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  1. Peter Admirand (2012). Chad Meister , Evil: A Guide for the Perplexed . Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 32 (5):401-403.
  2. Babafemi Akinrinade (2001). International Humanitarian Law and the Conflict in Sierra Leone. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 15 (2):391-454.
  3. Lawrence A. Alexander (1976). Self-Defense and the Killing of Noncombatants: A Reply to Fullinwider. Philosophy and Public Affairs 5 (4):408-415.
  4. Fritz Alhoff & Nicholas Evans (eds.) (forthcoming). Not Just Wars.
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  5. Fritz Allhoff (ed.) (forthcoming). Not Just Wars. Routledge.
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  6. Mark J. Allman & Tobias L. Winright (2012). Growing Edges of Just War Theory: Jus Ante Bellum, Jus Post Bellum, and Imperfect Justice. Journal of the Society of Christian Ethics 32 (2):173-191.
  7. Andrew Altman & Christopher Heath Wellman (2008). From Humanitarian Intervention to Assassination: Human Rights and Political Violence. Ethics 118 (2):228-257.
  8. Larry May Andrew Forcehimes (ed.) (2012). Morality, Just Post Bellum and International Law. Cambridge University Press.
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  9. Richard Arneson, Just Warfare Theory and Noncombatant Immunity.
    ..............................................................................................101 I. The Idea of a Noncombatant ........................................................104 II. The Moral Shield Protecting Noncombatants.............................106 A. Accommodation.......................................................................107 B. Guilty Past ...............................................................................107 C. Guilty Bystander Trying to Inflict Harm .................................109 D. Guilty Bystander Disposed to Inflict Harm .............................109 E. Guilty Bystander Exulting in Anticipated Evil ........................109 F. Fault Forfeits First Doctrine in Just Warfare ...........................110 III. Noncombatants as Wrongful Trespassers ...................................110 IV. The Noncombatant Status of Captured Soldiers ........................111 V. Guerrilla Combat ..........................................................................116 VI. Morally Innocent Unjust Combatants.........................................118 VII. Should Rights Reflect What (...)
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  10. Augusto Bach (2013). Considerações sobre a Guerra E Paz em meio à soberania Das nações. Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 22:105-121.
    In spite all the efforts made by pundits and policy-makers nowadays, the article intends to show how the concepts of jus in bello and jus ad bellum have been misjudged and misinterpreted along its own consolidation in our juridical thought. We also believe they deserve a new approach opened by Foucault´s point of view. In doing so, the issues of sovereignty, war and peace are all reviewed before a genealogical approach which opens us a different window to access the new (...)
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  11. Helmut David Baer & Joseph E. Capizzi (2005). Just War Theories Reconsidered: Problems with Prima Facie Duties and the Need for a Political Ethic. Journal of Religious Ethics 33 (1):119-137.
    This essay challenges a "meta-theory" in just war analysis that purports to bridge the divide between just war and pacifism. According to the meta-theory, just war and pacifism share a common presumption against killing that can be overridden only under conditions stipulated by the just war criteria. Proponents of this meta-theory purport that their interpretation leads to ecumenical consensus between "just warriors" and pacifists, and makes the just war theory more effective in reducing recourse to war. Engagement with the new (...)
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  12. Deane‐Peter Baker (2015). Epistemic Uncertainty and Excusable Wars. Philosophical Forum 46 (1):55-69.
  13. Etienne Balibar (2008). What's in a War? (Politics as War, War as Politics). Ratio Juris 21 (3):365-386.
    Abstract. This paper combines reflections on the current "state of war" in the Middle East with an epistemological discussion of the meaning and implications of the category "war" itself, in order to dissipate the confusions arising from the idea of a "War on Terror." The first part illustrates the insufficiency of the ideal type involved in dichotomies which are implicit in the naming and classifications of wars. They point nevertheless to a deeper problem which concerns the antinomic character of a (...)
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  14. Robert Barry (1980). Just War Theory and the Logic of Reconciliation. New Scholasticism 54 (2):129-152.
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  15. Robert Barry (1980). Michael Walzer: "Just and Unjust Wars". [REVIEW] The Thomist 44 (2):310.
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  16. Saba Bazargan (2013). Morally Heterogeneous Wars. Philosophia 41 (4):959-975.
    According to “epistemic-based contingent pacifism” a) there are virtually no wars which we know to be just, and b) it is morally impermissible to wage a war unless we know that the war is just. Thus it follows that there is no war which we are morally permitted to wage. The first claim (a) seems to follow from widespread disagreement among just war theorists over which wars, historically, have been just. I will argue, however, that a source of our inability (...)
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  17. Endre Begby (forthcoming). A Role for Coercive Force in the Theory of Global Justice? In Thom Brooks (ed.), New Waves in Gobal Justice. Palgrave-MacMillan.
  18. Endre Begby (2012). Collective Responsibility for Unjust Wars. POLITICS 32 (2):100-108.
    This article argues against Anna Stilz's recent attempt to solve the problem of citizens' collective responsibility in democratic states. I show that her solution could only apply to state actions that are (in legal terminology) unjustified but excusable. Stilz's marquee case – the 2003 invasion of Iraq – does not, I will argue, fit this bill; nor, in all likelihood, does any other case in recorded history. Thus, this article concludes, we may allow that Stilz's argument offers a theoretically cogent (...)
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  19. Alex J. Bellamy (2004). Motives, Outcomes, Intent and the Legitimacy of Humanitarian Intervention. Journal of Military Ethics 3 (3):216-232.
    During the 1990s, international society increasingly recognised that states who abuse their citizens in the most egregious ways ought to lose their sovereign inviolability and be subject to humanitarian intervention. The emergence of this norm has given renewed significance to the debate concerning what it is about humanitarian intervention that makes it legitimate. The most popular view is that it is humanitarian motivations that legitimise intervention. Others insist that humanitarian outcomes are more important that an actor's motivations, pointing for instance (...)
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  20. Raymond A. Belliotti (1995). Are All Modern Wars Morally Wrong? Journal of Social Philosophy 26 (2):17-31.
  21. Yitzhak Benbaji (2010). Dehumanization, Lesser Evil and the Supreme Emergency Exemption. Diametros 23:5-21.
    Many believe that if the indiscriminate bombings of German cities at the beginning of World War II were necessary for preventing unlimited spread of Nazism, then the bombings were justified. For, the outcome, in which innocent Germans living in Nazi Germany are killed, was not as bad as the outcome in which the Nazis inflict ethnic cleansing and enslavement on a massive scale. Recently, however, Daniel Statman has advanced a powerful case against this type of justification. I aim in this (...)
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  22. Debra B. Bergoffen (2008). The Just War Tradition: Translating the Ethics of Human Dignity Into Political Practices. Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 72-94.
    This essay argues that the ambiguities of the just war tradition, sifted through a feminist critique, provides the best framework currently available for translating the ethical entitlement to human dignity into concrete feminist political practices. It offers a gendered critique of war that pursues the just war distinction between legitimate and illegitimate targets of wartime violence and provides a gendered analysis of the peace which the just war tradition obliges us to preserve and pursue.
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  23. Lorraine Besser-Jones (2005). Just War Theory, Legitimate Authority, and the "War" on Terror. In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court.
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  24. Iason P. Blahuta (2013). Of Noncombatants in Iust War Theory and Terrorism1. In Fritz Allhoff, Nicholas Evans & Adam Henschke (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War Theory in the 21st Century. Routledge. 253.
  25. Jacob Blair (2013). Self-Defense, Proportionality, and Defensive War Against Mitigated Aggression. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 27 (2):207-224.
    A nation commits mitigated aggression by threatening to kill the citizens of a victim nation if and only if they do not submit to being ruled in a non-egregiously oppressive way. Such aggression primarily threatens a nation’s common way of life . According to David Rodin, a war against mitigated aggression is automatically disproportionate, as the right of lethal self-defense only extends to protecting against being killed or enslaved. Two strategies have been adopted in response to Rodin. The first strategy (...)
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  26. Jacob Blair (2011). Honor in the Military and the Possible Implication for the Traditional Separation of Jus Ad Bellum and Jus in Bello. In Applied Ethics Series (Center for Applied Ethics and Philosophy). 94-102.
    Traditional just war theory maintains that the two types of rules that govern justice in times of war, jus ad bellum (justice of war) and jus in bello (justice in war), are logically independent of one another. Call this the independence thesis. According to this thesis, a war that satisfies the ad bellum rules does not guarantee that the in bello rules will be satisfied; and a war that violates the ad bellum rules does not guarantee that the in bello (...)
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  27. Andrew Blom, Grotius, Hugo. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Hugo Grotius (1583—1645) Hugo Grotius was a Dutch humanist and jurist whose philosophy of natural law had a major impact on the development of seventeenth century political thought and on the moral theories of the Enlightenment. Valorized by contemporary international theorists as the father of international law, his work on sovereignty, international rights of commerce […].
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  28. Josef Bordat (2008). Humanitarian Intervention and Human Rights Education. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 11:15-24.
    To ensure the protection of the human rights, the role of world community, confronted with a new kind of military violence and terrorism, is discussed under the concepts reaction and prevention, for on the one hand there is the attempt to protect human rights by humanitarian interventionism, that leads to so called“human rights wars” (Beck), on the other hand the UNO shows increasing efforts in preventative means like “human rights education”. These two aspects shall be discussed in the article by (...)
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  29. Joseph Boyle (2006). Traditional Just War Theory and Humanitarian Intervention. In Terry Nardin & Melissa Williams (eds.), Humanitarian Intervention. New York University Press. 31--38.
  30. Torkel Brekke (ed.) (2006). The Ethics of War in Asian Civilizations: A Comparative Perspective. Routledge.
    This study of the comparative ethics of war seeks to open a discussion about whether there are universal standards in the ideologies of warfare between the major religious traditions of the world. The project looks at the ideology of war in the major Asian religious traditions. Does our exploration of the ethics of war in Asian civilizations have any bearing on the pressing questions of armed conflict today? It has become clear that Islamic ethics and law contain sophisticated concepts of (...)
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  31. Torkel Brekke (2004). Wielding the Rod of Punishment – War and Violence in the Political Science of Kautilya. Journal of Military Ethics 3 (1):40-52.
    This article presents Kautilya, the most important thinker in the tradition of statecraft in India. Kautilya has influenced ideas of war and violence in much of South- and Southeast Asia and he is of great importance for a comparative understanding of the ethics of war. The violence inflicted by the king on internal and external enemies is pivotal for the maintenance of an ordered society, according to Kautilya. Prudence and treason are hallmarks of Kautilya's world. The article shows that this (...)
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  32. Allen Buchanan (2006). Institutionalizing the Just War. Philosophy and Public Affairs 34 (1):2–38.
  33. Edmund F. Byrne (2009). Just War Theory and Peace Studies. Teaching Philosophy 32 (3):297-304.
    Scholarly critiques of the just war tradition have grown in number and sophistication in recent years to the point that available publications now provide the basis for a more philosophically challenging Peace Studies course. Focusing on just a few works published in the past several years, this review explores how professional philosophers are reclaiming the terrain long dominated by the approach of political scientist Michael Walzer. On center stage are British philosopher David Rodin’s critique of the self-defensejustification for war and (...)
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  34. Duane L. Cady (1994). In Defense of Active Pacifists. Journal of Social Philosophy 25 (2):89-91.
  35. Rafael Caldera (1988). El Pensamiento Jur'idico y Social de Andr'es Bello.
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  36. Laurie Calhoun (2001). The Metaethical Paradox of Just War Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (1):41-58.
    The traditional requirements upon the waging of a just war are ostensibly independent, but in actual practice each tenet is subject ultimately to the interpretation of a legitimate authority, whose declaration becomes the necessary and sufficient condition. While just war theory presupposes that some acts are absolutely wrong, it also implies that the killing of innocents can be rendered permissible through human decree. Nations are conventionally delimited, and leaders are conventionally appointed. Any group of people could band together to form (...)
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  37. J. E. Capizzi (2001). On Behalf of the Neighbor: A Rejection of the Complementarity of Just-War Theory and Pacifism. Studies in Christian Ethics 14 (2):87-108.
  38. Jacoby Adeshei Carter (2012). Differences in Dangerousness. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 19 (2):81-91.
    This article begins with a consideration of the standard argument for the moral equality of soldiers; namely, that soldiers are morally equal because they pose similar dangers to one another. Next, arguments for the equal application of the rules of war to both sides are considered and ultimately rejected. In the end, it is argued that if the justice of the cause for war is attributable to the warriors on either side, then modifying or unequally applying the rules of war (...)
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  39. David K. Chan (2012). Beyond Just War: A Virtue Ethics Approach. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Unlike most books on the ethics of war, this book rejects the 'just war' tradition, proposing a virtue ethics of war to take its place.
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  40. Simon Chesterman (2003). Humanitarian Intervention and Afghanistan. In Jennifer M. Welsh (ed.), Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations. Oup Oxford.
  41. Yvonne Chiu (2011). Liberal Lustration. Journal of Political Philosophy 19 (4):440-464.
    After a regime-changing war, a state often engages in lustration—condemnation and punishment of dangerous, corrupt, or culpable remnants of the previous system—e.g., de-Nazification or the more recent de-Ba’athification in Iraq. This common practice poses an important moral dilemma for liberals because even thoughtful and nuanced lustration involves condemning groups of people, instead of treating each case individually. It also raises important questions about collective agency, group treatment, and rectifying historical injustices. Liberals often oppose lustration because it denies moral individualism and (...)
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  42. Yvonne Chiu (2010). Uniform Exceptions and Rights Violations. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):44-77.
    Non-uniformed combat morally infringes on civilians’ fundamental right to immunity and exacts an impermissible form of unofficial conscription that is morally prohibited even if the civilians knowingly consent to it. It is often argued that revolutionary groups burdened by resource disparities relative to the state or who claim alternative sources of political legitimacy (such as national self-determination or the constitution of a political collective) are justified in using unconventional tactics such as non-uniformed combat. Neither those reasons nor the provision of (...)
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  43. Christine Chwaszcza (2008). Review of C. A. J. Coady, Morality and Political Violence. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (6).
  44. Ian Clark (1988). Waging War: A Philosophical Introduction. Oxford University Press.
    What is war, and how should it be waged? Are there restraints on its conduct? What can philosophers contribute to the study of warfare? Arguing that the practice of war requires a sound philosophical understanding, Ian Clark writes a fascinating synthesis of the philosophy, history, political theory, and contemporary strategy of warfare. Examining the traditional doctrines of the "just" and the "limited" war with fresh insight, Clark also addresses the applicability of these ideas to the modern issues of war crimes, (...)
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  45. C. A. J. Coady (2012). Stephen Nathanson, Terrorism and the Ethics of War. Social Theory and Practice 38 (3):560-567.
  46. C. A. J. Coady (1980). The Leaders and the Led: Problems of Just War Theory. Inquiry 23 (3):275 – 291.
    Any attempt to justify war in the fashion of just war theories risks underestimating its morally problematic nature. This becomes clear if we ask how the individual soldier or citizen is supposed to use just war theory in his own thinking. Michael Walzer's recent book, Just and Unjust Wars, illustrates the problem nicely. Walzer's view is that whether a state is justified in going to war is not a matter for the citizen to judge, and with regard to the way (...)
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  47. C. A. J. Coady (1979). WALZER, M. "Just and Unjust Wars". [REVIEW] Philosophy 54:415.
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  48. A. J. Coates (1997). The Ethics of War. Distributed Exclusively in the Usa by St. Martin's Press.
    Drawing on examples from the history of warfare from the crusades to the present day, "The ethics of war" explores the limits and possibilities of the moral regulation of war. While resisting the commonly held view that 'war is hell', A.J. Coates focuses on the tensions which exist between war and morality. The argument is conducted from a just war standpoint, though the moral ambiguity and mixed record of that tradition is acknowledge and the dangers which an exaggerated view of (...)
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  49. Christopher Coker (2008). Ethics and War in the Twenty-First Century. Routledge.
  50. Christopher Coker (2008). Ethics and War in the 21st Century. Routledge.
    Preface 1. Fighting Terrorism 1:1. A new Discourse on War? 1:2. Richard Rorty and the Ethics of War 2. Etiquettes of Atrocity 2:1. Etiquettes of Atrocity 2:2. Discourses on War 2:3. Keeping the discourse: the United States and Vietnam 2.4. Carl Schmitt and the theory of the Partisan 3. Changing the Discourse 3:1 Germany and the Eastern Front 1941-5 3:2 France and Algeria 1955-8 3:3 Israel and the Intifada 3:4 Conclusion 4. A New Discourse? 4:1. The War on Terror -- (...)
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