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Summary Some believe that individuals can not attain autonomy unless their culture provides them options.  Others, more commonly say that cultures provide the "context of choice" (Kymlicka) that make autonomy possible.  Whether or not such claims are accurate, it is clear that cultures can limit autonomy.  The relationship is thus worthy of extensive study; the pieces categorized here are contributions to such study.
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  1. Tofig Ahmadov (2008). Svasamvittih/Svasamvedana In the Light of Sartre's Philosophy. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 8:55-61.
    Sartre posited a (nondual), nonreflexive, nonthetic, nonpositional awareness which makes all consciousness possible, and which underlies dualistic, thetic, positional consciousness of object. Though his description assumes dualistic, thetic, positional consciousness of object to be inherent in nondual, nonreflexive,nonthetic, nonpositional awareness and hence to be ineradicable, with some modifications it can explain the view of rdzogs-chen that the sems-sde series of teachings illustrate in nonphilosophical terms with the example of the primordial mirror in which both dualistic consciousness and its objects manifest (...)
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  2. Allen Andrew A. Alvarez (2009). The Cross-Cultural Importance of Satisfying Vital Needs. Bioethics 23 (9):486-496.
    Ethical beliefs may vary across cultures but there are things that must be valued as preconditions to any cultural practice. Physical and mental abilities vital to believing, valuing and practising a culture are such preconditions and it is always important to protect them. If one is to practise a distinct culture, she must at least have these basic abilities. Access to basic healthcare is one way to ensure that vital abilities are protected. John Rawls argued that access to all-purpose primary (...)
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  3. Stephen C. Angle (2005). Review of kWong-Loi Shun, David B. Wong (Eds.), Confucian Ethics: A Comparative Study of Self, Autonomy, and Community. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (12).
  4. A. Autiero & L. Galvagni (2010). Religious Issues and the Question of Moral Autonomy. In James J. Giordano & Bert Gordijn (eds.), Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives in Neuroethics. Cambridge University Press.
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  5. Yohanna Barth-Rogers & Alan Jotkowitz (2009). Executive Autonomy, Multiculturalism and Traditional Medical Ethics. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):39 – 40.
  6. Jennifer Bleazby (2006). Autonomy, Democratic Community, and Citizenship in Philosophy for Children: Dewey and Philosophy for Children’s Rejection of the Individual/ Community Dualism. Analytic Teaching 26 (1):31-52.
  7. Vivienne Boon (2011). Jürgen Habermas and Islamic Fundamentalism: On the Limits of Discourse Ethics. Journal of Global Ethics 6 (2):153-166.
    Using the example of contemporary Islamic fundamentalism, and especially the writings of Sayyid Qutb, this article raises questions about discourse ethics as a mode of conflict resolution. It appears that discourse ethics is only relevant when all parties have already agreed to settle disputes deliberatively and already share the notions of rational deliberation and individual autonomy. This raises questions not only about the capability of discourse ethics to incorporate a deep plurality of worldviews, but also about its capability to successfully (...)
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  8. Andrew Brennan & Ruiping Fan (2007). Autonomy and Interdependence: A Dialogue Between Liberalism and Confucianism. Journal of Social Philosophy 38 (4):511–535.
  9. David C. Bricker (1998). Autonomy and Culture: Will Kymlicka on Cultural Minority Rights. Southern Journal of Philosophy 36 (1):47-59.
  10. Erica Brindley (2011). Moral Autonomy and Individual Sources of Authority in the Analects. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 38 (2):257-273.
  11. Jan Brouwer (2007). Culture and Contrasting Views on the Individual, Autonomy and Mortality with Special Reference to India. In Paula Banerjee & Samir Kumar Das (eds.), Autonomy: Beyond Kant and Hermeneutics. Anthem Press.
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  12. Margherita Brusa & Y. Michael Barilan (2009). Cultural Circumcision in Eu Public Hospitals – an Ethical Discussion. Bioethics 23 (8):470-482.
  13. Ester Busquets, Begoña Roman & Núria Terribas (2012). Bioethics in Mediterranean Culture: The Spanish Experience. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):437-451.
    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest¨: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as (...)
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  14. H. G. Callaway (2000). Pragmatic Pluralism and American Democracy. In R. Tapp (ed.), Multiculturalism: Humanist Perspectives.
    This paper approaches "multiculturalism" obliquely via conceptions of social and political pluralism in the pragmatist tradition. As a matter of social analysis, the advent of multiculturalism implies some loss of confidence in our prior conceptions of accommodating ethnic, social, and religious diversity: the conversion of traditional American cultural diversity into a war of political interest groups. This, and the corresponding tendency toward cultural relativism and "anything goes," is fundamentally a product of over-centralization and cultural-political exhaustion in the wake of the (...)
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  15. Sue Campbell (2002). Relational Autonomy: Feminist Perspectives on Automony, Agency, and the Social Self (Review). Hypatia 17 (2):165-168.
  16. Craig L. Carr (2010). Liberalism and Pluralism: The Politics of E Pluribus Unum. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Table of Contents: Politics, morality, and pluralism -- Liberal morality and political legitimacy -- Political legitimacy and social justice -- Williams's concept of the political -- Legitimacy, stability, and morality -- The politics of morality -- A moral point of view -- Manners and morality -- Morality and conflict -- Moral conflict and political theory -- The morality of politics -- Feminism and multiculturalism -- A defense of culture -- Politics and normative conflict -- The political as moral viewpoint -- (...)
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  17. Eric Cavallero (2006). An Immigration-Pressure Model of Global Distributive Justice. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 5 (1):97-127.
    International borders concentrate opportunities in some societies while limiting them in others. Borders also prevent those in the less favored societies from gaining access to opportunities available in the more favored ones. Both distributive effects of borders are treated here within a comprehensive framework. I argue that each state should have broad discretion under international law to grant or deny entry to immigration seekers; but more favored countries that find themselves under immigration pressure should be legally obligated to fund development (...)
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  18. Emanuela Ceva (2011). Self-Legislation, Respect and the Reconciliation of Minority Claims. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):14-28.
    It is a widely supported claim that liberal democratic institutions should treat citizens with equal respect. I neither dispute nor champion this claim, but investigate how it could be fulfilled. I do this by asking, as a sort of litmus test, how liberal democratic institutions should treat with respect citizens holding minority convictions, and thereby dissenting from a deliberative output. The first step of my argument consists in clarifying the sense in which liberal democracies have a primary concern for the (...)
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  19. Clare Chambers, Autonomy and Equality in Cultural Perspective: Response to Sawitri Saharso.
    In “Feminist ethics, autonomy and the politics of multiculturalism”, Sawitri Saharso argues that the feminist concern to protect women’s autonomy legitimates and permits two practices which might otherwise seem antithetical to feminism: hymen repair surgery and sex-selective abortion. Sex-selective abortion is given pragmatic support: since it is rare in the Netherlands (the focus of Saharso’s paper), and since limitations on abortion would adversely affect the autonomy of women who sought an abortion for other reasons, Saharso concludes that Dutch law ought (...)
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  20. Clare Chambers, Political Liberalism, Autonomy and Gender Equality.
    This paper considers the tension between political liberalism and gender equality in the light of social construction and multiculturalism. The tension is exemplified by the work of Martha Nussbaum, who tries to reconcile a belief in the universality of certain liberal values such as gender equality with a political liberal tolerance for cultural practices that violate gender equality. The paper distinguishes between first- and second-order conceptions of autonomy, and shows that political liberals mistakenly prioritise second-order autonomy. This prioritisation leads political (...)
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  21. Joseph Chan (2002). Moral Autonomy, Civil Liberties, and Confucianism. Philosophy East and West 52 (3):281-310.
    Three claims are defended. (1) There is a conception of moral autonomy in Confucian ethics that to a degree can support toleration and freedom. However, (2) Confucian moral autonomy is different from personal autonomy, and the latter gives a stronger justification for civil and personal liberties than does the former. (3) The contemporary appeal of Confucianism would be strengthened by including personal autonomy, and this need not be seen as forsaking Confucian ethics but rather as an internal revision in response (...)
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  22. X. Chen & R. Fan (2010). The Family and Harmonious Medical Decision Making: Cherishing an Appropriate Confucian Moral Balance. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (5):573-586.
    This essay illustrates what the Chinese family-based and harmony-oriented model of medical decision making is like as well as how it differs from the modern Western individual-based and autonomy-oriented model in health care practice. The essay discloses the roots of the Chinese model in the Confucian account of the family and the Confucian view of harmony. By responding to a series of questions posed to the Chinese model by modern Western scholars in terms of the basic individualist concerns and values (...)
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  23. F. Cheng, Mary Ip, K. K. Wong & W. W. Yan (1998). Critical Care Ethics in Hong Kong: Cross-Cultural Conflicts as East Meets West. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 23 (6):616 – 627.
    The practice of critical care medicine has long been a difficult task for most critical care physicians in the densely populated city of Hong Kong, where we face limited resources and a limited number of intensive care beds. Our triage decisions are largely based on the potential of functional reversibility of the patients. Provision of graded care beds may help to relieve some of the demands on the intensive care beds. Decisions to forego futile medical treatment are frequently physician-guided family-based (...)
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  24. Kam-Yuen Cheng, Thomas Ming & L. A. I. Aaron (2011). Can Familism Be Justified? Bioethics 26 (8):431-439.
    This paper argues against the continued practice of Confucian familism, even in its moderate form, in East Asian hospitals. According to moderate familism, a physician acting in concert with the patient's family may withhold diagnostic information from the patient, and may give it to the patient's family members without her prior approval. There are two main approaches to defend moderate familism: one argues that it can uphold patient's autonomy and protect her best interests; the other appeals to cultural relativism by (...)
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  25. Kim-Chong Chong (2003). Autonomy in the Analects. In Kim Chong Chong, Sor-Hoon Tan & C. L. Ten (eds.), The Moral Circle and the Self: Chinese and Western Approaches. Open Court.
  26. Lorraine Code (2011). A New Epistemology of Rape? Philosophical Papers 38 (3):327-345.
    In this essay I take issue with entrenched conceptions of individual autonomy for how they block understandings of the implications of rape in patriarchal cultures both 'at home' and in situations of armed conflict. I focus on human vulnerability as it manifests in sedimented assumptions about violence against women as endemic to male-female relations, thwarting possibilities of knowing the specific harms particular acts of rape enact well enough to render intelligible their far-reaching social-political-moral implications. Taking my point of departure from (...)
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  27. Andrew Jason Cohen (2007). What the Liberal State Should Tolerate Within its Borders. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):479-513.
    Two normative principles of toleration are offered, one individual-regarding, the other group-regarding. The first is John Stuart Mill’s harm principle; the other is “Principle T,” meant to be the harm principle writ large. It is argued that the state should tolerate autonomous sacrifices of autonomy, including instances where an individual rationally chooses to be enslaved, lobotomized, or killed. Consistent with that, it is argued that the state should tolerate internal restrictions within minority groups even where these prevent autonomy promotion of (...)
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  28. Maeve Cooke (2006). Salvaging and Secularizing the Semantic Contents of Religion: The Limitations of Habermas's Postmetaphysical Proposal. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 60 (1/3):187 - 207.
    The article considers Jürgen Habermas's views on the relationship between postmetaphysical philosophy and religion. It outlines Habermas's shift from his earlier, apparently dismissive attitude towards religion to his presently more receptive stance. This more receptive stance is evident in his recent emphasis on critical engagement with the semantic contents of religion and may be characterized by two interrelated theses: (a) the view that religious contributions should be included in political deliberations in the informally organized public spheres of contemporary democracies, though (...)
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  29. Simon Cushing, Reaching for My Gun: Why We Shouldn't Hear the Word "Culture" in Normative Political Theory. 1st Global Conference: Multiculturalism, Conflict and Belonging.
    Culture is a notoriously elusive concept. This fact has done nothing to hinder its popularity in contemporary analytic political philosophy among writers like John Rawls, Will Kymlicka, Michael Walzer, David Miller, Iris Marion Young, Joseph Raz, Avishai Margalit and Bikhu Parekh, among many others. However, this should stop, both for the metaphysical reason that the concept of culture, like that of race, is itself either incoherent or lacking a referent in reality, and for several normative reasons. I focus on the (...)
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  30. Koyeli Ghosh Dastidar (1987). Individual Autonomy in Traditional Indian Thought. Journal of Indian Philosophy 15 (1):99-107.
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  31. René Firmin de Brabander (1972). Religion and Human Autonomy. The Hague,Nijhoff.
  32. Monique Deveaux (2007). Personal Autonomy and Cultural Tradition. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 7:87-92.
    The value and importance accorded to personal autonomy within liberalism would seem to suggest that cultural practices that severely constrain the choices of individuals through heavyhanded role socialization and restriction ought to be strongly discouraged in liberal societies. In this paper, I explore this claim in connection with the custom of arranged marriage, which has recently come under fire in some liberal democratic states, notably Britain. My aim is to try to complicate the liberal understanding of the relationship between cultural (...)
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  33. I. I. I. Dunson (2010). The Politics of Persons: Individual Autonomy and Socio-Historical Selves (Review). Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (2):195-197.
    After so much scholarship has been devoted to the dispute between the defenders and critics of liberalism, it is reasonable to ask whether the topic has been exhausted or, at the very least, if the rival and incommensurable options have been so thoroughly defined that one simply has to pick a side. John Christman's new book, The Politics of Persons, demonstrates that this intuition is flawed. The central concern of this compelling work is to outline an alternative conception of autonomy (...)
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  34. Rainer Forst (ed.) (2009). Sozialphilosophie Und Kritik. Suhrkamp.
  35. Katrin Froese (2008). The Art of Becoming Human: Morality in Kant and Confucius. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 7 (3):257-268.
    Kant and Confucius maintain that the art of becoming human is synonymous with the unending process of becoming moral. According to Kant, I must imagine a world in which the universality of my maxims were possible, while realizing that if such a world existed, then morality would disappear. Morality is an impossible possibility because it always meets resistance in our encounter with nature. According to Confucius, human beings become moral by integrating themselves into the already meaningful natural order that is (...)
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  36. William A. Galston (2005). Review: Autonomy, Accommodation, and Tolerance: Three Encounters with Diversity. [REVIEW] Political Theory 33 (4):582 - 588.
  37. Peter Gardner (1991). Personal Autonomy and Religious Upbringing: The 'Problem'. Journal of Philosophy of Education 25 (1):69–81.
  38. Peter Gardner (1988). Religious Upbringing and the Liberal Ideal of Religious Autonomy. Journal of Philosophy of Education 22 (1):89–105.
  39. Robert Gascoigne (2001). The Public Forum and Christian Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book addresses the question of the communication of Christian ethics in the public forum of liberal, pluralist societies. Drawing on debates in philosophy, theology and sociological theory, it relates the problem of communication to fundamental questions about the nature of liberal societies and the identity of Christian faith and the Christian community. With particular emphasis on Kantian and neo-Kantian ethics, it explores the link between autonomy and community in liberal societies. The theology of communio, expressed in revealed Christian traditions, (...)
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  40. Candace Cummins Gauthier (2000). Moral Responsibility and Respect for Autonomy: Meeting the Communitarian Challenge. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (4):337-352.
    : The principle of respect for autonomy has come under increasing attack both within health care ethics, specifically, and as part of the more general communitarian challenge to predominantly liberal values. This paper will demonstrate the importance of respect for autonomy for the social practice of assigning moral responsibility and for the development of moral responsibility as a virtue. Guided by this virtue, the responsible exercise of autonomy may provide a much-needed connection between the individual and the community.
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  41. Koyeli Ghosh Dastidar (1987). Individual Autonomy in Traditional Indian Thought. Journal of Indian Philosophy 15 (1):99-107.
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  42. Catherine O'Leary Goldwyn (2005). Review: Schooling for Citizenship: Bridging Autonomy and Conflict. [REVIEW] Political Theory 33 (5):721 - 726.
  43. Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Brenda Lobb, Graham Davies, Israel Nachson & Sheila Seelau (2002). International Variation in Ethics Committee Requirements: Comparisons Across Five Westernised Nations. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 3 (1):1-8.
    Background Ethics committees typically apply the common principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice to research proposals but with variable weighting and interpretation. This paper reports a comparison of ethical requirements in an international cross-cultural study and discusses their implications. Discussion The study was run concurrently in New Zealand, UK, Israel, Canada and USA and involved testing hypotheses about believability of testimonies regarding alleged child sexual abuse. Ethics committee requirements to conduct this study ranged from nil in Israel to considerable (...)
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  44. Keith Graham (2001). Preconditions for Normative Argumentation in a Pluralist World. Argumentation 15 (4):471-487.
    A problem arises, both for philosophy and for argumentation theory, in a pluralist world where people hold widely different beliefs about what to do. Some responses to this problem, including relativism, might settle but do not provide any criteria for resolving such differences. Alternative responses seek a means of resolution in universalist, culture-neutral criteria which must be invoked in assessing all human action. A philosophically adequate account of universalism would contribute to an ideal of critical rationality, as well as to (...)
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  45. Steven Groarke (2004). Autonomy and Tradition: A Critique of the Sociological and Philosophical Foundations of Giddens's Utopian Realism. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (3):34-51.
    This article examines the theoretical background to Giddens?s programme of ?utopian realism?. It begins by looking at the way in which Giddens defines this programme in the context of social welfare. We then turn to a more detailed discussion of the theoretical presuppositions of ?utopian realism?, focusing first on Giddens?s reworking of Durkheimian autonomy, and second, on his reclamation of the conservative idea of tradition as propounded by Michael Oakeshott. The critical focus of my argument rests on the philosophical claims (...)
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  46. Fuat Gursozlu (2013). The Multicultural Mystique: The Liberal Case Against Diversity, by H. E. Baber. Teaching Philosophy 36 (3):300-303.
  47. David L. Hall & Roger T. Ames (1993). Culture and the Limits of Catholicism: A Chinese Response Tocentesimus Annus. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 12 (12):955 - 963.
    However much the Catholic Church may wish to free the peoples of the world from the excessive atheistic rationalism of the Englihtenment that has pitted science against religion, it is still in most other ways solidly on the side of modernity.Centesimus Annus endorses aform of democracy, akind of capitalism, asort of technological development, all of which are strongly undergirded by a resolute belief in human beings as rights-bearing individuals possessed of individual autonomy and a legitimate appetite for private property. The (...)
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  48. Thomas C. Heller & Christine Brooke-Rose (eds.) (1986). Reconstructing Individualism: Autonomy, Individuality, and the Self in Western Thought. Stanford University Press.
    Introduction THOMAS C. HELLER AND DAVID E. WELLBERY A he essays that follow originated in a conference entitled "Reconstructing Individualism," held at ...
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  49. Ranjoo Seodu Herr (2007). Liberal Multiculturalism: An Oxymoron? Philosophical Forum 38 (1):23–41.
    Will Kymlicka argues that societal culture matters to liberalism because it contributes to its members’ freedom. If so, multiculturalism that advocates group rights to sustain minority societal cultures in the liberal West is in fact entailed by liberalism, the core value of which is individual freedom. “Freedom,” then, functions as the main bridge between liberalism and multiculturalism in Kymlicka’s position. Kymlicka is correct that societal culture contributes to its members’ freedom by providing them with meaningful options. The sense of freedom (...)
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  50. Yoshitsugu Hirata & Luise Prior McCarty (2010). East Meets West in Japanese Doctoral Education: Form, Dependence, and the Strange. Ethics and Education 5 (1):27-41.
    Against the background of current reforms in higher education, we analyze the traditional education of Japanese doctoral students in philosophy of education from Western and Japanese perspectives by focusing on learning as self-education, on being and learning with others, on the socialization into the profession, and on the study of the foreign subject. Imai's explication of the Japanese construction of the adult self as instrumental is compared to Gadamer's ideas on self-education and education with others. A significant element of doctoral (...)
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