Causation and Laws

Edited by Markus Schrenk (Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf)
Assistant editor: Florian J. Boge (Bergische Universität Wuppertal)
About this topic
Summary Many accounts of causation, i.e. theories that answer to the question when an event e can be said to have been caused by an event c, say that c-type events and e-type events have to be connected by a law of nature: a law that says that all C events are followed by E events. So, for example, saying that throwing this powder into this glass of water caused an explosion is, roughly, true only if it is a natural law that that kind of powder (magnesium, say) explodes when in contact with H2O. A contrary view says that causation is singular, i.e., whether two events are cause and effect, does not depend on the respective event kinds being related by a law.
Key works For the classic expression of the nomicity of causation see: Davidson 1995. For the locus classicus of the singularist account see: Ducasse 1966
Introductions Carroll 1994
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154 found
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1 — 50 / 154
  1. added 2020-04-20
    Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation.Michelle Paolini Paoletti & Francesco Orilia (eds.) - 2017 - Routledge.
    Downward causation plays a fundamental role in many theories of metaphysics and philosophy of mind. It is strictly connected with many topics in philosophy, including but not limited to: emergence, mental causation, the nature of causation, the nature of causal powers and dispositions, laws of nature, and the possibility of ontological and epistemic reductions. _Philosophical and Scientific Perspectives on Downward Causation_ brings together experts from different fields—including William Bechtel, Stewart Clark and Tom Lancaster, Carl Gillett, John Heil, Robin F. Hendry, (...)
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  2. added 2020-04-20
    Causation and Powers in the Seventeenth Century: Walter Ott: Causation and Laws of Nature in Early Modern Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009, Xii + 260 Pp, HB $74.P. J. E. Kail - 2010 - Metascience 19 (3):399-402.
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  3. added 2020-03-20
    Vacuum Genesis oraz spontaniczne powstanie wszechświata z niczego a klasyczna koncepcja przyczynowości oraz stworzenia ex nihilo.Mariusz Tabaczek - 2019 - Scientia et Fides 7 (1):127-162.
    Vacuum Genesis and Spontaneous Emergence of the Universe from Nothing in Reference to the Classical Notion of Causality and Creation ex nihilo The article discousses philosophical and theological reflections inspired by the cosmological model of the origin of the universe from quantum vacuum through quantum tunneling and the model presented by Hartle and Hawking. In the context of the thesis about the possibility of cosmogenesis ex nihilo without the need of God the creator, the question is being raised concerning the (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-17
    The Case Against Powers.Walter Ott - forthcoming - In Stathis Psillos, Benjamin Hill & Henrik Lagerlund (eds.), Causal Powers in Science: Blending Historical and Conceptual Perspectives. Oxford University Press.
    Powers ontologies are currently enjoying a resurgence. This would be dispiriting news for the moderns; in their eyes, to imbue bodies with powers is to slide back into the scholastic slime from which they helped philosophy crawl. I focus on Descartes’s ‘little souls’ argument, which points to a genuine and, I think persisting, defect in powers theories. The problem is that an Aristotelian power is intrinsic to whatever has it. Once this move is accepted, it becomes very hard to see (...)
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  5. added 2020-02-11
    The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation. J. L. Mackie.Myles Brand - 1975 - Philosophy of Science 42 (3):335-337.
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  6. added 2019-12-03
    The Constraints General Relativity Places on Physicalist Accounts of Causality.Erik Curiel - 2000 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 15 (1):33-58.
    All accounts of causality that presuppose the propagation or transfer or some physical stuff to be an essential part of the causal relation rely for the force of their causal claims on a principle of conservation for that stuff. General Relativity does not permit the rigorous formulation of appropriate conservation principles. Consequently, in so far as General Relativity is considered and fundamental physical theory, such accounts of causality cannot be considered fundamental. The continued use of such accounts of causality ought (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-04
    What Laws? Which Past?: Meillassoux’s Hyper-Chaos and the Epistemological Limitations of Retro-Causation.Michael J. Ardoline - 2018 - Open Philosophy 1 (1):235-244.
    The question of the metaphysical status of the laws of physics has received increased attention in recent years. Perhaps most well-known among this work are David Lewis’s Humean supervenience and Nancy Cartwright’s dispositionalism, both of which reject the classical conception of the laws of physics as necessary and real independent of the objects they govern, arguing instead that what we call laws are shorthand for the regularities of local states of affairs or the dispositions of objects. The properties of necessity (...)
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  8. added 2019-07-22
    Causation: A Realist Approach. [REVIEW]John Bishop - 1991 - Review of Metaphysics 45 (2):431-432.
    This book adds to a realist account of laws of nature the framework for a related realist understanding of causation. It has two main parts: the first is concerned with laws, the second with causation. In the first main part, Tooley surveys sophisticated regularity accounts of laws and argues that none is successful. One of his central themes is that regularity accounts fail to meet the intuition that there can be underived laws which lack relevant instances--an intuition which Tooley supports (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-19
    Kant’s Response to Hume in the Second Analogy: A Critique of Gerd Buchdahl’s and Michael Friedman’s Accounts.Saniye Vatansever - 2018 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 8 (2):310–346.
    This article presents a critical analysis of two influential readings of Kant’s Second Analogy, namely, Gerd Buchdahl’s “modest reading” and Michael Friedman’s “strong reading.” After pointing out the textual and philosophical problems with each, I advance an alternative reading of the Second Analogy argument. On my reading, the Second Analogy argument proves the existence of necessary and strictly universal causal laws. This, however, does not guarantee that Kant has a solution for the problem of induction. After I explain why the (...)
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  10. added 2019-06-06
    Resolving Russell’s Anti-Realism About Causation: The Connection Between Causation and the Functional Dependencies of Mathematical Physics.Sheldon R. Smith - 2000 - The Monist 83 (2):274-295.
    In "On the Notion of Cause," Bertrand Russell expressed an eliminativist view about causation driven by an examination of the contents of mathematical physics. Russell's primary reason for thinking that the notion of causation is absent in physics was that laws of nature are mere "functional dependencies" and not "causal laws." In this paper, I show that several ordinary notions of causation can be found within the functional dependencies of physics. Not only does this show that Russell's eliminitivism was misguided, (...)
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Review of Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement by Nancy D. Cartwright. [REVIEW]Frederick M. Kronz - 1994 - Philosophy of Science 61 (1):155-157.
  12. added 2019-06-06
    In Defence of ‘This Worldly’ Causality: Comments on van Fraassen’s Laws and Symmetry.Nancy Cartwright - 1993 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (2):423-429.
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    Are Causal Laws Purely General?Peter Alexander & Peter Downing - 1970 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 44 (1):15-50.
    Peter Alexander: It is presumably admitted that laws, whether causal or not, are universal in form; they are appropriately stated in universal categoricals or unrestricted hypotheticals. I assume that this is not at issue in the question set. I take our question to be this: given that causal laws are universal statements, can they be said to be about, to apply to, to hold for, individual things? -/- Peter Downing: Mr. Alexander maintains that there are 'irreducibly singular' causal statements, and (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    Causal Laws in Psychology.B. A. Farrell, Margaret Braithwaite & C. A. Mace - 1949 - Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 23 (1):31-68.
  15. added 2019-06-05
    The Facts of Causation. D. H. Mellor.Phil Dowe - 1998 - Philosophy of Science 65 (1):162-170.
  16. added 2019-06-05
    Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement.Tim Maudlin & Nancy Cartwright - 1993 - Journal of Philosophy 90 (11):599.
    This book on the philosophy of science argues for an empiricism, opposed to the tradition of David Hume, in which singular rather than general causal claims are primary; causal laws express facts about singular causes whereas the general causal claims of science are ascriptions of capacities or causal powers, capacities to make things happen. Taking science as measurement, Cartwright argues that capacities are necessary for science and that these can be measured, provided suitable conditions are met. There are case studies (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-05
    On the Nature of Scientific Laws and Theories.Craig Dilworth - 1989 - Zeitschrift Für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 20 (1):1-17.
    Ist der Unterschied zwischen wissenschaftlichen Gesetzen und Theorien ein qualitativer oder lediglich von quantitativer Art? Der Autor versucht zu zeigen, daß Gesetze und Theorien fundamental verschieden sind und daß die Kenntnis ihrer verschiedenen Natur notwendig für ein richtiges Wissenschaftsverständnis ist. Aus seiner Sicht sind Theorien geistige Konstruktionen mit dem Ziel, kausale Erklärungen von empirischen Gesetzen zu geben, während diese Gesetze auf der Grundlage von Messungen entdeckt werden und die Tatsachen der Wissenschaft konstituieren. Erkenntnistheoretisch sind daher Theorien und Gesetze auf verschiedenen (...)
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  18. added 2019-04-20
    Wo Hat Kant Das Prinzip Vom Nomologischen Charakter der Kausalität Begründet?Geert Keil - 2001 - In Ralph Schumacher, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Volker Gerhardt (eds.), Kant und die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Bd. I: Hauptvorträge. Bd. Ii: Sektionen I-V. Bd. Iii: Sektionen Vi-X: Bd. Iv: Sektionen Xi-Xiv. Bd. V: Sektionen Xv-Xviii. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 562-571.
    Das allgemeine Kausalprinzip findet sich bei Kant in zwei Fassungen, einer gesetzesimplizierenden („Alles in der Welt geschieht nach Gesetzen der Natur“) und einer gesetzesneutralen („Alles, was geschieht, hat seine Ursache“). Äquivalent sind die beiden Fassungen nur unter einer bestimmten kausalitätstheoretischen Annahme, nämlich der des Prinzips vom nomologischen Charakter der Kausalität. Kant hat dieses Prinzip, demzufolge jede Kausalbeziehung zwischen zwei Einzelereignissen ein striktes Sukzessionsgesetz impliziert, angenommen, doch hat er es auch begründet? In diesem Beitrag wird die Auffassung ver-treten, daß Kant den (...)
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  19. added 2019-01-30
    Singularism.Whittle Ann - 2003 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 104 (1):371-379.
    I distinguish between two opposing intuitions about the nature of the singular causal relation. The first stresses the nomological character of causation, while the second emphasises is seemingly local character. My question is this: is it possible to formulate an account of causation which incorporates both intuitions? Anscombe gives us reason to think that these intuitions could not be jointly met in an account of causation. Foster and Tooley's acount seems to provide a counter-instance to her claim, but this proves (...)
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  20. added 2018-12-21
    An "at-at" Theory of Causal Influence.Wesley C. Salmon - 1977 - Philosophy of Science 44 (2):215-224.
    The propagation of causal influences through space-time seems to play a fundamental role in scientific explanation. Taking as a point of departure a basic distinction between causal interactions (which are localized in space-time) and causal processes (which may extend through vast regions of space-time), this paper attempts an analysis of the concept of causal propagation on the basis of the ability of causal processes to transmit "marks." The analysis rests upon the "at-at" theory of motion which has figured prominently in (...)
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  21. added 2018-12-21
    Harre on Causation.Henry Frankel - 1976 - Philosophy of Science 43 (4):560-569.
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  22. added 2018-12-21
    Causality and Scientific Explanation. Volume One: Medieval and Early Classical Science. [REVIEW]A. G. Molland - 1974 - British Journal for the History of Science 7 (1):83-84.
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  23. added 2018-12-21
    Causality in Natural Science.Victor Fritz Lenzen - 1954 - Springfield, Ill., Thomas.
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  24. added 2018-12-20
    The Localism of the Conserved Quantity Theory.Agustín Vicente - 2002 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 17 (3):563-571.
    Phil Dowe has argued persuasively for a reductivist theory of causality. Drawing on Wesley Salmon's mark transmission theory and David Fair's transferencetheory, Dowe proposes to reduce causality to the exchange of conserved quantities. Dowe's account has the virtue of being simple and offering a definite "visible" idea of causation. According to Dowe and Salmon, it is also virtuous in being localist. That a theory of causation is localist means that it does not need the aid of counterfactuals and/or laws to (...)
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  25. added 2018-12-20
    Causality and Scientific Explanation. Volume I: Medieval and Early Classical ScienceWilliam A. Wallace.James A. Weisheipl - 1974 - Isis 65 (1):99-100.
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  26. added 2018-12-03
    Dispositionalism and the Metaphysics of Science.Travis Dumsday - 2019 - Cambridge University Press.
    Dispositionalism is the view that causal powers are among the irreducible properties of nature. It has long been among the core competing positions in the metaphysics of laws, but its potential implications for other key debates within metaphysics and the philosophy of science have remained under-explored. Travis Dumsday fills this major gap in the literature by establishing new connections between dispositionalism and such topics as substance ontology, ontic structural realism, material composition, emergentism, natural-kind essentialism, perdurantism, time travel, and spacetime substantivalism. (...)
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  27. added 2018-09-06
    H. Bergmann, Der Kampf Um Das Kausalgesetz in der Jüngsten Physik. [REVIEW]J. W. A. Hickson - 1929 - Journal of Philosophy 26 (24):667-669.
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  28. added 2018-08-26
    The Conserved Quantity Theory Defended.Phil Dowe - 2000 - Theoria 15 (1):11-31.
    I defend the conserved quantity theory of causation against two objections: firstly, that to tie the notion of “cause” to conservation laws is impossible, circular or metaphysically counterintuitive; and secondly, that the conserved quantity theory entails an undesired notion of identity through time. My defence makes use of an important meta-philosophical distinction between empirical analysis and conceptual analysis. My claim is that the conserved quantity theory of causation must be understood primarily as an empirical, not a conceptual, analysis of causation.
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  29. added 2018-08-06
    The Certainty, Modality, and Grounding of Newton’s Laws.Zvi Biener & Eric Schliesser - 2017 - The Monist 100 (3):311-325.
    Newton began his Principia with three Axiomata sive Leges Motus. We offer an interpretation of Newton’s dual label and investigate two tensions inherent in his account of laws. The first arises from the juxtaposition of Newton’s confidence in the certainty of his laws and his commitment to their variability and contingency. The second arises because Newton ascribes fundamental status both to the laws and to the bodies and forces they govern. We argue the first is resolvable, but the second is (...)
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  30. added 2018-08-06
    Is Causal Necessity Part of the Mind-Independent World?David Robb - 1999 - Philosophical Topics 26 (1-2):305-320.
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  31. added 2018-02-17
    Explanation, Causation and Laws.Dorothy Edgington - 1990 - Critica 22 (66):55-73.
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  32. added 2018-01-11
    Peirce on Causality and Causation.Menno Hulswit - 2001 - The Commens Encyclopedia: The Digital Encyclopedia of Peirce Studies.
    In this article a distinction is made between causation, or the production of an effect by its cause, and causality, or the relationship between cause and effect. Though Peirce never explicitly made this distinction, he clearly did so implicitly by severely criticizing the principle of causality, and by elaborating a constructive theory of causation. Peirce observed that the concept of ‘cause’ has at least three different and incompatible meanings. He argued, moreover, that the variety and increasing complexity of nature cannot (...)
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  33. added 2017-10-16
    Explanation, Laws, and Causation.Wei Wang - 2017 - Routledge.
    Scientific explanation, laws of nature and causation are crucial and frontier issues in the philosophy of science. This book studies the complex relationship between the three concepts, aiming to achieve a holistic synthesis about explanation–laws–causation. By reviewing Hempel's Scientific Explanation models and Salmon's three conceptions – the epistemic, modal and ontic conception – the book suggests that laws are essential to explanation and our understanding of laws will help solve the problems of the latter. Concerning the nature of laws, this (...)
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  34. added 2017-10-16
    Emerson's Metaphysics: A Song of Laws and Causes by Joseph Urbas.Frederic Tremblay - 2017 - The Pluralist 12 (2):120-124.
    This text is a review of Joseph Urbas's Emerson's Metaphysics: A Song of Laws and Causes (Lexington Books, 2016). In this book, Urbas proposes a reconstruction of the metaphysics of the American poet, essayist, and self-defined philosopher Ralph Waldo Emerson. According to Urbas, Emerson has a coherent metaphysics, the fundamental principle of which is the category of causation. Reacting to David Hume, Emerson would have deliberately emphasized causation, connection, relation, tie, link, and so on. Emerson is thus characterized as a (...)
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  35. added 2017-10-16
    Miracles, Laws of Nature and Causation.Christopher Hughes & Robert Merrihew Adams - 1992 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes( 66:179-224.
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  36. added 2017-10-16
    Wesley C. Salmon, Four Decades of Scientific Explanation. [REVIEW]Andrew Lugg - 1991 - Philosophy in Review 11:68-69.
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  37. added 2017-09-28
    MACKIE, J. L. "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW]R. S. Woolhouse - 1976 - Mind 85:308.
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  38. added 2017-09-28
    J. L. Mackie, "The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation". [REVIEW]William A. Wallace - 1976 - The Thomist 40 (4):684.
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  39. added 2017-09-28
    The Cement of the Universe.J. L. Mackie - 1974 - Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  40. added 2017-09-21
    The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation.J. L. Mackie - 1980 - Clarendon Press.
    Studies causation both as a concept and as it is 'in the objects.' Offers new accounts of the logic of singular causal statements, the form of causal regularities, the detection of causal relationships, the asymmetry of cause and effect, and necessary connection, and it relates causation to functional and statistical laws and to teleology.
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  41. added 2017-09-19
    Singular Causal Statements and Strict Deterministic Laws.Noa Latham - 1987 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 68 (1):29-43.
  42. added 2017-05-26
    Laws, Causes, and Invariance.James Woodward - 2013 - In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford University Press.
    This chapter explores some issues having to do with the structure of the evidential reasoning we use to infer causal and lawful claims. It is argued that such reasoning always makes use of prior, causally, or nomologically committed information, thus undercutting various views that attempt to reduce causal and lawful claims to claims about regularities. A non-reductive account of laws and causes built around the notion of invariance is advanced as an alternative.
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  43. added 2017-05-26
    Laws of Nature. [REVIEW]Norman Swartz - 1997 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 57 (4):971-973.
  44. added 2017-05-26
    Review: Laws and Causes. [REVIEW]J. Woodward - 1990 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 41 (4):553 - 573.
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  45. added 2017-04-28
    Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Nancy Cartwright.Huw Price - 1991 - Isis 82 (3):605-606.
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  46. added 2017-04-28
    Causal Laws, Dispositional Properties and Causal Explanations.Ullin T. Place - 1987 - Synthesis Philosophica 2:149-160.
  47. added 2017-04-19
    Hunting Causes and Using Them: Is There No Bridge From Here to There?Nancy Cartwright & Sophia Efstathiou - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (3):223 - 241.
    Causation is in trouble?at least as it is pictured in current theories in philosophy and in economics as well, where causation is also once again in fashion. In both disciplines the accounts of causality on offer are either modelled too closely on one or another favoured method for hunting causes or on assumptions about the uses to which causal knowledge can be put?generally for predicting the results of our efforts to change the world. The first kind of account supplies no (...)
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  48. added 2017-03-29
    Douglas Kutach: Causation and Its Basis in Fundamental Physics. [REVIEW]Thomas Blanchard - 2015 - Philosophy of Science 82 (2):330-333,.
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  49. added 2017-03-29
    XVI—Causal Necessity and Induction.Everett J. Nelson - 1963 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 64 (1):289-300.
  50. added 2017-02-28
    Mechanisms, Counterfactuals and Laws.Stavros Ioannidis & Stathis Psillos - 2018 - In Stuart Glennan & Phyllis Illari (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 144-156.
    In this chapter we examine the relation between mechanisms and laws/counterfactuals by revisiting the main notions of mechanism found in the literature. We distinguish between two different conceptions of ‘mechanism’: mechanisms-of underlie or constitute a causal process; mechanisms-for are complex systems that function so as to produce a certain behavior. According to some mechanists, a mechanism fulfills both of these roles simultaneously. The main argument of the chapter is that there is an asymmetrical dependence between both kinds of mechanisms and (...)
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1 — 50 / 154