Results for 'Geniculate Orientation Biases as Cartesian'

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  1. Geniculate Orientation Biases as Cartesian Coordinates for Cortical Orientation Detectors.T. R. Vidyasagar - 1985 - In David Rose & Vernon Dobson (eds.), Models of the Visual Cortex. New York: Wiley. pp. 390--395.
     
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  2. Tr Vldyasagar.Geniculate Orientation Biases as Cartesian - 1985 - In David Rose & Vernon Dobson (eds.), Models of the Visual Cortex. New York: Wiley.
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  3. Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation.William S. Wilkerson - 2009 - Journal of Social Philosophy 40 (1):97-116.
    Argues that choice, as a form of interpretation, is completely intertwined with the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. Sexual orientation is not simply a given, or determined aspect of personality.
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  4.  8
    Guiding Orientation Processes as Possibility to Give Direction for System Innovations—the Use of Resilience and Sustainability in the Energy Transition.Urte Brand & Arnim von Gleich - 2017 - NanoEthics 11 (1):31-45.
    Challenges like finite fossil fuels, impacts of climate change, and risks of nuclear energy require a transformation of energy systems which implies risks itself, e.g. technical or socio-economic risks or still unknown and unexpected surprises. Nevertheless, in order to follow the direction desired by the transformation, the question arises how the direction of the transformation processes of socio-technical energy systems can be influenced. Guiding orientation processes could represent such a possibility to give direction where desired directions are taken up (...)
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  5. Emergence as Non-Aggregativity and the Biases of Reductionisms.William C. Wimsatt - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (3):269-297.
    Most philosophical accounts of emergence are incompatible with reduction. Most scientists regard a system property as emergent relative to properties of its parts if it depends upon their mode of organization-a view consistent with reduction. Emergence is a failure of aggregativity, in which ``the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts''. Aggregativity requires four conditions, giving powerful tools for analyzing modes of organization. Differently met for different decompositions of the system, and in different degrees, the structural conditions (...)
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  6. Social Epistemology as a New Paradigm for Journalism and Media Studies.Yigal Godler, Zvi Reich & Boaz Miller - forthcoming - New Media and Society.
    Journalism and media studies lack robust theoretical concepts for studying journalistic knowledge ‎generation. More specifically, conceptual challenges attend the emergence of big data and ‎algorithmic sources of journalistic knowledge. A family of frameworks apt to this challenge is ‎provided by “social epistemology”: a young philosophical field which regards society’s participation ‎in knowledge generation as inevitable. Social epistemology offers the best of both worlds for ‎journalists and media scholars: a thorough familiarity with biases and failures of obtaining ‎knowledge, and a (...)
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  7.  27
    Desgabets as a Cartesian Empiricist.Monte Cook - 2008 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (4):pp. 501-515.
    A long tradition regards Robert Desgabets as a Cartesian empiricist. He says things that sound strikingly like Locke, and he argues against anti-empiricist reasoning in Descartes, Malebranche, and Arnauld. Moreover, throughout his writings he endorses the empiricist principle that nothing is in the intellect except what was previously in the senses. Since the Cartesians are generally supposed to be prototypical non -empiricists, Desgabets’s being a Cartesian empiricist would make him a particularly interesting specimen. In this paper, however, I (...)
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  8.  20
    Spontaneous Emergence of Legibility in Writing Systems: The Case of Orientation Anisotropy.Olivier Morin - 2018 - Cognitive Science 42 (2):664-677.
    Cultural forms are constrained by cognitive biases, and writing is thought to have evolved to fit basic visual preferences, but little is known about the history and mechanisms of that evolution. Cognitive constraints have been documented for the topology of script features, but not for their orientation. Orientation anisotropy in human vision, as revealed by the oblique effect, suggests that cardinal orientations, being easier to process, should be overrepresented in letters. As this study of 116 scripts shows, (...)
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  9.  19
    Analogy as Destiny: Cartesian Man and the Woman Reader.Carol H. Cantrell - 1990 - Hypatia 5 (2):7 - 19.
    Feminist studies in the history and philosophy of science have suggested that supposedly neutral and objective discourses are shaped by pairs of dualisms, which though value-laden are assumed to inhere in the order of nature. These hierarchical pairs devalue women, particularly their bodies and their labor, as they sanction the domination of nature. Readers of literature can draw on these studies to address texts and genres which do not thematize gender but rather purport to portray "the human condition." Samuel Beckett's (...)
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  10.  24
    The Trapped Infinity: Cartesian Volition as Conceptual Nightmare.Edward S. Reed - 1990 - Philosophical Psychology 3 (1):101-121.
    Abstract Descartes's theory of volition as expressed in his Passions of the Soul is analyzed and outlined. The focus is not on Descartes's proposed answers to questions about the nature and processes of volition, but on his way of formulating questions about the nature of volition. It is argued that the assumptions underlying Descartes's questions have become ?intellectual strait?jackets? for all who are interested in volition: neuroscientists, philosophers and psychologists. It is shown that Descartes's basic assumption?that volition causes change in (...)
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  11.  32
    Art as Orientation.Norman Kreitman - 2011 - Metaphilosophy 42 (5):642-657.
    What is it that we lack in everyday life that causes us to value art so highly? This article argues that (almost) all values are to be understood in terms of a needs-satisfaction system, and hence that the value of art can be understood only with reference to the state of the appreciator prior to engagement with the artwork. Aesthetic appreciation can be analysed as a process, which can be described in empirically based psychological terms, leading to a functional view (...)
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  12.  31
    A Cross‐Cultural Comparison of Achievement and Power Orientation as Leadership Dimensions in Three European Countries: Britain, Ireland and Turkey.Mahmut Arslan - 2001 - Business Ethics 10 (4):340–345.
    This paper compares attitudes towards achievement and power orientation as between Turkish, British and Irish managers and discusses the issue from a business ethics point of view. The concept of achievement and power orientation and its impacts on business ethics is discussed. This research is part of a larger cross‐cultural study that examines leadership styles and managerial attitudes in Britain, Turkey and Ireland. Intensive structured interviews were conducted for data gathering process. Results revealed that Irish and Turkish managers (...)
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  13.  14
    Cognitive Biases and Errors as Cause—and Journalistic Best Practices as Effect.Sue Ellen Christian - 2013 - Journal of Mass Media Ethics 28 (3):160-174.
    This article argues that basic ethical principles of U.S. journalism as described in the Society of Professional Journalists' Code of Ethics are the result of, and a response to, cognitive bias and error. Cognitive biases and errors necessitate journalistic best practices to correct or attenuate them. Social cognitive processes explored include stereotyping, confirmation bias, and attribution. These concepts are noteworthy because each may be activated by the practice of journalism, and each has been shown to be susceptible to attenuation (...)
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  14.  12
    Athletic Identity and Social Goal Orientations as Predictors of Moral Orientation.Miltiadis Proios - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (5):410-424.
    Moral development, achievement goal, and athletic identity are considered psychological constructs sharing specific cognitive, social, motivational, and behavioral traits. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the relation among moral orientations, athletic identity, and social goal orientations. In addition, the impact of age, gender, type of sport, sport division, and school performance on moral orientation has also been investigated. One hundred forty athletes of artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, and acrobatic gymnastics (n?=?29 boys, n?=?111 girls), aged 8 to (...)
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  15.  22
    Natural Selection as a Cause: Probability, Chance, and Selective Biases.Françoise Longy - unknown
    To what do "natural selection" and "genetic drift" refer? To causes, as is usually thought? Or to mere statistical effects? The question arises because assessing causes faces specific difficulties when stochastic processes are concerned. In this paper, I establish that a central anti-causalist argument from Matthen and Ariew (2002) does not work, because selection doesn't depend on chance (or unknown factors) in the manner that current analogies with games of chance suggest. I then explain how a clear understanding of how (...)
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  16.  9
    The Perception of Corruption as Social and Institutional Pressure: A Comparative Analysis of Cultural Biases.Davide Torsello - 2013 - Human Affairs 23 (2):160-173.
    This study is an empirical approach to answering the question: are there any universal factors that account for the origin, diffusion and persistence of corruption in human societies? The paper enquires whether the perception of corruption in politics and economics can be tackled as a form of cultural adaptation, driven by exogenous and endogenous forces. These are respectively: freedom of access and management of economic resources, and the pressures towards human grouping. Following the analytical insights of cultural theory, developed by (...)
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  17.  3
    Solus Secedo and Sapere Aude: Cartesian Meditation as Kantian Enlightenment.Suma Rajiva - 2015 - Con-Textos Kantianos 1:261-279.
    Recently Samuel Fleischacker has developed Kant’s model of enlightenment as a “minimalist enlightenment” in the tradition of a relatively thin proceduralism focused on the form of public debate and interaction. I want to discuss the possibility that such a minimalism, endorsed by Fleischacker, Habermas, Rawls, and others, benefits from a metaphysics of critical individual subjectivity as a prerequisite for the social proceduralism of the minimalist enlightenment. I argue that Kant’s enlightenment, metaphysically thicker than much contemporary proceduralism, constitutes a recovery and (...)
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  18.  5
    Experimentally Induced Response Biases as a Function of Positive and Negative Wording.Michel Hersen - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):588-590.
  19. Determining Moral Leadership as Argued From an Evolutionary Point of View – With Reference to Gender, Race, Poverty and Sexual Orientation.Chris Jones - 2019 - Hts Theological Studies 75 (4):1-7.
    This essay focuses on determining moral leadership, as theoretically debated from an evolutionary point of view in an attempt to reflect on how this kind of moral leadership can contribute, among others, in dealing with issues such as gender, race, poverty and sexual orientation. Although important, not one of the latter issues will be discussed. It is not the primary focus of the essay. But because we are aware of the extent of the challenges regarding these issues, they were (...)
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  20.  47
    Public Relations Autonomy, Legal Dominance, and Strategic Orientation as Predictors of Crisis Communicative Strategies.Yi-Hui Huang & Shih-Hsin Su - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):29-41.
    This article investigates the factors affecting how public relations autonomy, legal dominance, and strategic orientation affect crisis communicative response in corporate contexts. Communication managers, crisis managers, public affairs managers, and/or public relations managers were solicited from Taiwan’s top 500 companies to participate in a survey. The results revealed that, in contrast to public relations autonomy being the strongest and sole predictor of concession strategy, legal dominance could predict defensive and diversionary responses in crisis events. The article concludes with a (...)
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  21.  9
    Explaining and Simulating Judgment Biases as an Aggregation Phenomenon in Probabilistic, Multiple-Cue Environments.Klaus Fiedler - 1996 - Psychological Review 103 (1):193-214.
  22.  42
    The Epic of Evolution as a Framework for Human Orientation in Life.George Kaufman - 1997 - Zygon 32 (2):175-188.
  23.  11
    Left-Right Differences in Tachistoscopic Recognition as a Function of Familiarity and Pattern Orientation.M. P. Bryden - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):120.
  24.  4
    Shape Discrimination as a Function of the Angular Orientation of the Stimuli.Malcolm D. Arnoult - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 47 (5):323.
  25.  16
    Task-Orientation and Ego-Orientation as Factors in Reminiscence.Thelma G. Alper - 1948 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 38 (3):224-238.
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  26.  9
    Tactual Localization Without Overt Localizing Movements and its Relation to the Concept of Local Signs as Orientation Tendencies.N. L. Munn - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 20 (6):581.
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  27.  9
    Apparent Length as a Function of Tilt Does Not Depend on Orientation of the Standard.Martha Teghtsoonian - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (2):191.
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  28. The Luoshu Magic Square as Evidence of the Rational and Mathematical Orientation of the Chinese Style of Thinking.Natalya V. Pushkarskaya - 2019 - Russian Journal of Philosophical Sciences 62 (6):151-159.
    This article considers the meaning of the ancient Chinese magic square Luoshu. It is known that this square is the most ancient of this type of squares. The importance of the magic square in the philosophical tradition and in the whole culture of China is large. The ancient understanding of number differs from the modern one by its dual character, combining the features of philosophical symbolism and mathematical constructions. Unfortunately, modern interpretations of the Luoshu as well as other numerical constructions (...)
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  29.  30
    Rethinking Plato: A Cartesian Quest for the Real Plato.Necip Fikri Alican - 2012 - New York: Brill | Rodopi.
    This book is a quest for the real Plato, forever hiding behind the veil of drama. The quest, as the subtitle indicates, is Cartesian in that it looks for Plato independently of the prevailing paradigms on where we are supposed to find him. The result of the quest is a complete pedagogical platform on Plato. This does not mean that the book leaves nothing out, covering all the dialogues and all the themes, but that it provides the full intellectual (...)
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  30.  67
    Religion as a Control Guide: On the Impact of Religion on Cognition.Bernhard Hommel & Lorenza S. Colzato - 2010 - Zygon 45 (3):596-604.
    Religions commonly are taken to provide general orientation in leading one's life. We develop here the idea that religions also may have a much more concrete guidance function in providing systematic decision biases in the face of cognitive-control dilemmas. In particular, we assume that the selective reward that religious belief systems provide for rule-conforming behavior induces systematic biases in cognitive-control parameters that are functional in producing the wanted behavior. These biases serve as default values under uncertainty (...)
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  31.  17
    Among School Teachers: Bearing Witness as an Orientation in Educational Inquiry.David T. Hansen - 2017 - Educational Theory 67 (1):9-30.
    In this writing, David Hansen illuminates the aesthetic, moral, and epistemic meaning of bearing witness to teaching and teachers by drawing upon a recently completed field-based endeavor that included extensive school visits. Hansen shows how bearing witness can bring the inquirer close to the truth of teaching. However, the witness must undertake ethical work to ready her- or himself for the task. Even such readiness, which must be continuously re-won on each occasion, guarantees nothing. The witness in the classroom must (...)
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  32.  47
    Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice.Esa Diaz-Leon - 2017 - Journal of Social Ontology 3 (2):231-248.
    Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim (...)
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  33.  18
    Business Education and Idealism as Determinants of Stakeholder Orientation.Jose-Luis Godos-Díez, Roberto Fernández-Gago & Laura Cabeza-García - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 131 (2):439-452.
    This paper based on the distinction between the instrumental and normative views of stakeholder management explores how business education and personal moral philosophies may influence the orientation adopted by an individual. A mediated regression analysis using survey information collected from 206 Spanish university students showed that those exposed to management theories were less willing to consider stakeholders when making business decisions if the consequent economic impacts on the firm were omitted. The results also provided support for a negative effect (...)
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  34.  6
    The Kierkegaardian Concept of Conscience as an Implication of the External World: A Critique to the Cartesian Approach.Yerlis Guardo González - 2019 - Eidos: Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad Del Norte 30:211-237.
    Resumen: Este artículo pretende mostrar cómo el filósofo danés Søren Kierkegaard, mediante su concepto de conciencia, establece una crítica al escepticismo cartesiano al afirmar la imposibilidad de la duda del mundo exterior, puesto que la misma posibilidad de la duda supone de antemano la existencia de una conciencia que produce y es producida por la relación tricotómica entre idealidad y realidad, o, con otras palabras, mediatez e inmediatez. Para ello se realizará en primer lugar la explicación del planteamiento cartesiano, a (...)
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  35.  11
    “Buying” Corporate Social Responsibility: Organisational Identity Orientation as a Determinant of Practice Adoption.Christopher Wickert, Antonino Vaccaro & Joep Cornelissen - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 142 (3):497-514.
    In this paper, we explore the empirical phenomenon of large multinational corporations acquiring socially oriented enterprises, such as the Unilever–Ben & Jerry’s, and the L`Oréal-The Body Shop takeovers. When focusing on these cases, we argue that variance in organisational identity orientations, as the dominant logic of managers within the acquiring organisations, determines whether MNCs consider the transaction not only in financial terms, but also decide to adopt “social technology” in the form of CSR-related organisational practices from the acquired unit. We (...)
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  36.  98
    The Ontological Argument as an Exercise in Cartesian Therapy.Lawrence Nolan - 2005 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 35 (4):521 - 562.
    I argue that Descartes intended the so-called ontological "argument" as a self-validating intuition, rather than as a formal proof. The textual evidence for this view is highly compelling, but the strongest support comes from understanding Descartes's diagnosis for why God's existence is not 'immediately' self-evident to everyone and the method of analysis that he develops for making it self-evident. The larger aim of the paper is to use the ontological argument as a case study of Descartes's nonformalist theory of deduction (...)
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  37.  40
    Review: History as Orientation: Rüsen on Historical Culture and Narration. [REVIEW]David Carr - 2006 - History and Theory 45 (2):229-243.
    Geschichte im Kulturprozeß by Jörn Rüsen History: Narration, Interpretation, Orientation by Jörn Rüsen.
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  38.  72
    (Mis)Understanding Strategy as a 'Spectacular Intervention': A Phenomenological Reflection on the Strategy Orientations Underpinning School Improvement in England.Agnieszka Bates - 2014 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (4):353-367.
    The introduction of the ‘National Strategies’ for primary education in 1998, positioned ‘strategy’ as a powerful instrument for mobilising the school ‘workforce’ in England in the cause of continuous improvement. Government approaches to strategy formulation and enactment appear to reflect an instrumentalist orientation found in many mainstream strategic management publications. This paper reflects on how the strategic pursuit of quick, ‘spectacular’ gains may lead to the loss of ethics of care. Phenomenological insights into modes of being-in-the-world are drawn upon (...)
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  39.  32
    Cartesian Dualism, and Universe as Turing Machine.Daniel King - 2003 - Philosophy Today 47 (2):138-146.
    In the field of computability and algorithmicity, there have recently been two essays that are of great interest: Peter Slezak's "Descartes's Diagonal Deduction," and David Deutsch's "Quantum Theory, the Church-Turing Principle and the Universal Quantum Computer." In brief, the former shows that Descartes' Cogito argument is structurally similar to Godel's proof that there are statements true but cannot be proven within a formal system such as Principia Mathematica, while Deutsch provides strong arguments for believing that the universe can be represented (...)
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  40.  25
    What Should We Do When Participants Report Dangerous Drinking? The Impact of Personalized Letters Versus General Pamphlets as a Function of Sex and Controlled Orientation.Clayton Neighbors, Eric R. Pedersen, Debra Kaysen, Magdalena Kulesza & Theresa Walter - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (1):1 - 15.
    Research in which participants report potentially dangerous health-related behaviors raises ethical and professional questions about what to do with that information. Policies and laws regarding reportable behaviors vary across states and Institutional Review Boards (IRB). In alcohol research, IRBs often require researchers to respond to participants who report dangerous drinking practices. Researchers have little guidance regarding how best to respond in such cases. Personalized feedback or general nonpersonalized information may prove differentially effective as a function of gender and/or level of (...)
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  41.  23
    Religious Orientation, Incentive, Self-Esteem, and Gender as Predictors of Academic Dishonesty: An Experimental Approach.W. Paul Williamson & Aresh Assadi - 2005 - Archive for the Psychology of Religion 27 (1):137-158.
    It is widely assumed that religion is responsible for dictating and guiding moral behavior. This study investigated that claim and its relationship to monetary incentive, self-esteem, and gender within the context of academic dishonesty. A sample of 65 undergraduate students were assessed using a revision of Allport's Religious Orientation Scale and then monitored for cheating on a computerized version of the Graduate Records Exam under different experimental conditions. Self-esteem and monetary incentive were manipulated, and gender was selected to measure (...)
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  42.  37
    'The Mind as an Object of God's Knowledge': Another Cartesian Temptation?Sophia Vasalou - 2009 - Philosophical Investigations 32 (1):44-64.
    In this paper my aim is to consider the picture of God's immediate knowledge of the mind as this appears in Wittgenstein's work, where its soundness seems to be brought into question. My argument is that the response to this denial should take the form, not of an investigation of a theological position concerning God's knowledge ("can God look into the human mind?"), but of a negotiation of the difficulties affecting our use of this picture. A great part of the (...)
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  43.  19
    The Unity of the Cartesian Method in the Rules.Joo-Jin Paik - 2008 - Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 16:205-212.
    1) Gaukroger estimates that there exist two irreconcilable theses in the Cartesian method in the Rules. The first thesis concerns the problem of the cognitive grasp of inference, the other the problem of the method of discovery. Descartes, by integrating deduction as a simple object of intuition, rejects the psychologicalinterpretation of inference, and elevates deduction to the status of a necessary condition of knowledge. On the other hand, the problem of the method of discovery requires that inference produces a (...)
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  44.  13
    Event Orientation and Objectivity as Ethical Issues in Media Coverage of Agriculture and the Environment.Robert G. Hays - 1992 - Agriculture and Human Values 9 (2):60-66.
    Public perception of agriculture and environmental issues are influenced by mass media reporting. Journalists are concerned about ethics, but typically do not consider the ethical dimensions of their emphases on objectivity and event reporting. These leave the mass media particularly vulnerable to manipulation through staged pseudo events, especially in topic areas such as agriculture and the environment, where reporters are likely to have limited expertise. Objectivity then may be used as a defensive cover. Journalists need to be more wary in (...)
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  45.  18
    A Survey on Views of How to Assist with Coming Out as Gay, Changing Same-Sex Behavior or Orientation, and Navigating Sexual Identity Confusion.Angela M. Liszcz & Mark A. Yarhouse - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (2):159 – 179.
    This study is an analysis of 186 psychologists' attitudes on what constitutes ethical practice when counseling clients who present with a range of concerns related to their experience of same-sex attraction and behavior. Three different groups of psychologists were surveyed: generalists, specialists in gay and lesbian issues, and religiously affiliated psychologists. Participants also rated the effectiveness of several professional experiences in providing education, direction, sanctions, or support to regulate the practice of counseling nonheterosexual clients. Significant group differences were found regarding (...)
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  46.  5
    History as Orientation: Rüsen on Historical Culture and Narration.David Carr - 2006 - History and Theory 45 (2):229-243.
    Geschichte im Kulturprozeß. By Jörn RüsenHistory: Narration, Interpretation, Orientation. By Jörn Rüsen.
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  47. The Child as a Cartesian Thinker: Children's Reasonings About Metaphysical Aspects of Reality.Eugene V. Subbotsky - 2015 - Psychology Press.
    Originally published in 1996, this book presents and analyses children’s reasonings about fundamental metaphysical problems. The first part describes dialogues with children that were constructed on the basis of Descartes’ _Mediations on First Philosophy_ and which look at children’s ideas about the relationships between true and false knowledge, mental images and physical objects, mind and body, personal existence and the external world, dreams and reality, and the existence of the Supreme Being, among others. The second part of the book draws (...)
     
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  48.  20
    Using Category Structures to Test Iterated Learning as a Method for Identifying Inductive Biases.Thomas L. Griffiths, Brian R. Christian & Michael L. Kalish - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (1):68-107.
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  49.  10
    Corrigendum: The Binocular Balance at High Spatial Frequencies as Revealed by the Binocular Orientation Combination Task.Yonghua Wang, Zhifen He, Yunjie Liang, Yiya Chen, Ling Gong, Yu Mao, Xiaoxin Chen, Zhimo Yao, Daniel P. Spiegel, Jia Qu, Fan Lu, Jiawei Zhou & Robert F. Hess - 2019 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 13.
  50.  11
    19. Subjects as Temporal Clues to Orientation: Nietzsche and Luhmann on Subjectivity.Werner Stegmaier - 2015 - In Bartholomew Ryan, Maria Joao Mayer Branco & João Constancio (eds.), Nietzsche and the Problem of Subjectivity. De Gruyter. pp. 487-510.
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