the Traditional Logic. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 69 (3):501–540.
    Officially, for Kant, judgments are analytic iff the predicate is "contained in" the subject. I defend the containment definition against the common charge of obscurity, and argue that arithmetic cannot be analytic, in the resulting sense. My account deploys two traditional logical notions: logical division and concept hierarchies. Division separates a genus concept into exclusive, exhaustive species. Repeated divisions generate a hierarchy, in which lower species are derived from their genus, by adding differentia(e). Hierarchies afford a straightforward sense of containment: (...)
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  4. Graham Bird (1959). The Necessity of Kant. Mind 68 (271):389-392.
  5. Jorge Brower Beltramin (2013). Aportes (otros) de Foucault al análisis de la cultura. Eidos 18 (18):198-202.
    En las discusiones modernas sobre la posibilidad de las proposiciones sintéticas a priori, la teoría de la definición tiene una importancia capital, porque la mayoría de las teorías sostiene que los juicios analíticos están lógicamente implicados en una definición explícita (lo que restringe los enunciados de una definición completa y precisa a juicios de este tipo). Sin embargo, para Kant -el primer autor en señalar la distinción entre proposiciones analíticas y sintéticas-muchos juicios analíticos son obtenidos mediante análisis de conceptos que (...)
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  6. Tyler Burge (2003). Logic and Analyticity. Grazer Philosophische Studien 66 (1):199-249.
    The view that logic is true independently of a subject matter is criticized—enlarging on Quine's criticisms and adding further ones. It is then argued apriori that full reflective understanding of logic and deductive reasoning requires substantial commitment to mathematical entities. It is emphasized that the objectively apriori connections between deductive reasoning and commitment to mathematics need not be accepted by or even comprehensible to a given deductive reasoner. The relevant connections emerged only slowly in the history of logic. But they (...)
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  7. Emily Carson (1999). Kant on the Method of Mathematics. Journal of the History of Philosophy 37 (4):629-652.
  8. Hector Neri Castañeda (1960). "7 + 5 = 12" as a Synthetic Proposition. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 21 (2):141-158.
  9. Albert Casullo, Intuition, Thought Experiments, and the A Priori.
    There has been a significant shift in the discussion of a priori knowledge. The shift is due largely to the influence of Quine. The traditional debate focused on the epistemic status of mathematics and logic. Kant, for example, maintained that arithmetic and geometry provide clear examples of synthetic a priori knowledge and that principles of logic, such as the principle of contradiction, provide the basis for analytic a priori knowledge. Quine’s rejection of the analytic-synthetic distinction and his holistic empiricist account (...)
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  10. Alberto Coffa (1991). The Semantic Tradition From Kant to Carnap: To the Vienna Station. Cambridge University Press.
    This major publication is a history of the semantic tradition in philosophy from the early nineteenth century through its incarnation in the work of the Vienna Circle, the group of logical positivists that emerged in the years 1925-1935 in Vienna who were characterised by a strong commitment to empiricism, a high regard for science, and a conviction that modern logic is the primary tool of analytic philosophy. In the first part of the book, Alberto Coffa traces the roots of logical (...)
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  11. Alberto Coffa (1982). Kant, Bolzano, and the Emergence of Logicism. Journal of Philosophy 79 (11):679-689.
  12. Willem R. de Jong (2010). The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction and the Classical Model of Science: Kant, Bolzano and Frege. Synthese 174 (2):237-261.
    This paper concentrates on some aspects of the history of the analytic-synthetic distinction from Kant to Bolzano and Frege. This history evinces considerable continuity but also some important discontinuities. The analytic-synthetic distinction has to be seen in the first place in relation to a science, i.e. an ordered system of cognition. Looking especially to the place and role of logic it will be argued that Kant, Bolzano and Frege each developed the analytic-synthetic distinction within the same conception of scientific rationality, (...)
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  13. Willem R. de Jong (1996). Gottlob Frege and the Analytic-Synthetic Distinction Within the Framework of the Aristotelian Model of Science. Kant-Studien 87 (3):290-324.
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  14. Donald Gotterbarn (1974). Kant, Hume and Analyticity. Kant-Studien 65 (1-4):274-283.
  15. Robert Hanna (2008). Kant in the Twentieth Century. In Routledge Companion to Twentieth-Century Philosophy. 150-203.
    Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947) quotably wrote in 1929 that “the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato.”1 The same could be said, perhaps with even greater accuracy, of the twentieth-century Euro-American philosophical tradition and Immanuel Kant (1724–1804).2 In this sense the twentieth century was the post-Kantian century. Twentieth-century philosophy in Europe and the USA was dominated by two distinctive and (after 1945) officially opposed traditions: the analytic tradition and (...)
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  16. Robert Hanna (2007). 8 Kant, Wittgenstein and the Fate of Analysis. In Micahel Beaney (ed.), The Analytic Turn. Routledge. 142.
  17. Robert Hanna (2000). Why Gold is Necessarily a Yellow Metal. Kantian Review 4:1-47.
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  18. Robert Hanna (1998). A Kantian Critique of Scientific Essentialism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):497-528.
    According to Kant in the Prolegomena, the natural kind proposition (GYM) "Gold is a yellow metal" is analytically true, necessary, and a priori. Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam have argued that on the contrary propositions such as (GYM) are neither analytic, nor necessary, nor a priori. The Kripke-Putnam view is based on the doctrine of "scientific essentialism" (SE). It is a direct consequence of SE that propositions such as (GE) "Gold is the element with atomic number number 79" are metaphysically (...)
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  19. Wojciech Hanuszkiewicz (2012). Problem syntetyczności sądów a priori w ujęciu Hermanna Lotzego. ARGUMENT 2 (2):363-375.
    English title: The Problem of the Synthetic a priori Judgements According to Hermann Lotze. The present article compares Kant’s and Lotze’s concepts of synthetic judgements. Lotze’s aim is a renewing of the Kant’s solutions, what he achieves thanks to introduction of the distinction between analytic (identical) content and synthetic form of these judgements which Kant recognised as synthetic. This distinction makes possible to lay down the concept of intentional sense which has influence over Frege and Husserl.
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  20. Rico Hauswald (2010). Umfangslogik und analytisches urteil bei Kant. Kant-Studien 101 (3):283-308.
    According to Kant's most important definition an analytic judgement obtains when the predicate of a judgement is already contained intensionally in the subject. It has been objected (most recently by Robert Hanna) that whereas this containment is a sufficient criterion, nevertheless there are analytic judgements that do not have a corresponding conceptual content . In these cases one needs to add an extensional criterion. The chief goal of this essay is to examine this argument critically and to reject it on (...)
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  21. Shadworth H. Hodgson (1877). Kant's Analytic and Synthetic Judgments, and His Question, How Synthetic à Priori Judgments Are Possible. Mind 2 (5):118-122.
  22. Desmond Hogan (2013). Metaphysical Motives of Kant's Analytic–Synthetic Distinction. Journal of the History of Philosophy 51 (2):267-307.
    Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason (KrV) presents a priori knowledge of synthetic truths as posing a philosophical problem of great import whose only possible solution vindicates the system of transcendental idealism. The work does not accord any such significance to a priori knowledge of analytic truths. The intelligibility of the contrast rests on the well-foundedness of Kant’s analytic–synthetic distinction and on his claim to objectively or correctly classify key judgments with respect to it. Though the correctness of Kant’s classification is (...)
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  23. Béla Juhos (1968). Die empirische wahrheit und ihre überprüfung. Kant-Studien 59 (1-4):435-447.
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  24. Béla Juhos (1967). Die „intensionale“ wahrheit und die zwei arten Des aussagengebrauchs. Kant-Studien 58 (1-4):173-186.
  25. Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to Every Future System of Metaphysics Which Can Claim to Rank as Science.
  26. Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena and Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science.
  27. Immanuel Kant (2005). Notes and Fragments: Logic, Metaphysics, Moral Philosophy, Aesthetics. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides the first ever extensive translation of the notes and fragments that survived Kant's death in 1804. These include marginalia, lecture notes, and sketches and drafts for his published works. They are important as an indispensable resource for understanding Kant's intellectual development and published works, casting new light on Kant's conception of his own philosophical methods and his relations to his predecessors, as well as on central doctrines of his work such as the theory of space, time and (...)
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  28. Immanuel Kant (2004). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Present Itself as a Science: With Two Early Reviews of the Critique of Pure Reason. Oxford University Press.
    This accessible and practical edition of Kant's best introduction to his own work is designed especially for students. Assuming no prior knowledge of the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics, esteemed scholar Gunter Zoller provides an extensive introduction that covers Kant's life, the origin and reception of the Prolegomena, the organization of the work, its principal arguments, and its philosophical significance. Detailed notes, a chronology, a glossary, an annotated bibliography, and two reviews of the Critique of Pure Reason--which establishes the specific (...)
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  29. Immanuel Kant (2004). Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    This new, revised edition of Kant's Prolegomena, the best introduction to the theoretical side of his philosophy, presents his thought clearly through careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments (including famous sections of the Schematism and Analogies), and in which Kant himself explains his special terminology. The first reviews of the Critique, to which Kant responded in the Prolegomena, are included in (...)
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  30. Immanuel Kant (1998). Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge.
    This entirely new translation of Critique of Pure Reason by Paul Guyer and Allan Wood is the most accurate and informative English translation ever produced of this epochal philosophical text. Though its simple, direct style will make it suitable for all new readers of Kant, the translation displays a philosophical and textual sophistication that will enlighten Kant scholars as well. This translation recreates as far as possible a text with the same interpretative nuances and richness as the original.
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  31. Immanuel Kant (1992). Lectures on Logic. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant's views on logic and logical theory play an important role in his critical writings, especially the Critique of Pure Reason. However, since he published only one short essay on the subject, we must turn to the texts derived from his logic lectures to understand his views. The present volume includes three previously untranslated transcripts of Kant's logic lectures: the Blumberg Logic from the 1770s; the Vienna Logic (supplemented by the recently discovered Hechsel Logic) from the early 1780s; and the (...)
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  32. Patricia Kitcher (2011). Kant's Thinker. Oxford University Press.
    Overview -- Locke's internal sense and Kant's changing views -- Personal identity amd its problems -- Rationalalist metaphysics of mind -- Consciousness, self-consciousness, and cognition -- Strands of Argument in the Duisburg Nachlass -- A transcendental deduction for a priori concepts -- Synthesis : why and how? -- Arguing for apperception -- The power of apperception -- "I-think" as the destroyer of rational psychology -- Is Kant's theory consistent? -- The normativity objection -- Is Kant's thinker (as such) a free (...)
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  33. Tapio Korte, Ari Maunu & Tuomo Aho (2009). Modal Logic From Kant to Possible Worlds Semantics. In Leila Haaparanta (ed.), The Development of Modern Logic. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter begins with a discussion of Kant's theory of judgment-forms. It argues that it is not true in Kant's logic that assertoric or apodeictic judgments imply problematic ones, in the manner in which necessity and truth imply possibility in even the weakest systems of modern modal logic. The chapter then discusses theories of judgment-form after Kant, the theory of quantification, Frege's Begriffsschrift, C. I. Lewis and the beginnings of modern modal logic, the proof-theoretic approach to modal logic, possible world (...)
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  34. Seung-Kee Lee (2009). The Synthetic a Priori in Kant and German Idealism. Archiv für Geschichte Der Philosophie 91 (3):288-328.
    In twentieth-century Kant scholarship, few have provided an account of the analytic-synthetic distinction and of the problem of the synthetic a priori that takes into consideration the views of Kant's idealist successors such as Maimon, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. I first explain how Kant formulates the analytic-synthetic distinction in terms of the determinate-indeterminate distinction, which, in turn, is based on the distinction between general and transcendental logic. Kant's problem of the synthetic a priori , then, is the problem of showing (...)
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  35. Seung-Kee Lee (2008). How Are Synthetic Judgments Possible A Priori? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:171-180.
    Kant’s analytic-synthetic distinction is often construed in terms of the question of whether or not the predicate is contained in or can be derived from the concept of the subject. Few have observed that Kant has another formulation of the distinction, a formulation that is based on the determinate-indeterminate distinction. In fact, it is this formulation that will shape the development of one of the main tasks of post-Kantian German idealism. It is my aim to explain how Kant, Maimon, and (...)
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  36. Nectarios G. Limnatis (2006). The Canon and the Organon of Thought. Idealistic Studies 36 (2):123-139.
    This paper looks at the Kantian background in the development of the views on formal logic and contradiction in German Idealism. Assuming the post-Kantian view, I examine what Kant advanced and what he left unsettled, provoking thus the subsequent debate. I start by showing (§1) that already the pre-critical Kant questions the effectiveness of formal logic in philosophical discourse andclaims that the laws of identity and non-contradiction fall short of explaining change, opposition, and contradiction, all these being parts of reality. (...)
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  37. Huaping Lu-Adler (2013). The Objects and the Formal Truth of Kantian Analytic Judgments. History of Philosophy Quarterly 30 (2):177-93.
    I defend the thesis that Kantian analytic judgments are about objects (as opposed to concepts) against two challenges raised by recent scholars. First, can it accommodate cases like “A two-sided polygon is two-sided”, where no object really falls under the subject-concept as Kant sees it? Second, is it compatible with Kant’s view that analytic judgments make no claims about objects in the world and that we can know them to be true without going beyond the given concepts? I address these (...)
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  38. John MacFarlane (2008). Brandom's Demarcation of Logic. Philosophical Topics 36 (2):55-62.
    This is a lightly edited version of my comments on Brandom’s Lecture 2, as delivered in Prague at the “Prague Locke Lectures” in April, 2007. I try to say why Brandom’s proposed demarcation is significant, by placing it in a broader context of demarcation proposals from Kant to the twentieth century. I then raise some questions about the basic ingredients of Brandom’s demarcation—the notions of PP-sufficiency and VP-sufficiency—and question whether the vocabulary of conditionals, Brandom’s paradigm for logical vocabulary, can be (...)
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  39. Penelope Maddy (1999). Logic and the Discursive Intellect. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 40 (1):94-115.
    The effort to fit simple logical truths–like `if it's either red or green and it's not red, then it must be green'–into Kant's account of knowledge turns up a position more subtle and intriguing than might be expected at first glance.
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  40. Michael H. McCarthy (1976). Analytic Method and Analytic Propositions in Kant's Groundwork. Dialogue 15 (04):565-582.
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  41. Arthur Melnick (1993). P. Kitcher, Kant's Transcendental Psychology. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 60 (3):513-.
  42. Stanley Munsat (1971). The Analytic-Synthetic Distinction. Belmont, Calif.,Wadsworth Pub. Co..
    First truths, by G.W. von Leibniz.--Necessary and contingent truths, by G.W. Leibniz.--Of proposition, by T. Hobbes.--Introduction to the critique of pure reason, by I. Kant.--Kant, by A. Pap.--Of demonstration, and necessary truths, by J.S. Mill.--Views of some writers on the nature of arithmetical propositions, by G. Frege.--What is an empirical science, by B. Russell.--Two dogmas of empiricism, by W.V.O. Quine.--The meaning of a word, by J. Austin.--In defense of a dogma, by H.P. Grice and P.F. Strawson.
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  43. Charles Nussbaum (1992). Critical and Pre-Critical Phases in Kant's Philosophy of Logic. Kant-Studien 83 (3):280-293.
    The transition in Kant's writings form a pre-critical to a critical standpoint has been thoroughly documented with regard to Kant's changing conception of metaphysics, theory of knowledge, and philosophy of mathematics. But a similar alteration in standpoint in Kant's philosophy of logic has received little or no attention. This paper documents the existence of this shift in Kant's philosophy of logic and examines its nature. The resulting analysis provides evidence for the thesis that Kant began with a strictly intensional term (...)
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  44. Chong-Hyon Paek (2005). Kant’s Theory of Transcendental Truth as Ontology. Kant-Studien 96 (2):147-160.
    I. The Problem of ‘Truth’ in the Logic of Truth.
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  45. Derk Pereboom (1990). Kant on Justification in Transcendental Philosophy. Synthese 85 (1):25 - 54.
    Kant''s claim that the justification of transcendental philosophy is a priori is puzzling because it should be consistent with (1) his general restriction on the justification of knowledge, that intuitions must play a role in the justification of all nondegenerate knowledge, with (2) the implausibility of a priori intuitions being the only ones on which transcendental philosophy is founded, and with (3) his professed view that transcendental philosophy is not analytic. I argue that this puzzle can be solved, that according (...)
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  46. Graciela Pierris (1988). Frege and Kant on a Priori Knowledge. Synthese 77 (3):285 - 319.
  47. Carl J. Posy (1991). Kant and Conceptual Semantics. Topoi 10 (1):67-78.
  48. Michael D. Potter (2000). Reason's Nearest Kin: Philosophies of Arithmetic From Kant to Carnap. Oxford University Press.
    This is a critical examination of the astonishing progress made in the philosophical study of the properties of the natural numbers from the 1880s to the 1930s. Reassessing the brilliant innovations of Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein, and others, which transformed philosophy as well as our understanding of mathematics, Michael Potter places arithmetic at the interface between experience, language, thought, and the world.
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  49. Ian Proops (2005). Kant's Conception of Analytic Judgment. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 70 (3):588–612.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason Kant appears to characterize analytic judgments in four distinct ways: once in terms of “containment,” a second time in terms of “identity,” a third time in terms of the explicative–ampliative contrast, and a fourth time in terms of the notion of “cognizability in accordance with the principle of contradiction.” The paper asks: Which of these characterizations—or apparent characterizations—best captures Kant’s conception of analyticity in the first Critique? It suggests: “the second.” It argues, further, that (...)
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  50. Michael Radner (1976). How Are Analytic a Priori Judgments Possible for Kant? Southern Journal of Philosophy 14 (2):189-196.
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