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1 — 50 / 216
  1. added 2020-03-27
    Power by Association.Travis Lacroix & Cailin O'Connor - manuscript
    We use tools from evolutionary game theory to examine how power might influence the cultural evolution of inequitable norms between discernible groups in a population of otherwise identical individuals. Similar extant models always assume that power is homogeneous across a social group. As such, these models fail to capture situations where individuals who are not themselves disempowered nonetheless end up disadvantaged in bargaining scenarios by dint of their social group membership. Thus, we assume that there is heterogeneity in the groups (...)
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  2. added 2020-02-12
    Comentários sobre Biologia, Psicologia e Política da Religião.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Na minha opinião, um comportamentoque eu é uma expressão de nossa psicologia evoluiu e tão intimamente relacionada à religião, moralidade e ética, se alguém sabe olhar para eles. -/- Muitos vão achar estranho que ele passe pouco tempo discutindo os temas comuns à maioria das discussões religiosas, mas na minha opinião é essencial primeiro entender as generalidades do comportamento e isso requer uma boa compreensão da biologia e psicologia que são principalmente notáveis por sua ausência em trabalhos sobre religião, política, (...)
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  3. added 2020-02-11
    The Sociobiology of Ethnocentrism: Evolutionary Dimensions of Xenophobia, Discrimination, Racism and Nationalism.Fred Gifford - 1988 - Ethics 99 (1):183-184.
  4. added 2020-02-11
    Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense?J. L. Mackie - 1980 - Erkenntnis 15 (2):189-194.
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  5. added 2019-12-04
    Reseña de "¿Estamos cableados?” (Are We Hardwired?) por Clark & Grunstein Oxford (2000).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4a Edición. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 181-183.
    -/- Esta es una excelente revisión de las interacciones gen/ambiente en el comportamiento y, a pesar de ser un poco anticuado, es una lectura fácil y valiosa. Empiezan con estudios gemelos que muestran el impacto abrumador de la genética en el comportamiento. Señalan los estudios cada vez más conocidos de Judith Harris, que amplían y resumen los hechos de que el ambiente doméstico compartido casi no tiene efecto sobre el comportamiento y que los niños adoptados crecen para ser tan diferentes (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-23
    Are Kin and Group Selection Rivals or Friends?Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Current Biology 29 (11):R433-R438.
    Kin selection and group selection were once seen as competing explanatory hypotheses but now tend to be seen as equivalent ways of describing the same basic idea. Yet this ‘equivalence thesis’ seems not to have brought proponents of kin selection and group selection any closer together. This may be because the equivalence thesis merely shows the equivalence of two statistical formalisms without saying anything about causality. W.D. Hamilton was the first to derive an equivalence result of this type. Yet Hamilton (...)
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  7. added 2019-09-09
    Inclusive Fitness as a Criterion for Improvement.Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 76:101186.
    I distinguish two roles for a fitness concept in the context of explaining cumulative adaptive evolution: fitness as a predictor of gene frequency change, and fitness as a criterion for phenotypic improvement. Critics of inclusive fitness argue, correctly, that it is not an ideal fitness concept for the purpose of predicting gene-frequency change, since it relies on assumptions about the causal structure of social interaction that are unlikely to be exactly true in real populations, and that hold as approximations only (...)
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  8. added 2019-08-20
    Genetic Relatedness and Its Causal Role in the Evolution of Insect Societies.Tuomas K. Pernu - 2019 - Journal of Biosciences 44:107.
    The role of genetic relatedness in social evolution has recently come under critical attention. These arguments are here critically analyzed, both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that when the conceptual structure of the theory of natural selection is carefully taken into account, genetic relatedness can be seen to play an indispensable role in the evolution of both facultative and advanced eusociality. Although reviewing the empirical evidence concerning the evolution of eusociality reveals that relatedness does not play a role in (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-06
    Sociobiology.Vittorio Hösle - 2012 - Symposium 16 (1):112-128.
    The essay explores the development of sociobiology, its basic tenets, and its contributions to the study of human nature as well as ethics. It insists that Darwinism is more than a biological theory and presents a possibility of interpreting sociobiology as manifesting not the triumph of the selfish gene but, on the contrary, the only way in which the expansion of altruism was possible.
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Cultural Transmission and Social Control of Human Behavior.Laureano Castro, Luis Castro-Nogueira, Miguel A. Castro-Nogueira & Miguel A. Toro - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (3):347-360.
    Humans have developed the capacity to approve or disapprove of the behavior of their children and of unrelated individuals. The ability to approve or disapprove transformed social learning into a system of cumulative cultural inheritance, because it increased the reliability of cultural transmission. Moreover, people can transmit their behavioral experiences (regarding what can and cannot be done) to their offspring, thereby avoiding the costs of a laborious, and sometimes dangerous, evaluation of different cultural alternatives. Our thesis is that, during ontogeny, (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    La moral y sus sombras: la racionalidad instrumental y la evolución de las normas de equidad.Alejandro Rosas - 2005 - Critica 37 (110):79-104.
    Los sociobiólogos han defendido una posición "calvinista" que se resume en la siguiente fórmula: si la selección natural explica las actitudes morales, no hay altruismo genuino en la moral; si la moral es altruista, entonces la selección natural no puede explicarla. En este ensayo desenmascaro los presupuestos erróneos de esta posición y defiendo que el altruismo como equidad no es incompatible con la selección natural. Rechazo una concepción hobbesiana de la moral, pero sugiero su empleo en la interpretación de la (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Medieval Sociobiology: Thomas Aquinas’s Theory of Sexual Morality.Gerald J. Massey - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 27 (1):69-86.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Utilitarianism, Sociobiology, and the Limits of Benevolence.Danny Scoccia - 1990 - Journal of Philosophy 87 (7):329.
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Sociobiology and the Preemption of Social Science. Stabler Jr - 1982 - Philosophy of Science 49 (4):648-651.
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense? [REVIEW]R. Paul Thompson - 1980 - Environmental Ethics 2 (2):173-177.
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  16. added 2019-06-05
    Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature. Philip Kitcher.Alexander Rosenberg - 1986 - Philosophy of Science 53 (4):607-608.
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  17. added 2019-06-05
    Sociobiology. Edward O. Wilson.Arthur Caplan - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (2):305-306.
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  18. added 2019-04-25
    Social Evolution and the Two Elements of Causation.Tuomas K. Pernu & Heikki Helanterä - 2019 - Oikos 128:905-911.
    The kin selection theory has recently been criticised on the basis of claiming that genetic relatedness does not play a causal role in the social evolution among individuals of insect societies. We outline here a line of criticism of this view by demonstrating two things. First, there are strong conceptual, theoretical and empirical reasons to think that close genetic relatedness has been necessary for the rise of the helper castes of social insects. And second, once we understand how causal explanation (...)
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  19. added 2019-02-26
    Consegue um homem comer um mamute inteiro? Psicologia moral do valor e normatividade.L. N. Igansi - 2015 - Controvérsia 11 (1):57-70.
    The understanding of value in moral naturalism as a descriptivist endeavor will be analized through an application of the naturalistic fallacy on an evolutive perspective of moral psychology. From a brief analysis of the naturalistic fallacy as proposed by Dall’Agnol, I’ll criticize the author’s application of such on what he refers to as moral naturalism. Contrasting E. Wilson’s sociobiology with R. Triver’s theory of reciprocal altruism I will procure a definition of naturalized ethics by investigating the psychological roots of moral (...)
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  20. added 2019-02-24
    Stove's Discovery of the Worst Argument in the World.James Franklin - 2002 - Philosophy 77 (4):615-624.
    The winning entry in David Stove's Competition to Find the Worst Argument in the World was: “We can know things only as they are related to us/insofar as they fall under our conceptual schemes, etc., so, we cannot know things as they are in themselves.” That argument underpins many recent relativisms, including postmodernism, post-Kuhnian sociological philosophy of science, cultural relativism, sociobiological versions of ethical relativism, and so on. All such arguments have the same form as ‘We have eyes, therefore we (...)
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  21. added 2019-02-20
    Agents and Goals in Evolution, by Samir Okasha. [REVIEW]Jonathan Birch - 2019 - Mind 128 (512):1408-1416.
    In this essay review of Samir Okasha's Agents and Goals in Evolution, I reflect on the rationale for agential thinking in biology, and consider whether the rationale is the same for genes as for organisms. I also discuss Okasha's ingenious examples of the evolution of irrational behaviour, and in particular the evolution of violations of the "independence axiom" of rational choice theory. These examples rely on a crucial distinction between aggregate and idiosyncratic risk.
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  22. added 2018-12-17
    Kin Selection: A Philosophical Analysis.Jonathan Birch - 2013 - Dissertation, University of Cambridge
    This dissertation examines the conceptual and theoretical foundations of the most general and most widely used framework for understanding social evolution, W. D. Hamilton's theory of kin selection. While the core idea is intuitive enough (when organisms share genes, they sometimes have an evolutionary incentive to help one another), its apparent simplicity masks a host of conceptual subtleties, and the theory has proved a perennial source of controversy in evolutionary biology. To move towards a resolution of these controversies, we need (...)
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  23. added 2018-11-18
    Task Allocation and the Logic of Research Questions: How Ants Challenge Human Sociobiology.Ryan Ketcham - 2019 - Biological Theory 14 (1):52-68.
    After biologist Deborah Gordon made a series of experimental discoveries in the 1980s, she argued that a change in terminology regarding the division of labor among castes of specialists was needed. Gordon’s investigations of the interactive effects of ants in colonies led her to believe that the established approach Edward O. Wilson had pioneered was biased in a way that made some alternative candidate adaptive explanations invisible. Gordon argued that this was because the term “division of labor” implied a division (...)
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  24. added 2018-11-18
    Power in Cultural Evolution and the Spread of Prosocial Norms.Nathan Cofnas - 2018 - Quarterly Review of Biology 93 (4):297–318.
    According to cultural evolutionary theory in the tradition of Boyd and Richerson, cultural evolution is driven by individuals' learning biases, natural selection, and random forces. Learning biases lead people to preferentially acquire cultural variants with certain contents or in certain contexts. Natural selection favors individuals or groups with fitness-promoting variants. Durham (1991) argued that Boyd and Richerson's approach is based on a "radical individualism" that fails to recognize that cultural variants are often "imposed" on people regardless of their individual decisions. (...)
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  25. added 2018-10-07
    The sociobiology of genes: the gene’s eye view as a unifying behavioural-ecological framework for biological evolution.Alexis De Tiège, Yves Van de Peer, Johan Braeckman & Koen B. Tanghe - 2017 - History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 40 (1):6.
    Although classical evolutionary theory, i.e., population genetics and the Modern Synthesis, was already implicitly ‘gene-centred’, the organism was, in practice, still generally regarded as the individual unit of which a population is composed. The gene-centred approach to evolution only reached a logical conclusion with the advent of the gene-selectionist or gene’s eye view in the 1960s and 1970s. Whereas classical evolutionary theory can only work with fitness differences between individual organisms, gene-selectionism is capable of working with fitness differences among genes (...)
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  26. added 2018-10-07
    Applying Sociobiology. [REVIEW]Ronald De Sousa - 1992 - Biology and Philosophy 7 (2):237.
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  27. added 2018-09-06
    Paradox and Tragedy in Human Morality.Pouwel Slurink - 1994 - International Political Science Review 15 (347):378.
    An evolutionary approach to ethics supports, to some extent, the sceptical meta-ethics found by some of the Greek sophists and Nietzsche. On the other hand, a modern naturalistic account on the origin and nature of morality, leads to somewhat different conclusions. This is demonstrated with an answer to three philosophical questions: does real freedom exist?, does the good, or real virtue, exist?, does life have a meaning?
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  28. added 2018-08-28
    Human Nature: An Overview.Stephen M. Downes - 2018 - In Richard Joyce (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Evolution and Philosophy. New York, NY, USA: pp. 155-166.
    Debates about human nature inform every philosophical tradition from their inception (see Stevenson 2000 for many examples). Evolutionarily based criticisms of human nature are of much more recent origin. Ironically, most evolutionarily based criticisms of human nature are directed at work whose avowed goal is to biologicize human nature and even to place human nature within an evolutionary frame. Here I will focus on accounts of human nature that begin with and come after E.O. Wilson’s sociobiology. I will also focus (...)
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  29. added 2018-04-08
    Evolution's Arrow: The Direction of Evolution and the Future of Humanity.John E. Stewart - 2000 - Canberra: The Chapman Press.
    Evolution's Arrow argues that evolution is directional and progressive, and that this has major consequences for humanity. Without resort to teleology, the book demonstrates that evolution moves in the direction of producing cooperative organisations of greater scale and evolvability - evolution has organised molecular processes into cells, cells into organisms, and organisms into societies. The book founds this position on a new theory of the evolution of cooperation. It shows that self-interest at the level of the genes does not prevent (...)
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  30. added 2018-02-17
    Human reproduction and sociobiology.John Dupré - 1983 - Analysis 43 (4):210.
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  31. added 2018-01-12
    Sociobiology and Behavior. [REVIEW]Michael Ruse - 1979 - Environmental Ethics 1 (2):181-185.
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  32. added 2017-10-26
    The Philosophy of Social Evolution.Jonathan Birch - 2017 - Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    From mitochondria to meerkats, the natural world is full of spectacular examples of social behaviour. In the early 1960s W. D. Hamilton changed the way we think about how such behaviour evolves. He introduced three key innovations - now known as Hamilton's rule, kin selection, and inclusive fitness - and his pioneering work kick-started a research program now known as social evolution theory. This is a book about the philosophical foundations and future prospects of that program.
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  33. added 2017-10-22
    Functional Analyses and Their Justification.William Bechtel - 1988 - Biology and Philosophy 3 (2):157.
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  34. added 2017-09-28
    Why Some Apes Became Humans, Competition, Consciousness, and Culture.Pouwel Slurink - 2002 - Dissertation, Radboud University
    Chapter 1 (To know in order to survive) & Chapter 2 (A critique of evolved reason) explain human knowledge and its limits from an evolutionary point of view. Chapter 3 (Captured in our Cockpits) explains the evolution of consciousness, using value driven decision theory. Chapter 4-6 (Chapter 4 Sociobiology, Chapter 5 Culture: het Human Arena), Chapter 6, Genes, Memes, and the Environment) show that to understand culture you have at least to deal with 4 levels: genes, brains, the environment, culture. (...)
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  35. added 2017-09-25
    Book Review: The Stag Hunt and the Evolution of Social Structure. [REVIEW]J. McKenzie Alexander - unknown
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  36. added 2017-09-22
    Philosophical Lessons From Scientific Biography.Alan C. Love - 2011 - Philosophy of Science 78 (4):696-701.
    Essay Review of The Tragic Sense of Life: Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought by Robert J. Richards [2009].
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  37. added 2017-07-31
    Kin Selection, Group Selection, and the Varieties of Population Structure.Jonathan Birch - 2020 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 71 (1):259-286.
    Various results show the ‘formal equivalence’ of kin and group selectionist methodologies, but this does not preclude there being a real and useful distinction between kin and group selection processes. I distinguish individual- and population-centred approaches to drawing such a distinction, and I proceed to develop the latter. On the account I advance, the differences between kin and group selection are differences of degree in the structural properties of populations. A spatial metaphor provides a useful framework for thinking about these (...)
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  38. added 2017-07-31
    The Inclusive Fitness Controversy: Finding a Way Forward.Jonathan Birch - 2017 - Royal Society Open Science 4:170335.
    This paper attempts to reconcile critics and defenders of inclusive fitness by constructing a synthesis that does justice to the insights of both. I argue that criticisms of the regression-based version of Hamilton’s rule, although they undermine its use for predictive purposes, do not undermine its use as an organizing framework for social evolution research. I argue that the assumptions underlying the concept of inclusive fitness, conceived as a causal property of an individual organism, are unlikely to be exactly true (...)
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  39. added 2017-01-27
    Marxism and Human Sociobiology-Reply.Ge Allen - 1991 - Biology and Philosophy 6 (4):453-456.
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  40. added 2017-01-19
    Genes or Culture? A Marxist Perspective on Humankind.Ivan T. Frolov - 1986 - Biology and Philosophy 1 (1):89-107.
    Intense interest has long been shown in the nature of humankind. Are we the products of genes? Are we the products of culture? Or are we something in between? The Marxist position, stressing the dominant significance of social methods for studying humans, is sketched. Then, a number of Western, biologically influenced views are discussed and criticised. Although there are important insights in the writings of the holders of these views, ultimately they produce only a semiscience.
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  41. added 2017-01-16
    Im Anfang War der Egoismus.Edgar Dahl - 1991 - Econ.
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  42. added 2017-01-15
    The Importance of Human Individuality for Sociobiology.Bernard D. Davis - 1982 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (1):1-18.
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  43. added 2017-01-14
    Revisiting the Left-Wing Response to Sociobiology: The Case of Finland in a European Context.Antti Lepistö - 2015 - Journal of the History of Biology 48 (1):99-136.
    This article revisits the left-wing response to sociobiology in the 1970s and 1980s by examining the sociobiology debate in Finland in a larger European context. It argues that the Finnish academic left’s response to sociobiology represents a “third way” alongside the purely negative, often Marxist denial of biology’s relevance, which characterized the left’s response to sociobiology in many European countries such as Hungary and Sweden, and alongside the disregard that sociobiology confronted in most parts of Eastern Europe, as well as (...)
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  44. added 2017-01-14
    Sociobiology, Individuality, and Ethics: A Response.Edward O. Wilson - 1982 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 26 (1):19-29.
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  45. added 2017-01-14
    The Gospel According to Sociobiology.Douglas H. Boucher - 1981 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 25 (1):63-65.
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  46. added 2017-01-14
    The Sociobiology Debate: Readings on Ethical and Scientific Issues Edited by Arthur L. Caplan.Michael J. Wade - 1980 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23 (4):658-660.
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  47. added 2017-01-14
    Sociobiology: The New Synthesis by Edward O. Wilson.Richard L. Landau - 1976 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 19 (4):598-599.
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  48. added 2016-12-08
    Behavioural Ecology as a Basic Science for Evolutionary Psychiatry.S. Price John - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):421.
    To the evolutionarily oriented clinical psychiatrist, the discipline of behavioural ecology is a fertile basic science. Human psychology discusses variation in terms of means, standard deviations, heritabilities, and so on, but behavioural ecology deals with mutually incompatible alternative behavioural strategies, the heritable variation being maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection. I suggest that behavioural ecology should be included in the interdisciplinary dialogue recommended by Keller & Miller (K&M). (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  49. added 2016-12-02
    Kamikazes and Cultural Evolution.Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Biological and Biomedical Sciences 61:11-19.
  50. added 2016-06-19
    Is Jung's Theory of Archetypes Compatible with Neo-Darwinism and Sociobiology?Ray Scott Percival - 1993 - Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems 16 (4):459 - 487.
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