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  1. Analyzing Socrates' Four Arguments for the Soul’s Immortality in the Phaedo: Uncovering Informal Fallacies, Clarifying Ambiguities, and Addressing Inconsistencies.Wesley De Sena - manuscript
    In this paper, I contend that Socrates' four arguments for the soul's immortality fail to provide conclusive proof. Instead, these arguments can be seen as attempts to infer the most plausible explanation. However, a closer examination reveals that Socrates' best explanation relies on a sequence of informal fallacies and ambiguities, ultimately resulting in inconsistencies within his comprehensive argument. These fallacies, ambiguities, and inconsistencies will become evident as we delve into Socrates' four arguments for soul immortality in the Phaedo.
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  2. Plato's Phaedo as an Aesopian Fable about the Immortal Soul: A fragmentary attempt in understanding.Ivan Chvatík - forthcoming - The New Yearbook for Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy.
  3. The philosopher’s Reward: Contemplation and Immortality in Plato’s Dialogues.Suzanne Obdrzalek - forthcoming - In Alex Long (ed.), Immortality in Ancient Philosophy.
    In dialogues ranging from the Symposium to the Timaeus, Plato appears to propose that the philosopher’s grasp of the forms may confer immortality upon him. Whatever can Plato mean in making such a claim? What does he take immortality to consist in, such that it could constitute a reward for philosophical enlightenment? And how is this proposal compatible with Plato’s insistence throughout his corpus that all soul, not just philosophical soul, is immortal? In this chapter, I pursue these questions by (...)
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  4. Philosophy and Literature: The Arguments of Plato's Phaedo.Christopher Rowe - forthcoming - Proceedings of the Boston Area Colloquium of Ancient Philosophy.
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  5. Review of "Plato's Pragmatism: Rethinking the Relationship Between Ethics and Epistemology," written by Baima, N.R. and Paytas, T. [REVIEW]Ryan M. Brown - 2024 - History of Philosophy & Logical Analysis 27:1-10.
  6. "Platonic Dualism Reconsidered".Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2024 - Phronesis 69 (1):31-62.
    I argue that in the Phaedo, Plato maintains that the soul is located in space and is capable of locomotion and of interacting with the body through contact. Numerous interpreters have dismissed these claims as merely metaphorical, since they assume that as an incorporeal substance, the soul cannot possess spatial attributes. But careful examination of how Plato conceives of the body throughout his corpus reveals that he does not distinguish it from the soul in terms of spatiality. Furthermore, assigning spatial (...)
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  7. On Reason and Hope: Plato, Pieper, and the Hopeful Structure of Reason.Ryan M. Brown - 2023 - Communio 50 (2):375-421.
    As Josef Pieper writes in his study “On Hope,” the virtue of hope is the virtue that completes the human being in its intermediary, temporal state (the “status viatoris,” or condition of being “on the way”). To be human is always to be “on the way” toward a fulfillment and completion not yet available to it (the “status comprehensoris”). Those who are hopeful direct themselves toward this end as to their fulfillment despite recognizing that it, in some sense, exceeds their (...)
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  8. Plato on Sunaitia.Douglas R. Campbell - 2023 - Apeiron 56 (4):739-768.
    I argue that Plato thinks that a sunaition is a mere tool used by a soul (or by the cosmic nous) to promote an intended outcome. In the first section, I develop the connection between sunaitia and Plato’s teleology. In the second section, I argue that sunaitia belong to Plato’s theory of the soul as a self-mover: specifically, they are those things that are set in motion by the soul in the service of some goal. I also argue against several (...)
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  9. Plato's Phaedo: Forms, Death, and the Philosophical Life.David Ebrey - 2023 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Plato's Phaedo is a literary gem that develops many of his most famous ideas. David Ebrey's careful reinterpretation argues that the many debates about the dialogue cannot be resolved so long as we consider its passages in relative isolation from one another, separated from their intellectual background. His book shows how Plato responds to his literary, religious, scientific, and philosophical context, and argues that we can only understand the dialogue's central ideas and arguments in light of its overall structure. This (...)
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  10. The Phaedo as an Alternative to Tragedy.David Ebrey - 2023 - Classical Philology 118 (2):153-171.
    This article argues that the Phaedo is written as a new sort of story of how a hero faces death; this story provides an alternative to existing tragedy, as understood by Plato. The opening of the Phaedo makes clear that two features that Plato closely associates with tragedy, pity and lamentation, are inappropriate responses to Socrates’ impending death, and that tuchē (chance) did not affect his happiness. This is the first step in the dialogue’s sustained engagement with tragedy. Tragedy for (...)
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  11. Hypothetical Inquiry in Plato's Timaeus.Jonathan Edward Griffiths - 2023 - Ancient Philosophy Today 5 (2):156-177.
    This paper re-constructs Plato's ‘philosophy of geometry’ by arguing that he uses a geometrical method of hypothesis in his account of the cosmos’ generation in the Timaeus. Commentators on Plato's philosophy of mathematics often start from Aristotle's report in the Metaphysics that Plato admitted the existence of mathematical objects in-between ( metaxu) Forms and sensible particulars ( Meta. 1.6, 987b14–18). I argue, however, that Plato's interest in mathematics was centred on its methodological usefulness for philosophical inquiry, rather than on questions (...)
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  12. Explanation in the Phaedo: An Argument Against the Metaphysical Interpretation of the Clever Αἰτία.Elizabeth Jelinek - 2023 - In D. M. Spitzer (ed.), Studies in ancient Greek philosophy: in honor of Professor Anthony Preus. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 162-179.
    At Phaedo 105c, Socrates introduces a type of explanation (αἰτία) he describes as “clever.” Rather than explaining a body’s hotness in terms of the body’s participation in the Form Hot, for example, the clever αἰτία attributes a body’s hotness to the presence of fire in the body. Traditional interpretations argue that the clever αἰτία accounts for the interaction between fire and the body in terms of logical entailment relationships among the Forms. On this view, fire makes bodies hot because fire (...)
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  13. Temperance and Epistemic Purity in Plato’s Phaedo.Patricia Marechal - 2023 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 105 (1):1-28.
    In this paper I examine the moral psychology of the Phaedo and argue that the philosophical life in this dialogue is a temperate life, and that temperance consists in exercising epistemic discernment by actively withdrawing assent from incorrect evaluations the body inclines us to make. Philosophers deal with bodily affections by taking a correct epistemic stance. Exercising temperance thus understood is a necessary condition both for developing and strengthening rational capacities, and for fixing accurate beliefs about value. The purification philosophers (...)
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  14. Self-Killing in Plato's Phaedo.Adele Watkins - 2023 - Dissertation, Princeton University
    This dissertation investigates Plato’s prohibition on suicide at Phaedo 62b2-c9. I first lift two descriptions of death early in the text. At Phaedo 64c, Plato offers a description of physical death. A person dies physically when their body falls away from their soul. Plato goes on to offer a description of psychological death at 67c-d. A person dies psychologically when their soul has unencumbered itself from the body as much as is possible. Generally, I conclude, death is the separation of (...)
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  15. Located in Space: Plato’s Theory of Psychic Motion.Douglas R. Campbell - 2022 - Ancient Philosophy 42 (2):419-442.
    I argue that Plato thinks that the soul has location, surface, depth, and extension, and that the Timaeus’ composition of the soul out of eight circles is intended literally. A novel contribution is the development of an account of corporeality that denies the entailment that the soul is corporeal. I conclude by examining Aristotle’s objection to the Timaeus’ psychology and then the intellectual history of this reading of Plato.
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  16. The Soul’s Tomb: Plato on the Body as the Cause of Psychic Disorders.Douglas R. Campbell - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (1):119-139.
    I argue that, according to Plato, the body is the sole cause of psychic disorders. This view is expressed at Timaeus 86b in an ambiguous sentence that has been widely misunderstood by translators and commentators. The goal of this article is to offer a new understanding of Plato’s text and view. In the first section, I argue that although the body is the result of the gods’ best efforts, their sub-optimal materials meant that the soul is constantly vulnerable to the (...)
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  17. The Unfolding Account of Forms in the Phaedo.David Ebrey - 2022 - In David Ebrey & Richard Kraut (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 268-297.
    In Plato’s dialogues, Socrates calls things like justice, piety, and largeness “forms.” In several of these dialogues, he makes clear that forms are very different from familiar objects like tables and trees. Why, exactly, does he think that they differ and how are they supposed to do so? This chapter argues that in the Phaedo Socrates does not assume that they are different, but rather, over five stages of the dialogue, provides an account of how and why they do so. (...)
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  18. Why Is Plato’s Good Good?Aidan R. Nathan - 2022 - Peitho 13 (1):125-136.
    The form of the Good in Plato’s Phaedo and Republic seems, by our standards, to do too much: it is presented as the metaphysical princi­ple, the epistemological principle and the principle of ethics. Yet this seemingly chimerical object makes good sense in the broader context of Plato’s philosophical project. He sought certain knowledge of neces­sary truths (in sharp contrast to the contingent truth of modern science). Thus, to be knowable the cosmos must be informed by timeless princi­ples; and this leads (...)
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  19. A Long Lost Relative in the Parmenides? Plato’s Family of Hypothetical Methods.Evan Rodriguez - 2022 - Apeiron 55 (1):141-166.
    The Parmenides has been unduly overlooked in discussions of hypothesis in Plato. It contains a unique method for testing first principles, a method I call ‘exploring both sides’. The dialogue recommends exploring the consequences of both a hypothesis and its contradictory and thematizes this structure throughout. I challenge the view of Plato’s so-called ‘method of hypothesis’ as an isolated stage in Plato’s development; instead, the evidence of the Parmenides suggests a family of distinct hypothetical methods, each with its own peculiar (...)
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  20. The Last Natural Philosophers in Plato’s Phaedo 99b2-c6.Daniel Vázquez - 2022 - Mnemosyne (Advance Articles):1-24.
    This paper examines the possible sources of the theories introduced in Phaedo 99b2-c6. It argues that Plato is primarily alluding to Aristophanes’ Clouds and views held by Diogenes of Apollonia and Archelaus of Athens. But the passage, I also suggest, could serve another rhetorical function. By inviting us to reflect on whether and to what extent other natural philosophers fit the description of these theories, the text emphasises the gulf between Socrates and his predecessors. The paper concludes by discussing the (...)
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  21. Causes in Plato’s Phaedo.Michael Wiitala - 2022 - Plato Journal 23:37-50.
    As Socrates recounts his search for causes (aitiai) in the Phaedo, he identifies the following as genuine causes: intelligence (nous), seeming best, choice of the best, and the forms. I argue that these causes should be understood as norms prescribing the conditions their effects must meet if those effects are to be produced. Thus, my account both explains what Socrates’ causes are and the way in which they cause what they cause.
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  22. Self‐Motion and Cognition: Plato's Theory of the Soul.Douglas R. Campbell - 2021 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 59 (4):523-544.
    I argue that Plato believes that the soul must be both the principle of motion and the subject of cognition because it moves things specifically by means of its thoughts. I begin by arguing that the soul moves things by means of such acts as examination and deliberation, and that this view is developed in response to Anaxagoras. I then argue that every kind of soul enjoys a kind of cognition, with even plant souls having a form of Aristotelian discrimination (...)
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  23. The Phaedo's Final Argument and the Soul's Kinship with the Divine.David Ebrey - 2021 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 61:25-62.
    In the Phaedo, Socrates leads us to expect that his final argument will address the details of Cebes’ cloakmaker objection. Nonetheless, almost all commentators treat the final argument as unconnected to these details. This paper argues that close attention to Cebes’ objection, Socrates’ restatement of it, and Socrates’ final argument shows that the final argument does offer a detailed response. According to the objection, the soul suffers as it brings life to the body, which ultimately leads to its destruction. Socrates (...)
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  24. Why is the philosopher eager for the pleasure of learning?: In the case of Plato’s Phaedo.Kyo-Sun Koo - 2020 - Journal of the Society of Philosophical Studies 61:67-97.
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  25. Review of Samuel Scolnicov, Plato’s Method of Hypothesis in the Middle Dialogues, edited by Harold Tarrant. [REVIEW]Evan Rodriguez - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (3):549-550.
    This volume, a lightly-edited version of Professor Samuel Scolnicov’s 1974 Ph.D. thesis, is a fitting tribute to his impressive career. It will perhaps be most useful for those interested in better understanding Scolnicov’s work and his views on Plato as a whole, not least for the comprehensive list of his publications that requires a full twelve pages of print. Scholars with an interest in Plato’s method of hypothesis will also find some useful remarks on key passages in the Meno, Phaedo, (...)
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  26. On Plato's Conception of Change.Francesco Ademollo - 2018 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 55:35-83.
    In this paper I argue that in several passages Plato sympathizes with the following view: sensible particulars undergo continuous, pervasive physical change; as a consequence, where there seems to be one and the same object which is identical through time, there is in fact a succession of impermanent objects numerically distinct from each other but similar to each other. I illustrate the difference between this view—which invites interesting comparisons with modern and contemporary theories—and other, superficially similar views which Plato criticizes. (...)
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  27. Annotated Bibliography on Plato's Phaedo.David Ebrey - 2017 - Oxford Bibliographies.
    8000 Word annotated bibliography on the Phaedo, with roughly 70 entries. Note that the subscription version is a bit easier to navigate. The hyperlinks work in this pdf, but you can not as easily jump to the different sections.
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  28. The Asceticism of the Phaedo: Pleasure, Purification, and the Soul’s Proper Activity.David Ebrey - 2017 - Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 99 (1):1-30.
    I argue that according to Socrates in the Phaedo we should not merely evaluate bodily pleasures and desires as worthless or bad, but actively avoid them. We need to avoid them because they change our values and make us believe falsehoods. This change in values and acceptance of falsehoods undermines the soul’s proper activity, making virtue and happiness impossible for us. I situate this account of why we should avoid bodily pleasures within Plato’s project in the Phaedo of providing Pythagorean (...)
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  29. The Separation of the Soul from Body in Plato’s Phaedo.Thomas Kjeller Johansen - 2017 - Philosophical Inquiry 41 (2-3):17-28.
    The view that the soul can exist separately from the body is commonly associated with dualism. Since Plato’s Phaedo (Phd.) argues that the soul is immortal and survives the death of the body, there seems to be reason to call Plato, in that dialogue at least, a ‘dualist’. Yet, as we know, there are many kinds of dualism, so we have thereby not said very much. Let me therefore start with some distinctions. First of all, we can distinguish between two (...)
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  30. Plato's Guide to Living with Your Body.Russell E. Jones & Patricia Marechal - 2017 - In John E. Sisko (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in Antiquity: The History of the Philosophy of Mind, Volume 1. New York: Routledge. pp. 84-100.
    In the Phaedo, Socrates offers recommendations for living a philosophical life. We argue that those recommendations can be properly understood only in light of Socrates’ account of the soul’s true nature, considered separately from the body. Embodiment causes the soul to diverge from its proper end, the pursuit of knowledge. Bodily pleasures, pains, and desires divert the soul to other ends, distract its attention away from knowledge, and deceive it about what is true. Socrates’ recommended solutions to these obstacles are (...)
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  31. A Fourth Way of Reading Plato’s Phaedo.Donka D. Markus - 2017 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 11 (1):80-90.
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  32. O PROBLEMA DA PARTICIPAÇÃO NOS DIÁLOGOS DE PLATÃO: FÉDON, REPÚBLICA, PARMÊNIDES E SOFISTA.Otacilio Luciano de Sousa Neto - 2017 - Dissertation, Universidade Federal Do Ceará, Brazil
  33. On being reminded of Heraclitus by the motifs in Plato’s Phaedo.Catherine Rowett - 2017 - In Enrica Fantino, Ulrike Muss, Charlotte Schubert & Kurt Sier (eds.), Heraklit Im Kontext. Boston: De Gruyter. pp. 373-414.
    In this paper I argue that we can better understand Plato’s Phaedo, if we don’t concentrate solely on the hints of Pythagoreanism among the characters and their doctrines, as though that were the principal key to the dialogue’s dialec- tical targets. I suggest that the dialogue is intended to make us think of the meta-physics of at least one other Presocratic predecessor, besides any Pythagorean influence (which may be much less than has been thought). Not least among the thinkers of (...)
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  34. Η ερμηνεία του Βησσαρίωνα για την τρίτη απόδειξη της αθανασίας της ψυχής στον Φαίδωνα του Πλάτωνος (78b4-80c1) [Bessarion’s interpretation of Plato’s Phaedo: The third proof of the immortality of the soul (78b4-80c1)].Athanasia Theodoropoulou - 2017 - Ηθική (11):52-63.
  35. The ‘Two Worlds’ Theory in the Phaedo.Gail Fine - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (4):557-572.
    ABSTRACTAt least in some dialogues, Plato has been thought to hold the so-called Two Worlds Theory, according to which there can be belief but not knowledge about sensibles, and knowledge but not belief about forms. The Phaedo is one such dialogue. In this paper, I explore some key passages that might be thought to support TW, and ask whether they in fact do so. I also consider the related issue of whether the Phaedo argues that, if knowledge is possible at (...)
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  36. Review: Hugh H. Benson. Clitophon's Challenge: Dialectic in Plato's Meno, Phaedo, and Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 328 pages; $65.00/hardcover. [REVIEW]Yale Weiss - 2016 - Philosophical Forum 47 (1):25-29.
  37. Ancient Readings of Plato’s phaedo.Sylvain Delcomminette, Pieter D'Hoine & Marc-Antoine Gavray (eds.) - 2015 - Boston: Brill.
    Unlike the _Phaedo_ itself, its reception in Antiquity remains little studied. By examining the extant commentaries, their sources, and the dialogue’s presence in the reflections of ancient thinkers both inside and outside the Platonic tradition, this volume aims to reconstruct its ancient history.
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  38. Plato’s Ingredient Principle: Phaedo 105a2-5.Boris Hennig - 2015 - Ancient Philosophy 35 (2):303-316.
    We can accept Plato's "ingredient principle" when we replace the distinction between things and properties with a slightly different one.
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  39. Phaedo 100B3-9.Ravi Sharma - 2015 - Mnemosyne 68 (3):393-412.
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  40. Plato, republic and phaedo. D. Sherman soul, world, and idea. An interpretation of Plato's republic and phaedo. Pp. VIII + 410. Lanham, md. and plymouth: Lexington books, 2013. Cased, £70, us$110. Isbn: 978-0-7391-7232-2. [REVIEW]Eirini-Foteini Viltanioti - 2015 - The Classical Review 65 (1):51-53.
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  41. Platonic Causes Revisited.D. T. J. Bailey - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):15-32.
    This Paper Offers A New Interpretation of Phaedo 96a–103a. Plato has devoted the dialogue up to this point to a series of arguments for the claim that the soul is immortal. However, one of the characters, Cebes, insists that so far nothing more has been established than that the soul is durable, divine, and in existence before the incarnation of birth. What is needed is something more ambitious: a proof that the soul is not such as to pass out of (...)
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  42. Death and Immortality in Late Neoplatonism: Studies on the Ancient Commentaries on Plato’s Phaedo. [REVIEW]Dennis Clark - 2014 - International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 8 (1):107-109.
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  43. Sherman, Daniel., Soul, World and Idea: An Interpretation of Plato's Republic and Phaedo. [REVIEW]Kevin Crotty - 2014 - Review of Metaphysics 68 (1):197-199.
  44. Death and Immortality in Late Neoplatonism: Studies on the Ancient Commentaries on Plato's “Phaedo.”.G. Fay Edwards - 2014 - Philosophical Review 123 (2):231-234.
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  45. Socrates and the Gods: How to Read Plato's Euthyphro, Apology and Crito. By Nalin Ranasinghe. [REVIEW]Gene Fendt - 2014 - American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 88 (1):187-189.
  46. Plato's Phaedo: With Notes Critical and Exegetical, and an Analysis.Wilhelm Plato & Wagner - 2014 - Nabu Press.
    This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections (...)
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  47. The Role of ἀριθμός in Plato’s Phaedo.Sophia Stone - 2014 - Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):137-149.
    The paper argues that the role of ἀριθμός (i.e., a limited multitude) is important for understanding the logical form of the final proof for the immortality of the soul. Along the way, it rejects the notion that soul is a form or the particularity of a form and suggests instead that it is something like an intermediate object. It is the first paper from a set of papers in progress that analyze Plato's metaphysics with respect to the ancient Greek conception (...)
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  48. Aristote, critique de Platon sur les causes.Karel Thein - 2014 - Chôra 12:15-46.
    The paper reconsiders Aristotle’s criticism of Platonic forms as causes together with its wider implications for the differences but also similiarities between the two philosophers. Analyzing the relevant texts of Metaphysics A 9 and Generation and Corruption II, 9, where Aristotle addresses the hypothesis of forms as put forward in the Phaedo, it discusses two interpretative options : that Aristotle takes these forms for an imperfect anticipation of formal causes, and that he sees them as an aborted attempt at grasping (...)
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  49. Misologie und Misanthropie in Platons Phaidon.Ulrich Diehl - 2013 - In H.-J. Gerigk / H. Koopmann (ed.), Hass. Darstellung und Deutung in den Wissenschaften und Künsten. Mattes Verlag.
    Das Thema der Misologie und Misanthropie lässt sich wie so viele anderen philosophischen Themen der europäischen Geistesgeschichte bis zu einem platonischen Dialog zurückverfolgen. In diesem Fall handelt es sich um Platons berühmten Dialog Phaidon. Nun handelt dieser Dialog bekanntlich von der Frage nach der Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele. Dennoch verweist Sokrates an einer bestimmten Stelle des Dialoges auf die für den Menschen drohenden Gefahren der Misologie und der Misanthropie hin, dem Hass auf die Vernunft und den Hass auf den Menschen, (...)
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  50. The memory of virtue: Achieving immortality in Plato's symposium.Anthony Hooper - 2013 - Classical Quarterly 63 (2):543-557.
    The prospect of human immortality is manifest in many of Plato's writings, appearing as early as the Apology and the Crito, and as late as Book 12 of the Laws. But nowhere is immortality given so much attention, nor as central a place in Plato's philosophical projects, as in what have traditionally been referred to as his Middle Period works, so it is hardly surprising that we find an extensive treatment of the subject of immortality in Socrates’ own encomium in (...)
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