Order:
Disambiguations
Ellen Frankel Paul [79]Jeffrey Paul [78]Richard Paul [45]Herman Paul [37]
Karen Paul [35]L. A. Paul [34]John Paul [30]A. Paul [27]

Not all matches are shown. Search with initial or firstname to single out others.

See also
L. A. Paul
Yale University
Gregor Paul Prof. Dr.
Universität Karlsruhe
3 more

Other users were found but are not shown.
  1.  99
    Transformative Experience.L. A. Paul - 2014 - Oxford University Press.
    How should we make choices when we know so little about our futures? L. A. Paul argues that we must view life decisions as choices to make discoveries about the nature of experience. Her account of transformative experience holds that part of the value of living authentically is to experience our lives and preferences in whatever ways they evolve.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   56 citations  
  2. Causation: A User’s Guide.L. A. Paul & Ned Hall - 2013 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Causation is at once familiar and mysterious. Neither common sense nor extensive philosophical debate has led us to anything like agreement on the correct analysis of the concept of causation, or an account of the metaphysical nature of the causal relation. Causation: A User's Guide cuts a clear path through this confusing but vital landscape. L. A. Paul and Ned Hall guide the reader through the most important philosophical treatments of causation, negotiating the terrain by taking a set of examples (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   54 citations  
  3. Grit.Sarah Paul & Jennifer Morton - 2018 - Ethics 129 (2):175-203.
    Many of our most important goals require months or even years of effort to achieve, and some never get achieved at all. As social psychologists have lately emphasized, success in pursuing such goals requires the capacity for perseverance, or "grit." Philosophers have had little to say about grit, however, insofar as it differs from more familiar notions of willpower or continence. This leaves us ill-equipped to assess the social and moral implications of promoting grit. We propose that grit has an (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  4. Causation and Counterfactuals.John Collins, Ned Hall & Laurie Paul (eds.) - 2004 - MIT Press.
    Thirty years after Lewis's paper, this book brings together some of the most important recent work connecting—or, in some cases, disputing the connection ...
  5. Metaphysics as Modeling: The Handmaiden’s Tale.L. A. Paul - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 160 (1):1-29.
    Critics of contemporary metaphysics argue that it attempts to do the hard work of science from the ease of the armchair. Physics, not metaphysics, tells us about the fundamental facts of the world, and empirical psychology is best placed to reveal the content of our concepts about the world. Exploring and understanding the world through metaphysical reflection is obsolete. In this paper, I will show why this critique of metaphysics fails, arguing that metaphysical methods used to make claims about the (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   76 citations  
  6. What You Can't Expect When You're Expecting'.L. A. Paul - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (2):1-23.
    It seems natural to choose whether to have a child by reflecting on what it would be like to actually have a child. I argue that this natural approach fails. If you choose to become a parent, and your choice is based on projections about what you think it would be like for you to have a child, your choice is not rational. If you choose to remain childless, and your choice is based upon projections about what you think it (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  7. Temporal Experience.L. A. Paul - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy 107 (7):333-359.
    The question I want to explore is whether experience supports an antireductionist ontology of time, that is, whether we should take it to support an ontology that includes a primitive, monadic property of nowness responsible for the special feel of events in the present, and a relation of passage that events instantiate in virtue of literally passing from the future, to the present, and then into the past.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   72 citations  
  8. Building the World From its Fundamental Constituents.L. A. Paul - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 158 (2):221-256.
    In this paper, I argue that the spatiotemporalist approach way of modeling the fundamental constituents, structure, and composition of the world has taken a wrong turn. Spatiotemporalist approaches to fundamental structure take the fundamental nature of the world to be spatiotemporal: they take the category of spatiotemporal to be fundamental. I argue that the debates over the nature of the fundamental space in the physics show us that (i) the fact that it is conceivable that the manifest world could be (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   54 citations  
  9. Believing in Others.Sarah K. Paul & Jennifer M. Morton - 2018 - Philosophical Topics 46 (1):75-95.
    Suppose some person 'A' sets out to accomplish a difficult, long-term goal such as writing a passable Ph.D. thesis. What should you believe about whether A will succeed? The default answer is that you should believe whatever the total accessible evidence concerning A's abilities, circumstances, capacity for self-discipline, and so forth supports. But could it be that what you should believe depends in part on the relationship you have with A? We argue that it does, in the case where A (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  10. Logical Parts.Laurie A. Paul - 2002 - Noûs 36 (4):578–596.
    I argue for a property mereology and for mereological bundle theory. I then apply this theory to the one over many problem (universals) and puzzles concerning persistence and material constitution.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   91 citations  
  11. Aspect Causation.L. A. Paul - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (4):235.
    A theory of the causal relate as aspects or property instances is developed. A supposed problem for transitivity is assessed and then resolved with aspects as the causal relata.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   54 citations  
  12. First Personal Modes of Presentation and the Structure of Empathy.L. A. Paul - 2017 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 60 (3):189-207.
    I argue that we can understand the de se by employing the subjective mode of presentation or, if one’s ontology permits it, by defending an abundant ontology of perspectival personal properties or facts. I do this in the context of a discussion of Cappelen and Dever’s recent criticisms of the de se. Then, I discuss the distinctive role of the first personal perspective in discussions about empathy, rational deference, and self-understanding, and develop a way to frame the problem of lacking (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  13.  94
    An Empirical Investigation of the Relationship Between Change in Corporate Social Performance and Financial Performance: A Stakeholder Theory Perspective. [REVIEW]Bernadette M. Ruf, Krishnamurty Muralidhar, Robert M. Brown, Jay J. Janney & Karen Paul - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (2):143 - 156.
    Stakeholder theory provides a framework for investigating the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP) and corporate financial performance. This relationship is investigated by examining how change in CSP is related to change in financial accounting measures. The findings provide some support for a tenet in stakeholder theory which asserts that the dominant stakeholder group, shareholders, financially benefit when management meets the demands of multiple stakeholders. Specifically, change in CSP was positively associated with growth in sales for the current and subsequent (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   60 citations  
  14. Counterfactuals and Causation: History, Problems, and Prospects.John Collins, Ned Hall & L. A. Paul - 2004 - In John Collins, Ned Hall & Laurie Paul (eds.), Causation and Counterfactuals. MIT Press. pp. 1--57.
    Among the many philosophers who hold that causal facts1 are to be explained in terms of—or more ambitiously, shown to reduce to—facts about what happens, together with facts about the fundamental laws that govern what happens, the clear favorite is an approach that sees counterfactual dependence as the key to such explanation or reduction. The paradigm examples of causation, so advocates of this approach tell us, are examples in which events c and e— the cause and its effect— both occur, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   46 citations  
  15. Descartes’s Anti-Transparency and the Need for Radical Doubt.Elliot Samuel Paul - 2018 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 5:1083-1129.
    Descartes is widely portrayed as the arch proponent of “the epistemological transparency of thought” (or simply, “Transparency”). The most promising version of this view—Transparency-through-Introspection—says that introspecting (i.e., inwardly attending to) a thought guarantees certain knowledge of that thought. But Descartes rejects this view and provides numerous counterexamples to it. I argue that, instead, Descartes’s theory of self-knowledge is just an application of his general theory of knowledge. According to his general theory, certain knowledge is acquired only through clear and distinct (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16. A One Category Ontology.L. A. Paul - forthcoming - In John A. Keller (ed.), Being, Freedom, and Method: Themes From the Philosophy of Peter van Inwagen. Oxford University Press.
    I defend a one category ontology: an ontology that denies that we need more than one fundamental category to support the ontological structure of the world. Categorical fundamentality is understood in terms of the metaphysically prior, as that in which everything else in the world consists. One category ontologies are deeply appealing, because their ontological simplicity gives them an unmatched elegance and spareness. I’m a fan of a one category ontology that collapses the distinction between particular and property, replacing it (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  17.  12
    Justice Versus Fairness in the Family Business Workplace: A Socioemotional Wealth Approach.Georges Samara & Karen Paul - 2019 - Business Ethics: A European Review 28 (2):175-184.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  18. Coincidence as Overlap.L. A. Paul - 2006 - Noûs 40 (4):623–659.
    I discuss puzzles involving coinciding material objects (such as statues and their constitutive lumps of clay) and propose solutions.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   39 citations  
  19. Embarking on a Crime.Sarah K. Paul - 2014 - In Enrique Villanueva V. (ed.), Law and the Philosophy of Action. Rodopi. pp. 101-24.
    When we define something as a crime, we generally thereby criminalize the attempt to commit that crime. However, it is a vexing puzzle to specify what must be the case in order for a criminal attempt to have occurred, given that the results element of the crime fails to come about. I argue that the philosophy of action can assist the criminal law in clarifying what kinds of events are properly categorized as criminal attempts. A natural thought is that this (...)
    Direct download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  20. How We Know What We're Doing.Sarah K. Paul - 2009 - Philosophers' Imprint 9:1-24.
    G.E.M. Anscombe famously claimed that acting intentionally entails knowing "without observation" what one is doing. Among those that have taken her claim seriously, an influential response has been to suppose that in order to explain this fact, we should conclude that intentions are a species of belief. This paper argues that there are good reasons to reject this "cognitivist" view of intention in favor of the view that intentions are distinctively practical attitudes that are not beliefs and do not constitutively (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   28 citations  
  21. Transformative Experience: Replies to Pettigrew, Barnes and Campbell.L. A. Paul - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (3):794-813.
    Summary of Transformative Experience by L.A. Paul and replies to symposiasts. Discussion of undefined values, preference change, authenticity, experiential value, collective minds, mind control.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  22.  82
    Transformative Choice: Discussion and Replies.L. A. Paul - 2015 - Res Philosophica 92 (2):473-545.
    In “What you can’t expect when you’re expecting,” I argue that, if you don’t know what it’s like to be a parent, you cannot make this decision rationally—at least, not if your decision is based on what you think it would be like for you to become a parent. My argument hinges on the idea that becoming a parent is a transformative experience. This unique type of experience often transforms people in a deep and personal sense, and in the process, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  23. Doxastic Self-Control.Sarah K. Paul - 2015 - American Philosophical Quarterly 52 (2):145-58.
    This paper discusses the possibility of autonomy in our epistemic lives, and the importance of the concept of the first person in weathering fluctuations in our epistemic perspective over time.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  24.  83
    Diachronic Incontinence is a Problem in Moral Philosophy.Sarah K. Paul - 2014 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 57 (3):337-355.
    Is there a rational requirement enjoining continence over time in the intentions one has formed, such that anyone going in for a certain form of agency has standing reason to conform to such a requirement? This paper suggests that there is not. I argue that Michael Bratman’s defense of such a requirement succeeds in showing that many agents have a reason favoring default intention continence much of the time, but does not establish that all planning agents have such a reason (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  25.  40
    Organizational Ethics, Individual Ethics, and Ethical Intentions in International Decision-Making.B. Elango, Karen Paul, Sumit K. Kundu & Shishir K. Paudel - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 97 (4):543 - 561.
    This study explores the impact of both individual ethics (IE) and organizational ethics (OE) on ethical intention (EI). Ethical intention, or the individual's intention to engage in ethical behavior, is useful as a dependent variable because it relates to behavior which can be an expression of values, but also is influenced by organizational and societal variables. The focus is on EI in international business decision-making, since the international context provides great latitude in making ethical decisions. Results demonstrate that both IE (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  26.  88
    Real World Problems.L. A. Paul & John Quiggin - 2018 - Episteme 15 (3):363-382.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  27. Intention, Belief, and Wishful Thinking: Setiya on “Practical Knowledge”.Sarah K. Paul - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):546-557.
  28. The Puzzles of Material Constitution.L. A. Paul - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (7):579-590.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   13 citations  
  29. Deviant Formal Causation.Sarah K. Paul - 2011 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 5 (3):1-24.
    What is the role of practical thought in determining the intentional action that is performed? Donald Davidson’s influential answer to this question is that thought plays an efficient-causal role: intentional actions are those events that have the correct causal pedigree in the agent's beliefs and desires. But the Causal Theory of Action has always been plagued with the problem of “deviant causal chains,” in which the right action is caused by the right mental state but in the wrong way. This (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  30.  26
    The Legitimacy of CSR Actions of Publicly Traded Companies Versus Family-Owned Companies.Rajat Panwar, Karen Paul, Erlend Nybakk, Eric Hansen & Derek Thompson - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the ways through which companies gain legitimacy. However, CSR actions themselves are subject to public skepticism because of increased public awareness of greenwashing and scandalous corporate behavior. Legitimacy of CSR actions is indeed influenced by the actions of the company but also is rooted in the basic cultural values of a society and in the ideologies of evaluators. This study examines the legitimacy of CSR actions of publicly traded forest products companies as compared (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   9 citations  
  31. How We Know What We Intend.Sarah K. Paul - 2012 - Philosophical Studies 161 (2):327-346.
    How do we know what our intentions are? It is argued that work on self-knowledge has tended to neglect the attitude of intention, and that an epistemological account is needed that is attuned to the specific features of that state. Richard Moran’s Authorship view, on which we can acquire self-knowledge by making up our minds, offers a promising insight for such an account: we do not normally discover what we intend through introspection. However, his formulation of the Authorship view, developed (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  32. II—L. A. Paul: Categorical Priority and Categorical Collapse.L. A. Paul - 2013 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 87 (1):89-113.
    I explore some of the ways that assumptions about the nature of substance shape metaphysical debates about the structure of Reality. Assumptions about the priority of substance play a role in an argument for monism, are embedded in certain pluralist metaphysical treatments of laws of nature, and are central to discussions of substantivalism and relationalism. I will then argue that we should reject such assumptions and collapse the categorical distinction between substance and property.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  33. The Context of Essence.L. A. Paul - 2004 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):170.
    I address two related questions: first, what is the best theory of how objects have de re modal properties? Second, what is the best defence of essentialism given the variability of our modal intuitions? I critically discuss several theories of how objects have their de re modal properties and address the most threatening antiessentialist objection to essentialism: the variability of our modal intuitions. Drawing on linguistic treatments of vagueness and ambiguity, I show how essentialists can accommodate the variability of modal (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  34. A New Role for Experimental Work in Metaphysics.L. A. Paul - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (3):461-476.
    Recent work in philosophy could benefit from paying greater attention to empirical results from cognitive science involving judgments about the nature of our ordinary experience. This paper describes the way that experimental and theoretical results about the nature of ordinary judgments could—and should—inform certain sorts of enquiries in contemporary philosophy, using metaphysics as an exemplar, and hence defines a new way for experimental philosophy and cognitive science to contribute to traditional philosophical debates.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  35. On Certainty.Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. M. Anscombe, G. H. Von Wright & Denis Paul - 1972 - Mind 81 (323):453-457.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   63 citations  
  36.  14
    The Virtues of a Good Historian in Early Imperial Germany: Georg Waitz's Contested Example.Herman Paul - 2018 - Modern Intellectual History 15 (3):681-709.
    Recent literature on the moral economy of nineteenth-century German historiography shares with older scholarship on Leopold von Ranke's methodological revolution a tendency to refer to “the” historical discipline in the third person singular. This would make sense as long as historians occupied a common professional space and/or shared a basic understanding of what it meant to be a historian. Yet, as this article demonstrates, in a world sharply divided over political and religious issues, historians found it difficult to agree on (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  37. The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts & Tools.Richard Paul & Linda Elder - 2016 - The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
    This popular pocket-size guide empowers readers with critical thinking tools based on the groundbreaking work of Richard Paul and Linda Elder. This bestselling volume in the Thinker’s Guide Library provides students, educators, and professionals with an authoritative problem-solving framework essential for every aspect of life.
    No categories
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  38. Causation and Preemption.Ned Hall & Laurie Ann Paul - 2003 - In Peter Clark & Katherine Hawley (eds.), Philosophy of Science Today. Oxford University Press.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   19 citations  
  39.  40
    De Se Preferences and Empathy for Future Selves1.L. A. Paul - 2017 - Philosophical Perspectives 31 (1):7-39.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  40. Counterfactual Theories.Laurie Ann Paul - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  41.  84
    The Conclusion of Practical Reasoning: The Shadow Between Idea and Act.Sarah K. Paul - 2013 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):287-302.
    There is a puzzle about how to understand the conclusion of a successful instance of practical reasoning. Do the considerations adduced in reasoning rationalize the particular doing of an action, as Aristotle is sometimes interpreted as claiming? Or does reasoning conclude in the formation of an attitude – an intention, say – that has an action-type as its content? This paper attempts to clarify what is at stake in that debate and defends the latter view against some of its critics.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  42.  64
    The Politics of Heredity: Essays on Eugenics, Biomedicine, and the Nature-Nurture Debate.Diane B. Paul - 1998 - State University of New York Press.
    Explores the political forces underlying shifts in thinking about the respective influence of heredity and environment in shaping human behavior, and the feasibility and morality of eugenics.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   15 citations  
  43. The Courage of Conviction.Sarah K. Paul - 2015 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 45 (5-6):1-23.
    Is there a sense in which we exercise direct volitional control over our beliefs? Most agree that there is not, but discussions tend to focus on control in forming a belief. The focus here is on sustaining a belief over time in the face of ‘epistemic temptation’ to abandon it. It is argued that we do have a capacity for ‘doxastic self-control’ over time that is partly volitional in nature, and that its exercise is rationally permissible.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  44. How Should Claims For Religious Exemptions Be Weighed?Billingham Paul - 2017 - Oxford Journal of Law and Religion 6 (1):1-23.
    Many philosophers and jurists believe that individuals should sometimes be granted religiouslygrounded exemptions from laws or rules. To determine whether an exemption is merited in a particular case, the religious claim must be weighed against the countervailing values that favour the uniform application of the law or rule. This paper develops and applies a framework for assessing the weight of religious claims to exemption, across two dimensions. First, the importance of the burdened religious practice, which is determined by its level (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  45. The Subjectively Enduring Self.L. A. Paul - forthcoming - In Ian Phillips (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Temporal Experience. Routledge.
    The self can be understood in objective metaphysical terms as a bundle of properties, as a substance, or as some other kind of entity on our metaphysical list of what there is. Such an approach explores the metaphysical nature of the self when regarded from a suitably impersonal, ontological perspective. It explores the nature and structure of the self in objective reality, that is, the nature and structure of the self from without. This is the objective self. I am taking (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  46. Revisiting Friedman’s F53: Popper, Knight, and Weber.Hoyningen-Huene Paul - manuscript
    Neither Karl Popper, nor Frank Knight, nor Max Weber are cited or mentioned in Friedman’s famous 1953 essay “On the methodology of positive economics” (F53). However, they play a crucial role in F53. Making their con-tribution explicit suggests that F53 has been seriously misread in the past. I will first show that there are several irritating statements in F53 that are, taken together, not compatible with any of the usual readings of F53. Sec-ond, I show that an alternative reading of (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47.  16
    Human Rights Violations in Organ Procurement Practice in China.Norbert W. Paul, Arthur Caplan, Michael E. Shapiro, Charl Els, Kirk C. Allison & Huige Li - 2017 - BMC Medical Ethics 18 (1):11.
    Over 90% of the organs transplanted in China before 2010 were procured from prisoners. Although Chinese officials announced in December 2014 that the country would completely cease using organs harvested from prisoners, no regulatory adjustments or changes in China’s organ donation laws followed. As a result, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China if consent is obtained. We have collected and analysed available evidence on human rights violations in the organ procurement practice in China. We demonstrate that the (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  48.  37
    Persons, Rights and the Moral Community.Jeffrey Paul & Loren Lomasky - 1990 - Philosophical Review 99 (3):455.
  49. Naturalistic Approaches to Creativity.Dustin Stokes & Elliot Paul - 2016 - In J. Sytsma W. Buckwalter (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Experimental Philosophy.
    We offer a brief characterization of creativity, followed by a review of some of the reasons people have been skeptical about the possibility of explaining creativity. We then survey some of the recent work on creativity that is naturalistic in the sense that it presumes creativity is natural (as opposed to magical, occult, or supernatural) and is therefore amenable to scientific inquiry. This work is divided into two categories. The broader category is empirical philosophy, which draws on empirical research while (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50. Constitutive Overdetermination.L. A. Paul - 2007 - In J. K. Campbell, M. O'Rourke & H. S. Silverstein (eds.), Causation and Explanation. MIT Press. pp. 4--265.
    Our best philosophical and scientific pictures of the world organize material objects into a hierarchy or levels or layers- microparticles at the bottom, molecules, cells, and persons at higher layers. Are objects at higher layers identical to the sums of objects at lower layers that constitute them? (Note that this question is different from the question of whether composition- as opposed to constitution- is identity.).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
1 — 50 / 785