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  1. Igor Aleksander, Susan Stuart & Tom Ziemke (2008). Assessing Artificial Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (7):95-110.
    While the recent special issue of JCS on machine consciousness (Volume 14, Issue 7) was in preparation, a collection of papers on the same topic, entitled Artificial Consciousness and edited by Antonio Chella and Riccardo Manzotti, was published. 1 The editors of the JCS special issue, Ron Chrisley, Robert Clowes and Steve Torrance, thought it would be a timely and productive move to have authors of papers in their collection review the papers in the Chella and Manzotti book, and include (...)
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  2. Aris Alissandrakis, Chrystopher L. Nehaniv & Kerstin Dautenhahn (2004). Towards Robot Cultures?: Learning to Imitate in a Robotic Arm Test-Bed with Dissimilarly Embodied Agents. Interaction Studies 5 (1):3-44.
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  3. Susan Leigh Anderson (2008). Asimov's “Three Laws of Robotics” and Machine Metaethics. AI and Society 22 (4):477-493.
    Using Asimov’s “Bicentennial Man” as a springboard, a number of metaethical issues concerning the emerging field of machine ethics are discussed. Although the ultimate goal of machine ethics is to create autonomous ethical machines, this presents a number of challenges. A good way to begin the task of making ethics computable is to create a program that enables a machine to act an ethical advisor to human beings. This project, unlike creating an autonomous ethical machine, will not require that we (...)
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  4. Simon Bacon (2013). “We Can Rebuild Him!”: The Essentialisation of the Human/Cyborg Interface in the Twenty-First Century, or Whatever Happened to The Six Million Dollar Man? [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):267-276.
    This paper aims to show how recent cinematic representations reveal a far more pessimistic and essentialised vision of Human/Cyborg hybridity in comparison with the more enunciative and optimistic ones seen at the end of the twentieth century. Donna Haraway’s still influential 1985 essay “A Cyborg Manifesto” saw the combination of the organic and the technological as offering new and exciting ways beyond the normalised culturally constructed categories of gender and identity formation. However, more recently critics see her later writings as (...)
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  5. Anthony F. Beavers, Between Angels and Animals: The Question of Robot Ethics, or is Kantian Moral Agency Desirable?
    In this paper, I examine a variety of agents that appear in Kantian ethics in order to determine which would be necessary to make a robot a genuine moral agent. However, building such an agent would require that we structure into a robot’s behavioral repertoire the possibility for immoral behavior, for only then can the moral law, according to Kant, manifest itself as an ought, a prerequisite for being able to hold an agent morally accountable for its actions. Since (...)
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  6. Christian Becker-Asano, Takayuki Kanda, Carlos Ishi & Hiroshi Ishiguro (2011). Studying Laughter in Combination with Two Humanoid Robots. AI and Society 26 (3):291-300.
    To let humanoid robots behave socially adequate in a future society, we started to explore laughter as an important para-verbal signal known to influence relationships among humans rather easily. We investigated how the naturalness of various types of laughter in combination with different humanoid robots was judged, first, within a situational context that is suitable for laughter and, second, without describing the situational context. Given the variety of human laughter, do people prefer a certain style for a robot’s laughter? And (...)
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  7. Tony Belpaeme & Anthony Morse (2010). Time Will Tell Why It is Too Early to Worry. Interaction Studies 11 (2):191-195.
    The author reflects on the premature speculations of many commentators on robot caregivers. He argues on the commentator's ethical issues that it creates false beliefs in children, in which he says that the creation of false beliefs by their caretakers is part and parcel of childhood. He argues that societies are already delegated the childcare onto others such as school and since technology is often substituting for direct physical social contact, its time to embrace the robotic care.
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  8. Donald S. Borrett, David Shih, Michael Tomko, Sarah Borrett & Hon C. Kwan (2011). Hegelian Phenomenology and Robotics. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (01):219-235.
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  9. C. Breazeal & Rodney Brooks (2004). Robot Emotions: A Functional Perspective. In J. Fellous (ed.), Who Needs Emotions. Oxford University Press.
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  10. Selmer Bringsjord (2007). Ethical Robots: The Future Can Heed Us. [REVIEW] AI and Society 22 (4):539-550.
    Bill Joy’s deep pessimism is now famous. Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us, his defense of that pessimism, has been read by, it seems, everyone—and many of these readers, apparently, have been converted to the dark side, or rather more accurately, to the future-is-dark side. Fortunately (for us; unfortunately for Joy), the defense, at least the part of it that pertains to AI and robotics, fails. Ours may be a dark future, but we cannot know that on the basis of (...)
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  11. Rodney Brooks (1991). Challenges for Complete Creature Architectures. In Jean-Arcady Meyer & Stewart W. Wilson (eds.), From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (Complex Adaptive Systems). Mit Press.
    boundaries. It is impossible to do good science without having an appreciation for the problems and concepts in the other levels of abstraction (at least in the direction from biology towards physics), but there are whole sets of tools, methods of analysis, theories and explanations within each discipline which do not cross those boundaries.
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  12. Joanna J. Bryson (2006). The Attentional Spotlight (Dennett and the Cog Project). Minds and Machines 16 (1):21-28.
    One of the interesting and occasionally controversial aspects of Dennett’s career is his direct involvement in the scientific process. This article describes some of Dennett’s participation on one particular project conducted at MIT, the building of the humanoid robot named Cog. One of the intentions of this project, not to date fully realized, was to test Dennett’s multiple drafts theory of consciousness. I describe Dennett’s involvement and impact on Cog from the perspective of a graduate student. I also describe the (...)
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  13. Alain Cardon (2006). Artificial Consciousness, Artificial Emotions, and Autonomous Robots. Cognitive Processing 7 (4):245-267.
  14. Antonio Chella (2007). Towards Robot Conscious Perception. In Antonio Chella & Riccardo Manzotti (eds.), Artificial Consciousness. Imprint Academic. 124-140.
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  15. Antonio Chella & Riccardo Manzotti (2007). Artificial Consciousness. Imprint Academic.
    And why is there a subjective component to experience?). It is easy to see that the separation between Weak and Strong Artificial Consciousness mirrors the separation between the easy problems and the hard problems of consciousness.
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  16. William Clancey (1995). How Situated Cognition is Different From Situated Robotics. In Luc Steels & Rodney Brooks (eds.), The "Artificial Life" Route to "Artificial Intelligence": Building Situated Embodied Agents. Hillsdale, Nj: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 227-236.
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  17. Andy Clark & Rick Grush (1999). Towards a Cognitive Robotics. Adaptive Behavior 7 (1):5-16.
    There is a definite challenge in the air regarding the pivotal notion of internal representation. This challenge is explicit in, e.g., van Gelder, 1995; Beer, 1995; Thelen & Smith, 1994; Wheeler, 1994; and elsewhere. We think it is a challenge that can be met and that (importantly) can be met by arguing from within a general framework that accepts many of the basic premises of the work (in new robotics and in dynamical systems theory) that motivates such scepticism in the (...)
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  18. Mark Coeckelbergh (2011). You, Robot: On the Linguistic Construction of Artificial Others. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (1):61-69.
    How can we make sense of the idea of ‘personal’ or ‘social’ relations with robots? Starting from a social and phenomenological approach to human–robot relations, this paper explores how we can better understand and evaluate these relations by attending to the ways our conscious experience of the robot and the human–robot relation is mediated by language. It is argued that our talk about and to robots is not a mere representation of an objective robotic or social-interactive reality, but rather interprets (...)
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  19. David Cole (2010). Anthony Chemero: Radical Embodied Cognitive Science. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (3):475-479.
  20. Roberto Cordeschi (2002). The Discovery of the Artificial: Behavior, Mind and Machines Before and Beyond Cybernetics. Kluwer.
    The book provides a valuable text for undergraduate and graduate courses on the historical and theoretical issues of Cognitive Science, Artificial Intelligence, Psychology, Neuroscience, and the Philosophy of Mind. The book should also be of interest for researchers in these fields, who will find in it analyses of certain crucial issues in both the earlier and more recent history of their disciplines, as well as interesting overall insights into the current debate on the nature of mind.
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  21. Kerstin Dautenhahn, Bernard Ogden, Tom Quick & Tom Ziemke (2002). From Embodied to Socially Embedded Agents: Implications for Interaction-Aware Robots. Cognitive Systems Research 3 (1):397-427.
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  22. Daniel C. Dennett, Cog as a Thought Experiment.
    In her presentation at the Monte Verità workshop, Maja Mataric showed us a videotape of her robots cruising together through the lab, and remarked, aptly: "They're flocking, but that's not what they think they're doing." This is a vivid instance of a phenomenon that lies at the heart of all the research I learned about at Monte Verità: the execution of surprisingly successful "cognitive" behaviors by systems that did not explicitly represent, and did not need to explicitly represent, what they (...)
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  23. Daniel C. Dennett (1995). Cog: Steps Toward Consciousness in Robots. In Thomas Metzinger (ed.), Conscious Experience. Ferdinand Schoningh. 471--487.
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  24. Matthew Elton (1997). Robots and Rights: The Ethical Demands of Artificial Agents. Ends and Means 1 (2).
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  25. J. Fellous (ed.) (2004). Who Needs Emotions: The Brain Meets the Robot. Oxford University Press.
    By contrast, the editors of this book have assembled a panel of experts in neuroscience and artificial intelligence who have dared to tackle the issue of...
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  26. Kenneth M. Ford, C. Glymour & Patrick Hayes (eds.) (1994). Android Epistemology. MIT Press.
  27. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2013). Dealing with Concepts: From Cognitive Psychology to Knowledge Representation. Frontiers of Psychological and Behevioural Science 2 (3):96-106.
    Concept representation is still an open problem in the field of ontology engineering and, more generally, of knowledge representation. In particular, the issue of representing “non classical” concepts, i.e. concepts that cannot be defined in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, remains unresolved. In this paper we review empirical evidence from cognitive psychology, according to which concept representation is not a unitary phenomenon. On this basis, we sketch some proposals for concept representation, taking into account suggestions from psychological research. In (...)
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  28. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2012). Representing Concepts in Formal Ontologies: Compositionality Vs. Typicality Effects&Quot;,. Logic and Logical Philosophy 21 ( Logic, Reasoning and Rationalit):391-414.
    The problem of concept representation is relevant for many sub-fields of cognitive research, including psychology and philosophy, as well as artificial intelligence. In particular, in recent years it has received a great deal of attention within the field of knowledge representation, due to its relevance for both knowledge engineering as well as ontology-based technologies. However, the notion of a concept itself turns out to be highly disputed and problematic. In our opinion, one of the causes of this state of affairs (...)
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  29. James Gips (1994). Toward the Ethical Robot. In Kenneth M. Ford, C. Glymour & Patrick Hayes (eds.), Android Epistemology. MIT Press.
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  30. Patrick Grüneberg & Kenji Suzuki (2013). A Lesson From Subjective Computing: Autonomous Self-Referentiality and Social Interaction as Conditions for Subjectivity. AISB Proceedings 2012:18-28.
    In this paper, we model a relational notion of subjectivity by means of two experiments in subjective computing. The goal is to determine to what extent a cognitive and social robot can be regarded to act subjectively. The system was implemented as a reinforcement learning agent with a coaching function. To analyze the robotic agent we used the method of levels of abstraction in order to analyze the agent at four levels of abstraction. At one level the agent is described (...)
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  31. L. Hauser (1994). Acting, Intending, and Artificial Intelligence. Philosophical Explorations 22 (1):22-28.
    Hauser considers John Searle's attempt to distinguish acts from movements. On Searle's account, the difference between me raising my arm and my arm's just going up (e.g., if you forcibly raise it), is the causal involvement of my intention to raise my arm in the former, but not the latter, case. Yet, we distinguish a similar difference between a robot's raising its arm and its robot arm just going up (e.g., if you manually raise it). Either robots are rightly credited (...)
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  32. Hyun-Hee Heo & Min-Sun Kim (2013). The Effects of Multiculturalism and Mechanistic Disdain for Robots in Human-to-Robot Communication Scenarios. Interaction Studies 14 (1):81-106.
    This study investigates the effects of cultural orientation and the degree of disdain for robots on the preferred conversational styles in human-to-robot interactions. 203 participants self-reported on questionnaires through a computer-based online survey. The two requesting situations were intended to simulate the participants' interactions with humanoid social robots through an Internet video-phone medium of communication. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the mediating role of mechanistic disdain between multicultural orientation and conversational constraints. The findings reveal that between the two (...)
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  33. Germund Hesslow & D.-A. Jirenhed (2007). The Inner World of a Simple Robot. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (7):85-96.
    The purpose of the paper is to discuss whether a particular robot can be said to have an 'inner world', something that can be taken to be a critical feature of consciousness. It has previously been argued that the mechanism underlying the appearance of an inner world in humans is an ability of our brains to simulate behaviour and perception. A robot has previously been designed in which perception can be simulated. A prima facie case can be made that this (...)
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  34. Owen Holland & Russell B. Goodman (2003). Robots with Internal Models: A Route to Machine Consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (4):77-109.
  35. Owen Holland, Rob Knight & Richard Newcombe (2007). The Role of the Self Process in Embodied Machine Consciousness. In Antonio Chella & Riccardo Manzotti (eds.), Artificial Consciousness. Imprint Academic. 156-173.
  36. Hiroshi Ishiguro (2006). Android Science: Conscious and Subconscious Recognition. Connection Science 18 (4):319-332.
  37. Geert Keil (1998). Was Roboter nicht können. Die Roboterantwort als knapp misslungene Verteidigung der starken KI-These. In Andreas Engel Peter Gold (ed.), Der Mensch in der Perspektive der Kognitionswissenschaften. 98-131.
    Theoretiker der Künstlichen Intelligenz und deren Wegbegleiter in der Philosophie des Geistes haben auf unterschiedliche Weise auf Kritik am ursprünglichen Theorieziel der KI reagiert. Eine dieser Reaktionen ist die Zurücknahme dieses Theorieziels zugunsten der Verfolgung kleinerformatiger Projekte. Eine andere Reaktion ist die Propagierung konnektionistischer Systeme, die mit ihrer dezentralen Arbeitsweise die neuronalen Netze des menschlichen Gehirns besser simulieren sollen. Eine weitere ist die sogenannte robot reply. Die Roboterantwort besteht aus zwei Elementen. Sie enthält (a) das Zugeständnis, daß das Systemverhalten eines (...)
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  38. Min-Sun Kim & Eun-Joo Kim (2013). Humanoid Robots as “The Cultural Other”: Are We Able to Love Our Creations? [REVIEW] AI and Society 28 (3):309-318.
    Robot enthusiasts envision robots will become a “race unto themselves” as they cohabit with the humankind one day. Profound questions arise surrounding one of the major areas of research in the contemporary world—that concerning artificial intelligence. Fascination and anxiety that androids impose upon us hinges on how we come to conceive of the “Cultural Other.” Applying the notion of the “other” in multicultural research process, we will explore how the “Other” has been used to illustrate values and theories about robots, (...)
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  39. T. Kitamura (2002). What is the Self of a Robot? On a Consciousness Architecture for a Mobile Robot as a Model of Human Consciousness. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind. John Benjamins. 33--231.
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  40. T. Kitamura, T. Tahara & K. Asami (2000). How Can a Robot Have Consciousness? Advanced Robotics 14:263-275.
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  41. Gene Korienek & William L. Uzgalis (2002). Adaptable Robots. Metaphilosophy 33 (1-2):83-97.
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  42. Nicola Lacey & M. Lee (2003). The Epistemological Foundations of Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines 13 (3):339-365.
    A situated agent is one which operates within an environment. In most cases, the environment in which the agent exists will be more complex than the agent itself. This means that an agent, human or artificial, which wishes to carry out non-trivial operations in its environment must use techniques which allow an unbounded world to be represented within a cognitively bounded agent. We present a brief description of some important theories within the fields of epistemology and metaphysics. We then discuss (...)
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  43. Patrizia Marti (2010). Robot Companions: Towards a New Concept of Friendship? Interaction Studies 11 (2):220-226.
    Noel and Amanda Sharkey have written an insightful paper on the ethical issues concerned with the development of childcare robots for infants and toddlers, discussing the possible consequences for the psychological and emotional development and wellbeing of children. The ethical issues involving the use of robots as toys, interaction partners or possible caretakers of children are discussed reviewing a wide literature on the pathology and causes of attachment disorders. The potential risks emerging from the analysis lead the authors to promote (...)
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  44. Jean-Arcady Meyer & Stewart W. Wilson (eds.) (1990). From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of The First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (Complex Adaptive Systems). Cambridge University Press.
  45. Greg Michaelson & Ruth Aylett (2011). Special Issue on Social Impact of AI: Killer Robots or Friendly Fridges. [REVIEW] AI and Society 26 (4):317-318.
  46. Marvin L. Minsky (1994). Will Robots Inherit the Earth? Scientific American (Oct).
    Everyone wants wisdom and wealth. Nevertheless, our health often gives out before we achieve them. To lengthen our lives, and improve our minds, in the future we will need to change our our bodies and brains. To that end, we first must consider how normal Darwinian evolution brought us to where we are. Then we must imagine ways in which future replacements for worn body parts might solve most problems of failing health. We must then invent strategies to augment our (...)
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  47. Catrin Misselhorn, Ulrike Pompe & Mog Stapleton (2013). Ethical Considerations Regarding the Use of Social Robots in the Fourth Age. Geropsych 26 (2):121-133.
    The debate about the use of robots in the care of older adults has often been dominated by either overly optimistic visions (coming particularly from Japan), in which robots are seamlessly incorporated into society thereby enhancing quality of life for everyone; or by extremely pessimistic scenarios that paint such a future as horrifying. We reject this dichotomy and argue for a more differentiated ethical evaluation of the possibilities and risks involved with the use of social robots. In a critical discussion (...)
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  48. Marcin Miłkowski (2013). Reverse-Engineering in Cognitive-Science. In Marcin Miłkowski & Konrad Talmont-Kaminski (eds.), Regarding the Mind, Naturally: Naturalist Approaches to the Sciences of the Mental. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 12-29.
    I discuss whether there are some lessons for philosophical inquiry over the nature of simulation to be learnt from the practical methodology of reengineering. I will argue that reengineering serves a similar purpose as simulations in theoretical science such as computational neuroscience or neurorobotics, and that the procedures and heuristics of reengineering help to develop solutions to outstanding problems of simulation.
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  49. Hans Moravec, Bodies, Robots, Minds.
    Serious attempts to build thinking machines began after the second world war. One line of research, called Cybernetics, used electronic circuitry imitating nervous systems to make machines that learned to recognize simple patterns, and turtle-like robots that found their way to recharging plugs. A different approach, named Artificial Intelligence, harnessed the arithmetic power of post-war computers to abstract reasoning, and by the 1960s made computers prove theorems in logic and geometry, solve calculus problems and play good games of checkers. At (...)
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  50. Hans Moravec, Robots Inherit Human Minds.
    Our first tools, sticks and stones, were very different from ourselves. But many tools now resemble us, in function or form, and they are beginning to have minds. A loose parallel with our own evolution suggests how they may develop in future. Computerless industrial machinery exhibits the behavioral flexibility of single-celled organisms. Today's best computer-controlled robots are like the simpler invertebrates. A thousand-fold increase in computer power in this decade should make possible machines with reptile-like sensory and motor competence. Growing (...)
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