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Summary The term 'information' has become ubiquitous. In fact the notion of information is arguably amongst the most important of our `Information Age'. But just what exactly is information? This is a question without a straightforward response, particularly as information is a polysemantic concept, applied to a range of phenomena across a range of disciplines. Some of the most common formulation developed in the 20th century include: Fisher information, Shannon information, Kolmogorov complexity, quantum information, information as a state of an agent, and semantic information.  Some notions of information are associated with central concerns of philosophy and have been used in various ways. Dealings with information from within philosophy include work on conceptions and analyses of information, the application of information to philosophical topics such as epistemology and logic and information ethics. Further to this, conceptions of information within other disciplines such as biology and physics can be and have been of interest within philosophy. Two conceptions of information of particular interest to philosophers are semantic information and environmental information, which can be seen as roughly correlating to the Gricean notions of non-natural and natural meaning respectively.
Key works Floridi 2011 Floridi 2002 Dretske 1981 Bar-Hillel & Carnap 1953 Adriaans & van Benthem 2008
Introductions Floridi 2010, Floridi 2011
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533 found
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  1. A Semantic Information Formula Compatible with Shannon and Popper's Theories.Chenguang Lu - manuscript
    Semantic Information conveyed by daily language has been researched for many years; yet, we still need a practical formula to measure information of a simple sentence or prediction, such as “There will be heavy rain tomorrow”. For practical purpose, this paper introduces a new formula, Semantic Information Formula (SIF), which is based on L. A. Zadeh’s fuzzy set theory and P. Z. Wang’s random set falling shadow theory. It carries forward C. E. Shannon and K. Popper’s thought. The fuzzy set’s (...)
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  2. Information and Meaning in Life, Humans and Robots (FIS 2005).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Information and meaning exist around us and within ourselves, and the same information can correspond to different meanings. This is true for humans and animals, and is becoming true for robots. We propose here an overview of this subject by using a systemic tool related to meaning generation that has already been published (C. Menant, Entropy 2003). The Meaning Generator System (MGS) is a system submitted to a constraint that generates a meaningful information when it receives an incident information that (...)
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  3. Introduction to a Systemic Theory of Meaning (Jan 2010 Update).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Information and Meaning are present everywhere around us and within ourselves. Specific studies have been implemented in order to link information and meaning: - Semiotics - Phenomenology - Analytic Philosophy - Psychology No general coverage is available for the notion of meaning. We propose to complement this lack by a systemic approach to meaning generation.
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  4. Meaning Generation for Animals, Humans and Artificial Agents. An Evolutionary Perspective on the Philosophy of Information. (IS4SI 2017).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Meanings are present everywhere in our environment and within ourselves. But these meanings do not exist by themselves. They are associated to information and have to be created, to be generated by agents. The Meaning Generator System (MGS) has been developed on a system approach to model meaning generation in agents following an evolutionary perspective. The agents can be natural or artificial. The MGS generates meaningful information (a meaning) when it receives information that has a connection with an internal constraint (...)
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  5. Cognition as Management of Meaningful Information. Proposal for an Evolutionary Approach (IACAP Aarhus July 2011).Christophe Menant - manuscript
    Humans are cognitive entities. Our ongoing interactions with the environment are threaded with creations and usages of meaningful information. Animal life is also populated with meaningful information related to survival constraints. Information managed by artificial agents can also be considered as having meanings, as derived from the designer. Such perspective brings us to propose an evolutionary approach to cognition based on meaningful information management. We use a systemic tool, the Meaning Generator System (MGS), and apply it consecutively to animals, humans (...)
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  6. What is Information After All? How the Founder of Modern Dialectical Logic Could Help the Founder of Cybernetics Answer This Question.Eugene Perevalov - manuscript
    N. Wiener's negative definition of information is well known: it states what information is not. According to this definition, it is neither matter nor energy. But what is it? It is shown how one can follow the lead of dialectical logic as expounded by G.W.F. Hegel in his main work -- "The Science of Logic" -- to answer this and some related questions.
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  7. Information, Meaning and Physics: The Intellectual Transformation of the English School of Information Theory During 1946-1956.Javier Anta - forthcoming - Science in Context.
    In this comparative historical analysis, we will analyze the intellectual tendency that emerged between 1946 and 1956 to take advantage of the popularity of communication theory to develop a kind of informational epistemology of statistical mechanics. We will argue that this tendency results from a historical confluence in the early 1950s of certain theoretical claims of the so-called English School of Information Theory, championed by authors such as Gabor (1956) or MacKay (1969), and the search to extend the profound success (...)
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  8. Reasoning About Information Assurance Policy with Uncertainty Using the Semantic Web.Stephen F. Bush - forthcoming - Annual Symposium on Information Assurance:1--7.
    This is a brief letter outlining speculative ideas for semantic web reasoning about information assurance. Much work has been done on the development of semantic web applications for reasoning about information assurance. A significant portion of this work is focused upon semantic web ontologies and reasoning about security policies and the underlying implementation of those policies. While numerous semantic web-based security policy ontologies and reasoners exist, both academically and commercially, I will briefly focus on ideas related to solutions to the (...)
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  9. Conceptualizing Self-Documentation.Tim Gorichanaz - forthcoming - Online Information Review 43.
    Purpose: Self-documentation is an increasingly common phenomenon, but it is not yet well understood. This paper provides a philosophical framework for analyzing examples of self-documentation on the dimensions of ontology, epistemology and ethics. Design/methodology/approach: The framework addresses these three major areas of philosophic thought by operationalizing insights from philosophy, chiefly the work of Martin Heidegger. Heidegger’s concepts of authenticity and fallenness inform the poles of each dimension of the framework. Findings: Ontologically, self-documentation may manifest as document (authentic) or data (fallen); (...)
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  10. Philosophy's Relevance in Information Science.Ruth Hagengruber (ed.) - forthcoming
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  11. Who's Going to Mine the Information Klondike.R. Heibel - forthcoming - Colloquy.
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  12. Autognorics Approach to the Problem of Defining Life and Artificial Intelligence.Joey Lawsin - forthcoming
    Many thinkers, past and present, have tried to solve the underlying mystery of Life. Yet, no one has ever categorically expressed its exact concrete essence, scope, or meaning until a new school of thought known as Originemology was conceptualized in 1988 by Joey Lawsin. Life and consciousness can not be explained properly because their theoretical and philosophical bases are wrong. When the bases are incorrect, the outcomes are incorrect. Like the words associated with life such as alive, aware, conscious, intelligent, (...)
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  13. Communities That Behave as Information Systems.Eliseo Luis Vilalta-Perdomo & Rebecca Herron - forthcoming - Journal of Research Practice.
  14. Data Quality in Geographic Information, Chapter Some Algebraic and Logical Foundations for Spatial Imprecision.Michael F. Worboys - forthcoming - Hermes.
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  15. Make Information in Science Meaningful Again.Javier Anta - 2021 - Logos and Episteme: An International Journal of Epistemology (3):263-286.
    Although the everyday notion of information has clear semantic properties, the all-pervasive technical concept of Shannon information is usually considered as a non-semantic concept. In this paper I show how this concept was implicitly ‘semantized’ in the early 1950s by many authors, such as Rothstein or Brillouin, in order to explain the knowledge dynamics underlying certain scientific practices such as measurement. On the other hand, I argue that the main attempts in the literature to develop a quantitative measure of semantic (...)
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  16. Natural Information, Factivity and Nomicity.Ben Baker - 2021 - Biology and Philosophy 36 (2):1-21.
    Biological and cognitive sciences rely heavily on the idea of information transmitted between natural events or processes. This paper critically assesses some current philosophical views of natural information and defends a view of natural information as Nomic and Factive. Dretske offered a Factive view of information, and recent work on the topic has tended to reject this aspect of his view in favor of a non-Factive, probabilistic approach. This paper argues that the reasoning behind this move to non-Factivity is flawed (...)
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  17. Living in a Tokenized (Think: Cryptic) Reality.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
    Zero and one (modern) are yin and yang (ancient), circumference and diameter (literally and figuratively) of an always-conserved (omnipresent) circular-linear relationship. Explaining everything in Nature.
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  18. Nature's Operating System.Ilexa Yardley - 2021 - Https://Medium.Com/the-Circular-Theory.
  19. Towards a Contextual Approach to Data Quality.Stefano Canali - 2020 - Data 4 (5):90.
    In this commentary, I propose a framework for thinking about data quality in the context of scientific research. I start by analyzing conceptualizations of quality as a property of information, evidence and data and reviewing research in the philosophy of information, the philosophy of science and the philosophy of biomedicine. I identify a push for purpose dependency as one of the main results of this review. On this basis, I present a contextual approach to data quality in scientific research, whereby (...)
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  20. An Enactive-Ecological Approach to Information and Uncertainty.Eros Moreira de Carvalho & Giovanni Rolla - 2020 - Frontiers in Psychology 11 (Enaction and Ecological Psycholo):1-11.
    Information is a central notion for cognitive sciences and neurosciences, but there is no agreement on what it means for a cognitive system to acquire information about its surroundings. In this paper, we approximate three influential views on information: the one at play in ecological psychology, which is sometimes called information for action; the notion of information as covariance as developed by some enactivists, and the idea of information as minimization of uncertainty as presented by Shannon. Our main thesis is (...)
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  21. Thinking About Semantic Information.Marcin Miłkowski - 2020 - Avant: Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies 11 (2):1-10.
    In his recent book, Daniel Dennett defends a novel account of semantic information in terms of design worth getting (Dennett, 2017). While this is an interesting proposal in itself, my purpose in this commentary is to challenge several of Dennett’s claims. First, he argues that semantic information can be transferred without encoding and storing it. Second, this lack of encoding is what makes semantic information unmeasurable. However, the argument for both these claims, presented by Dennett as an intuition pump, is (...)
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  22. Skolem’s “Paradox” as Logic of Ground: The Mutual Foundation of Both Proper and Improper Interpretations.Vasil Penchev - 2020 - Epistemology eJournal (Elsevier: SSRN) 13 (19):1-16.
    A principle, according to which any scientific theory can be mathematized, is investigated. That theory is presupposed to be a consistent text, which can be exhaustedly represented by a certain mathematical structure constructively. In thus used, the term “theory” includes all hypotheses as yet unconfirmed as already rejected. The investigation of the sketch of a possible proof of the principle demonstrates that it should be accepted rather a metamathematical axiom about the relation of mathematics and reality. Its investigation needs philosophical (...)
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  23. Two Kinds of Information Processing in Cognition.Mark Sprevak - 2020 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 11 (3):591-611.
    What is the relationship between information and representation? Dating back at least to Dretske, an influential answer has been that information is a rung on a ladder that gets one to representation. Representation is information, or representation is information plus some other ingredient. In this paper, I argue that this approach oversimplifies the relationship between information and representation. If one takes current probabilistic models of cognition seriously, information is connected to representation in a new way. It enters as a property (...)
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  24. Experiences in the Biocontinuum: A New Foundation for Living Systems.Richard L. Summers - 2020 - Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
    The central question in the biological sciences for the past 100 years has concerned an understanding of how living systems differ from other general physical phenomena and what makes these systems unique. With new developments in the fields of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, systems theory, chaos, and information theory over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in finally answering the question first posed by Erwin Schrödinger in the 1940s concerning the true scientific nature of living systems. Similarly, there is (...)
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  25. Does Semantic Information Need to Be Truthful?Lundgren Björn - 2019 - Synthese 196 (7):2885-2906.
    The concept of information has well-known difficulties. Among the many issues that have been discussed is the alethic nature of a semantic conception of information. Floridi :197–222, 2004; Philos Phenomenol Res 70:351–370, 2005; EUJAP 3:31–41, 2007; The philosophy of information, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011) argued that semantic information must be truthful. In this article, arguments will be presented in favor of an alethically neutral conception of semantic information and it will be shown that such a conception can withstand Floridi’s (...)
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  26. Destiny or Free Will Decision? A Life Overview From the Perspective of an Informational Modeling of Consciousness Part I: Information, Consciousness and Life Cycle.Florin Gaiseanu - 2019 - Gerontology and Geriatrics Studies 4 (3):1-6.
    We drive our lives permanently by decisions YES/NO, and even we no longer distinguish the elementary intermediary steps of such decisions most often, they form stereotyped chains that once triggered, they run unconsciously, daily facilitating our activities. We lead our lives actually by conscious decisions, each of such decisions establishing our future trajectory. The YES/NO dipole is actually the elemental evaluation and decisional unit in the informational transmission/reception equipment and lines and in computers, respectively. Based on a binary probabilistic system, (...)
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  27. Digital Era Framework. Ein Bezugsrahmen für das Digitale Informationszeitalter.Jörn Lengsfeld - 2019 - 88339 Bad Waldsee, Deutschland:
    Der »Digital Era Framework« ist ein Bezugsrahmen für das digitale Informationszeitalter. Gerichtet an Wissenschaft und Praxis gleichermaßen, bietet das Konzept einen umfassenden Ansatz zur Einordnung und Analyse von Phänomenen des Digitalen Wandels, der Digitalisierung und der Digitalen Transformation. Dem »Digital Era Framework« liegt dabei ein integrierter Ansatz zur Untersuchung des Wandels zugrunde, insofern als Ursprungszustand, Veränderung und Endzustand in einem einheitlichen Schema dargestellt werden können. Der Bezugsrahmen stellt die Information in den Mittelpunkt der Betrachtung und beruht auf zwei Ordnungsmomenten: der (...)
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  28. Digital Era Framework.Jörn Lengsfeld - 2019 - Bad Waldsee:
    The "Digital Era Framework" is a reference framework for the digital information age. Targeted at science and practice alike, the concept offers a comprehensive approach for the analysis and assessment of phenomena of digital change, digitalization and digital transformation. The "Digital Era Framework" is based on an integrated approach to examine digital change, in so far as the original state, the occuring change and the final state can be represented in a uniform scheme. The framework emphasises information as the central (...)
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  29. Semantic Information G Theory and Logical Bayesian Inference for Machine Learning.Chenguang Lu - 2019 - Information 10 (8):261.
    An important problem with machine learning is that when label number n>2, it is very difficult to construct and optimize a group of learning functions, and we wish that optimized learning functions are still useful when prior distribution P(x) (where x is an instance) is changed. To resolve this problem, the semantic information G theory, Logical Bayesian Inference (LBI), and a group of Channel Matching (CM) algorithms together form a systematic solution. MultilabelMultilabel A semantic channel in the G theory consists (...)
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  30. A Bibliometric Analysis and Visualization of the Scientific Publications of Universities: A Study of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences During 1992-2018.Heidar Mokhtari, Seyedeh Zahra Mirezati, Mohammad Karim Saberi, Farzaneh Fazli & Mohammad Kharabati-Neshin - 2019 - Webology 16 (2):187-211.
    The evaluation of universities from different perspectives is important for their scientific development. Analyzing the scientific papers of a university under the bibliometric approach is one main evaluative approach. The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis and visualization of papers published by Hamadan University of Medical Science (HUMS), Iran, during 1992-2018. This study used bibliometric and visualization techniques. Scopus database was used for data collection. 3753 papers were retrieved by applying Affiliation Search in Scopus advanced search (...)
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  31. La réalité du champ axiologique : cybernétique et pensée de l'information chez Raymond Ruyer [The reality of the axiological field: Cybernetics and the thinking of information in Raymond Ruyer].Philippe Gagnon - 2018 - Louvain-la-Neuve: Chromatika.
    Description courte (Électre, 2019) : Une étude d'un des principaux axes de réflexion du philosophe des sciences et de la nature Raymond Ruyer (1902-1987). À la lumière des découvertes de l'embryogenèse et en s'appuyant par ailleurs sur la théorie de l'information, il proposa une interprétation des concepts unificateurs de la cybernétique mécaniste. -/- Short Descriptor (Electre 2019): A study of one of the main axes of reflection of the French philosopher of science and of nature Raymond Ruyer (1902-1987). Relying on (...)
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  32. ISR is Still a Digital Ontology.Bruce Long - 2018 - Erkenntnis:1-16.
    I will analyse Floridi’s rejection of digital ontologies and his positive proposal for an informational structural realism. I intend to show that ISR is still fundamentally a digital ontology, albeit with some different metaphysical commitments to those that Floridi rejects. I will argue that even though Floridi deploys the method of levels of abstraction adapted from computer science, and has established a Kantian transcendentalist conception of both information and structure, ISR still reduces to a discretised binary, and therefore digital, ontology. (...)
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  33. A Scientific Metaphysical Naturalisation of Information.Bruce Long - 2018 - Dissertation, University of Sydney
    The objective of this thesis is to present a naturalised metaphysics of information, or to naturalise information, by way of deploying a scientific metaphysics according to which contingency is privileged and a-priori conceptual analysis is excluded (or at least greatly diminished) in favour of contingent and defeasible metaphysics. The ontology of information is established according to the premises and mandate of the scientific metaphysics by inference to the best explanation, and in accordance with the idea that the primacy of physics (...)
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  34. Information, Security, Privacy, and Anonymity : Definitional and Conceptual Issues.Björn Lundgren - 2018 - Dissertation, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
    This doctoral thesis consists of five research papers that address four tangential topics, all of which are relevant for the challenges we are facing in our socio-technical society: information, security, privacy, and anonymity. All topics are approached by similar methods, i.e. with a concern about conceptual and definitional issues. In Paper I—concerning the concept of information and a semantic conception thereof—it is argued that the veridicality thesis is false. In Paper II—concerning information security—it is argued that the current leading definitions (...)
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  35. A Constructionist Philosophy of Logic.Patrick Allo - 2017 - Minds and Machines 27 (3):545-564.
    This paper develops and refines the suggestion that logical systems are conceptual artefacts that are the outcome of a design-process by exploring how a constructionist epistemology and meta-philosophy can be integrated within the philosophy of logic.
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  36. Informação, conhecimento e modelos.Marcos Antonio Alves, Daniel Martínez-Ávila & Maria Cláudia Cabrini Gracio (eds.) - 2017 - Campinas-Marília/Brasil: Coleção CLE-Unicamp/Cultura Acadêmica-UNESP.
    We are in the information age. Nowadays, the information is a high power commodity. Your domain and handling have high economic, political, social value. However, we still know little about it. What is the information? How do we store it, retrieve it and manipulate it? Everyone have or should have equal access to information? What is the relationship between information and knowledge? How can both influence and be influenced by the action? Can they are modeled? The models can contribute to (...)
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  37. Information-Not-Thing: Further Problems with and Alternatives to the Belief That Information is Physical.Jesse David Dinneen & Christian Brauner - 2017 - Proceedings of 2017 CAIS-ACSI Conference.
    In this short paper, we show that a popular view in information science, information-as-thing, fails to account for a common example of information that seems physical. We then demonstrate how the distinction between types and tokens, recently used to analyse Shannon information, can account for this same example by viewing information as abstract, and discuss existing definitions of information that are consistent with this approach. -/- Dans ce court article nous montrons qu'une vision populaire en sciences de l'information, l'information en (...)
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  38. Hard and Soft Logical Information.Allo Patrick - 2017 - Journal of Logic and Computation:1-20.
    In this paper I use the distinction between hard and soft information from the dynamic epistemic logic tradition to extend prior work on informational conceptions of logic to include non-monotonic consequence-relations. In particular, I defend the claim that at least some non-monotonic logics can be understood on the basis of soft or “belief-like” logical information, and thereby question the orthodox view that all logical information is hard, “knowledge-like”, information.
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  39. From Big Data to Important Information.Yaneer Bar-Yam - 2016 - Complexity 21 (S2):73-98.
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  40. Radar, Modems, and Air Defense Systems: Noise as a Data Communication Problem in the 1950s.Shawn M. Bullock - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (1):73-92.
    In the aftermath of World War II, the government of the United States provided considerable funding for military projects that promised to provide a technological edge during the nascent Cold War. The most famous example is likely the V-2 rocket-testing program that began in the late 1940s. The 67 rockets launched from White Sands developed a knowledge base that was critically important to the launch of the first U.S. satellite in 1958 and to the subsequent manned space program. Less well (...)
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  41. Mature Information Societies—a Matter of Expectations.Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (1):1-4.
    Scholars and policy makers often refer to the “information society”. And yet, it is more accurate to speak of societies, each different, some of which may qualify as information ones at different levels of maturity. Through exploration of the concepts of expectations, education and innovation, this paper explores what it means for an information society to be more or less mature than others, and the impact of this on the ongoing digital revolution.
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  42. Information-How.Nir Fresco - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):58-78.
    The distinction between knowledge-how and knowledge-that has long been debated in the epistemological literature. This distinction can, arguably, be better understood in terms of a more fundamental distinction between information-how and information-that. Information-how is prescriptive and informs a cognitive agent about which action can be performed to achieve a particular outcome. Information-that is descriptive and informs the agent about events, objects, and states of affairs in the world. Since the latter has received more attention in the epistemological literature, this article (...)
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  43. Information and Veridicality: Information Processing and the Bar-Hillel/Carnap Paradox.Nir Fresco & Michaelis Michael - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (1):131-151.
    Floridi’s Theory of Strongly Semantic Information posits the Veridicality Thesis. One motivation is that it can serve as a foundation for information-based epistemology being an alternative to the tripartite theory of knowledge. However, the Veridicality thesis is false, if ‘information’ is to play an explanatory role in human cognition. Another motivation is avoiding the so-called Bar-Hillel/Carnap paradox. But this paradox only seems paradoxical, if ‘information’ and ‘informativeness’ are synonymous, logic is a theory of inference, or validity suffices for rational inference; (...)
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  44. The Cognitive Integration of Scientific Instruments: Information, Situated Cognition, and Scientific Practice.Richard Heersmink - 2016 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):1-21.
    Researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences, particularly those working in laboratories, use a variety of artifacts to help them perform their cognitive tasks. This paper analyses the relationship between researchers and cognitive artifacts in terms of integration. It first distinguishes different categories of cognitive artifacts used in biological practice on the basis of their informational properties. This results in a novel classification of scientific instruments, conducive to an analysis of the cognitive interactions between researchers and artifacts. It then uses (...)
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  45. On the Diversity of the Cognition Disciplines and the Development of A Unifying Philosophy of Information.Nolan Hemmatazad - 2016 - Metaphilosophy 47 (2):199-213.
    The cognition and information theoretic sciences have now been in existence for the better part of a century. In that time, their varied disciplines have undergone extensive maturation, honing their methods, constitutions, and evaluation techniques in the pursuit of academic rigor, while not losing sight of the practical influences that have served as their almost universal cornerstone. Meanwhile, this period has also been marked by increasing disparity and gradual distancing of the philosophical underpinnings upon which each field is founded, adding (...)
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  46. Information Centrism and the Nature of Contexts.Torfinn Thomesen Huvenes & Andreas Stokke - 2016 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (2):301-314.
    Information Centrism is the view that contexts consist of information that can be characterized in terms of the propositional attitudes of the conversational participants. Furthermore, it claims that this notion of context is the only one needed for linguistic theorizing about context-sensitive languages. We argue that Information Centrism is false, since it cannot account correctly for facts about truth and reference in certain cases involving indexicals and demonstratives. Consequently, contexts cannot be construed simply as collections of shared information.
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  47. Information Cultures in the Digital Age.Matthew Kelly & Jared Bielby (eds.) - 2016 - Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.
    For several decades Rafael Capurro has been at the forefront of defining the relationship between information and modernity through both phenomenological and ethical formulations. In exploring both of these themes Capurro has re-vivified the transcultural and intercultural expressions of how we bring an understanding of information to bear on scientific knowledge production and intermediation. Capurro has long stressed the need to look deeply into how we contextualize the information problems that scientific society creates for us and to re-incorporate a pragmatic (...)
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  48. Information in the Universe and in the Organism.Ervin Laszlo - 2016 - World Futures 72 (3-4):101-106.
    There is a branch of modern medicine that relies on information rather than on biochemical substances to maintain health and cure disease. Known as information medicine, it offers an important complement to the dominant biochemical approach of mainstream medicine. This note offers a few reflections on the potentials of information medicine in reference to what is currently known regarding the role of information in the universe, and in the living organism.
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  49. What is Shannon Information?Olimpia Lombardi, Federico Holik & Leonardo Vanni - 2016 - Synthese 193 (7):1983-2012.
    Despite of its formal precision and its great many applications, Shannon’s theory still offers an active terrain of debate when the interpretation of its main concepts is the task at issue. In this article we try to analyze certain points that still remain obscure or matter of discussion, and whose elucidation contribute to the assessment of the different interpretative proposals about the concept of information. In particular, we argue for a pluralist position, according to which the different views about information (...)
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  50. Information Medicine: An Application of the New Paradigm in Medicine.Maria Sagi - 2016 - World Futures 72 (3-4):115-126.
    Information medicine is a new application and development of an age-old method of healing. It re-creates and re-discovers a method that has proved its merits for thousands of years through a synthesis with new developments in new-paradigm physics and biology. The basic premise of information medicine is the use of information to correct faulty or blocked information-flows in the organism. As the latest discoveries, among others by Dr. Biava, show, even cancerous cells can be reprogrammed through the introduction of substances (...)
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