Search results for 'Race discrimination' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  19
    Rankin W. McGugin, James W. Tanaka, Sophie Lebrecht, Michael J. Tarr & Isabel Gauthier (2011). Race-Specific Perceptual Discrimination Improvement Following Short Individuation Training With Faces. Cognitive Science 35 (2):330-347.
    This study explores the effect of individuation training on the acquisition of race-specific expertise. First, we investigated whether practice individuating other-race faces yields improvement in perceptual discrimination for novel faces of that race. Second, we asked whether there was similar improvement for novel faces of a different race for which participants received equal practice, but in an orthogonal task that did not require individuation. Caucasian participants were trained to individuate faces of one race (African (...)
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  2.  38
    Mary C. Waters & Philip Kasinitz (2010). Discrimination, Race Relations, and the Second Generation. Social Research: An International Quarterly 77 (1):101-132.
    In an increasingly diverse America, the experience of race and racial discrimination is too often described as if it is the same for all racial and ethnic groups. Utilizing the perspective on ethnic and racial groups developed by Zolberg that stresses their contingent and dynamic nature, we explore ethnic and racial discrimination in depth. Drawing on data from the New York Second Generation Study we describe the experience of prejudice and discrimination among eight groups of young (...)
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  3.  23
    Anthony Greenwald, Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders.
    Rapid actions to persons holding weapons were simulated using desktop virtual reality. Subjects responded to simulated (a) criminals, by pointing the computerÕs mouse at them and left-clicking (simulated shooting), (b) fellow police officers, by pressing the spacebar (safety signal), and (c) citizens, by inaction. In one of two tasks Black males holding guns were police officers while White males holding guns were criminals. In the other, Whites with guns were police and Blacks with guns were criminals. In both tasks Blacks (...)
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  4.  1
    Daniel T. Levin (2000). Race as a Visual Feature: Using Visual Search and Perceptual Discrimination Tasks to Understand Face Categories and the Cross-Race Recognition Deficit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 129 (4):559-574.
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  5.  26
    Mark Gould (1999). Race and Theory: Culture, Poverty, and Adaptation To Discrimination In Wilson and Ogbu. Sociological Theory 17 (2):171-200.
    This article provides the theoretical resources to resolve a number of conundrums in the work of William Julius Wilson and John Ogbu. Contrary to what Wilson's and Ogbu's work sometimes imply, inner-city blacks are not enmeshed in a "culture of poverty," but rather are generally committed to mainstream values and their normative expectations. Activities that deviate from these values derive from the cognitive expectations inner-city blacks have formed in the face of their restricted legitimate opportunity structures. These expectations, which suggest (...)
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  6.  15
    Naomi Zack (2003). Race and Racial Discrimination. In LaFollette H. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Practical Ethics. Oxford University Press 245--271.
  7.  27
    Annabelle Lever (forthcoming). Race and Racial Profiling. In Naomi Zack (ed.), Oxford HANDBOOK OF PHILOSOPHY OF RACE.
    Philosophical reflection on racial profiling tends to take one of two forms. The first sees it as an example of ‘statistical discrimination,’ (SD), raising the question of when, if ever, probabilistic generalisations about group behaviour or characteristics can be used to judge particular individuals.(Applbaum 2014; Harcourt 2004; Hellman, 2014; Risse and Zeckhauser 2004; Risse 2007; Lippert-Rasmussen 2006; Lippert-Rasmussen 2007; Lippert-Rasmussen 2014) . This approach treats racial profiling as one example amongst many others of a general problem in egalitarian political (...)
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  8.  11
    Melinda Gormley (2009). Scientific Discrimination and the Activist Scientist: L. C. Dunn and the Professionalization of Genetics and Human Genetics in the United States. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 42 (1):33 - 72.
    During the 1920s and 1930s geneticist L. C. Dunn of Columbia University cautioned Americans against endorsing eugenic policies and called attention to eugenicists' less than rigorous practices. Then, from the mid-1940s to early 1950s he attacked scientific racism and Nazi Rassenhygiene by co-authoring Heredity, Race and Society with Theodosius Dobzhansky and collaborating with members of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) on their international campaign against racism. Even though shaking the foundations of scientific discrimination was Dunn's (...)
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  9.  14
    Bruce R. Dain (2002). A Hideous Monster of the Mind: American Race Theory in the Early Republic. Harvard University Press.
    A Hideous Monster of the Mind reveals that ideas on race crossed racial boundaries in a process that produced not only well-known theories of biological racism ...
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  10.  12
    Derrick Darby (2009). Rights, Race, and Recognition. Cambridge University Press.
    What is the source of rights? Rights have been grounded in divine agency, human nature, and morally justified claims, and have been used to assess the moral status of legal and customary social practices. The orthodoxy is that some of our rights are a species of unrecognized or natural rights. For example, black slaves in antebellum America were said to have such rights, and this was taken to provide a basis for establishing the immorality of slavery. Derrick Darby exposes the (...)
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  11.  12
    Paul Gomberg (2007). How to Make Opportunity Equal: Race and Contributive Justice. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This critical examination of racial equality takes a new approach to breaking down racial barriers by proposing a system of equal opportunity through shared labor and contributive justice. Focuses on how race and class inevitably structure vastly unequal life prospects Shows how human society can be organized in a way that does not socialize children for lives of routine labour Looks towards contribution, not distribution, as a way to promote racial equality Argues that by sharing routine and complex labor, (...)
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  12. Frank Dikötter (1992). The Discourse of Race in Modern China. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  13. Jami L. Anderson (ed.) (2003). Race, Gender, and Sexuality: Philosophical Issues of Identity and Justice. Prentice Hall.
    This anthology of contemporary articles (and court cases provides a philosophical analysis of race, sex and gender concepts and issues. Divided into three relatively independent yet thematically linked sections, the anthology first addresses identity issues, then injustices and inequalities, and then specific social and legal issues relevant to race, sex and gender. By exposing readers to both theoretical foundations, opposing views, and "real life" applications, the anthology prepares them to make critically reasoned decisions concerning today's race, gender (...)
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  14.  30
    Oscar H. Gandy (2010). Engaging Rational Discrimination: Exploring Reasons for Placing Regulatory Constraints on Decision Support Systems. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 12 (1):29-42.
    In the future systems of ambient intelligence will include decision support systems that will automate the process of discrimination among people that seek entry into environments and to engage in search of the opportunities that are available there. This article argues that these systems must be subject to active and continuous assessment and regulation because of the ways in which they are likely to contribute to economic and social inequality. This regulatory constraint must involve limitations on the collection and (...)
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  15.  5
    Qudsia Mirza (1999). Patricia Williams: Inflecting Critical Race Theory. [REVIEW] Feminist Legal Studies 7 (2):111-132.
    Critical Race Theory (C.R.T.) has developed out of a deep dissatisfaction that many black legal scholars in the U.S. felt with liberal civil rights discourse, a discourse premised upon the ideals of assimilation, ‘colour-blindness’ and integration. In addition, the emergence of the Critical Legal Studies movement provided Critical Race theorists with an innovative lexicon and practice which allowed them to develop a critique of traditional race analysis and U.S. law. Patricia Williams has played a key role in (...)
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  16. William A. Edmundson (1990). The "Race-of-the-Victim" Effect in Capital Sentencing: McClesky V. Kemp and Underadjustment Bias. Jurimetrics 32:125-41.
    This is a critical discussion of the Baldus study of capital sentencing in Georgia. It concludes that the Baldus finding of a "race-of-the-victim" effect is less robust than capital-punishment abolitionists have claimed. But the flaws in the Baldus study should not comfort death-penalty advocates, for they reveal an epistemological barrier to the US Supreme Court's ever being able to satisfy itself both that the sentence reflects particularized consideration of the circumstances and character of the defendant and that it is (...)
     
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  17.  39
    Adrian M. S. Piper (1993). Two Kinds of Discrimination. In Bernard Boxill (ed.), Race and Racism. OUP Oxford
    The two kinds of discrimination I want to talk about are political discrimination and cognitive discrimination. By political discrimination, I mean what we ordinarily understand by the term "discrimination" in political contexts: A manifest attitude in which a particular property of a person which is irrelevant to judgments of that person's intrinsic value or competence, for example his race, gender, class, sexual orientation, or religious or ethnic affiliation, is seen as a source of disvalue (...)
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  18.  5
    Dominique Vidal (2009). De l'écart entre la fiction et la réalité. Cahiers Internationaux de Sociologie 127 (2):199.
    This article aims to demonstrate the effects of references to an imagined democracy in South Africa and in Brazil by focusing on the gap between democratic ideals and social reality. In both countries the ideals of reconciliation and of racial democracy do not correspond to the contours of the actual social situation revealed by democracy. This does not prevent these ideals from acting as a constituting force at the core of many of the tensions in democratic dynamics. First we will (...)
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  19. Mark V. Roehling (2002). Weight Discrimination in the American Workplace: Ethical Issues and Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 40 (2):177 - 189.
    Research providing consistent evidence of pervasive discrimination against overweight job applicants and employees in the American workplace raises important questions for organizational stakeholders. To what extent is the disparate treatment of job applicants or employees based on their weight ethically justified? Are there aspects of weight discrimination that make it more acceptable than discrimination based on other characteristics, such as race or gender? What operational steps can employers take to address concerns regarding the ethical treatment of (...)
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  20.  3
    Samuel V. Bruton (2015). Looks-Based Hiring and Wrongful Discrimination. Business and Society Review 120 (4):607-635.
    Popular clothing retailer Abercrombie and Fitch (A&F) is well-known for hiring attractive store sales clerks. While the economic benefits of this hiring practice for the company are undeniable, many commentators contend that it constitutes wrongful discrimination against unattractive job seekers. In this article, I explore the ethics of A&F-style lookism and challenge two common perspectives on this issue. I argue that on one hand, looks-based hiring cannot be defended based on its economic benefits alone, as race-based hiring also (...)
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  21.  38
    Matt Zwolinski (2006). Why Not Regulate Private Discrimination? San Diego Law Review 43 (Fall):1043.
    In the United States, discrimination based on race, religion, and other suspect categories is strictly regulated when it takes place in hiring, promotion, and other areas of the world of commerce. Discrimination in one's private affairs, however, is not subject to legal regulation at all. Assuming that both sorts of discrimination can be equally morally wrong, why then should this disparity in legal treatment exist? This paper attempts to find a theory that can simultaneously explain these (...)
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  22.  20
    Javier Portillo & Walter E. Block (2012). Anti-Discrimination Laws: Undermining Our Rights. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 109 (2):209-217.
    The purpose of this article is to argue in favor of a private employer’s right to discriminate amongst job applicants on any basis he chooses, and this certainly includes unlawful characteristics such as race, sex, national origin, sexual preference, religion, etc. John Locke and many after him have argued that people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property or the pursuit of happiness. In this view, law should be confined to protecting these rights and be limited to prohibiting (...)
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  23. David Edmonds (2006). Caste Wars: A Philosophy of Discrimination. Routledge.
    The central topic for this book is the ethics of treating individuals as though they are members of groups. The book raises many interesting questions, including: why do we feel so much more strongly about discrimination on certain grounds e.g. of race and sex - than discrimination on other grounds? Are we right to think that discrimination based on these characteristics is especially invidious? what should we think about rational discrimination discrimination which is based (...)
     
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  24. Michael Cross & Keith (1993). Racism, the City and the State.
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  25. M. Cholbi (2006). Race, Capital Punishment, and the Cost of Murder. Philosophical Studies 127 (2):255-282.
    Numerous studies indicate that racial minorities are both more likely to be executed for murder and that those who murder them are less likely to be executed than if they murder whites. Death penalty opponents have long attempted to use these studies to argue for a moratorium on capital punishment. Whatever the merits of such arguments, they overlook the fact that such discrimination alters the costs of murder; racial discrimination imposes higher costs on minorities for murdering through tougher (...)
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  26. Daniel J. Sharfstein (2013). Frizzly Studies Negotiating the Invisible Lines of Race. Common Knowledge 19 (3):518-529.
    Beginning with the assumption that race is a conceptual blur, this contribution to the Common Knowledge symposium “Fuzzy Studies” argues that race conflates what is plain to see with something that is invisible. Race roots today's policy decisions in a remote and often imagined past. It blurs agency and overwhelming structural inequality. It is a set of categories that people define for themselves and that, at the same time, others — strangers, neighbors, government officials — relentlessly impose (...)
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  27.  29
    M. O. Hardimon (2013). Race Concepts in Medicine. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (1):6-31.
    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of (...)
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  28.  42
    Anne Warfield Rawls (2000). "Race" as an Interaction Order Phenomenon: W.E.B. Du Bois's "Double Consciousness" Thesis Revisited. Sociological Theory 18 (2):241-274.
    This article reports on a study of interaction between Americans who self-identify as Black and White that reveals underlying expectations with regard to conversation that differ between the two groups. These differences seem not to have much to do with class or gender, but rather vary largely according to self-identification by "race." The argument of this paper will be that the social phenomena of "race" are constructed at the level of interaction whenever Americans self-identified as Black and White (...)
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  29. C. Daryl Cameron, Joshua Knobe & B. Keith Payne (2010). Do Theories of Implicit Race Bias Change Moral Judgments? Social Justice Research 23:272-289.
    Recent work in social psychology suggests that people harbor “implicit race biases,” biases which can be unconscious or uncontrollable. Because awareness and control have traditionally been deemed necessary for the ascription of moral responsibility, implicit biases present a unique challenge: do we pardon discrimination based on implicit biases because of its unintentional nature, or do we punish discrimination regardless of how it comes about? The present experiments investigated the impact such theories have upon moral judgments about racial (...)
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  30.  81
    José Jorge Mendoza (2014). Discrimination and the Presumptive Rights of Immigrants. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1):68-83.
    Philosophers have assumed that as long as discriminatory admission and exclusion policies are off the table, it is possible for one to adopt a restrictionist position on the issue of immigration without having to worry that this position might entail discriminatory outcomes. The problem with this assumption emerges, however,when two important points are taken into consideration. First, immigration controls are not simply discriminatory because they are based on racist or ethnocentric attitudes and beliefs, but can themselves also be the source (...)
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  31. Warwick Anderson (2012). Hybridity, Race, and Science: The Voyage of the Zaca, 1934–1935. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 103:229-253.
    In 1929 and 1934–1935, the physical anthropologist Harry L. Shapiro voyaged in the South Seas on the Mahina-I-Te-Pua and the Zaca, measuring mixed-race islanders, including the descendants of the Bounty mutineers on Pitcairn Island. His research in Polynesian hybridity reflects the growing cultural and scientific investment of the United States in the Pacific during this period. Shapiro's oceanic adventures and intimate encounters prompted him to discount typological speculation and emphasize instead the liberal Boasian program in physical anthropology, giving him (...)
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  32.  23
    Walter Block (1992). Discrimination: An Interdisciplinary Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):241 - 254.
    Discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, etc., is often morally wrong. But should such behaviour be proscribed by legislation, and penalized by fines or jail sentences? This paper argues that such enactments are incompatible with the law of free association, and with the concept of economic liberty and civil rights.
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  33. Anita L. Allen (2011). Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward. Journal of Ethics 15 (3):253-263.
    As a U.S. civil rights policy, affirmative action commonly denotes race-conscious and result-oriented efforts by private and public officials to correct the unequal distribution of economic opportunity and education attributed to slavery, segregation, poverty and racism. Opponents argue that affirmative action (1) violates ideals of color-blind public policies, offending moral principles of fairness and constitutional principles of equality and due process; (2) has proven to be socially and politically divisive; (3) has not made things better; (4) mainly benefits middle-class, (...)
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  34. K. E. Himma (2001). Discrimination and Disidentification: The Fair-Start Defense of Affirmative Action. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):277 - 289.
    The Fair-Start Defense justifies affirmative action preferences as a response to harms caused by race- and sex-based discrimination. Rather than base a justification for preferences on the traditional appeal to self-esteem, I argue they are justified in virtue of the effects institutional discrimination has on the goals and aspirations of its victims. In particular, I argue that institutional discrimination puts women and blacks at an unfair competitive disadvantage by causing academic disidentification. Affirmative action is justified as (...)
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  35.  27
    Joon-ho Yu, Sara Goering & Stephanie M. Fullerton (2009). Race-Based Medicine and Justice as Recognition: Exploring the Phenomenon of BiDil. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (1):57.
    In the United States, health disparities have been framed by categories of race. Racial health disparities have been documented for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and numerous other diseases and measures of health status. Although such disparities can be read as symptoms of disparities in healthcare access, pervasive social and economic inequities, and discrimination, some have suggested that the disparities might be due, at least in part, to biological differences based on race. Or, to be more precise, (...)
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  36.  20
    Jennifer Hochschild (2006). When Do People Not Protest Unfairness? The Case of Skin Color Discrimination. Social Research: An International Quarterly 73 (2):473-498.
    The evidence is clear and consistent that African Americans and Hispanics are treated differently depending on their skin color within their racial or ethnic group, and yet the surveys that show these results also show very few political or political-psychological patterns as a result of skin color. To investigate why this is so, this paper uses the fact that discriminatory treatment by skin color does not necessarily result in political action or perceptions around that discrimination to raise the larger (...)
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  37.  9
    Rebecca Ann Lind (1996). Race and Viewer Evaluations of Ethically Controversial Tv News Stories. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 11 (1):40 – 52.
    Interviews with 111 African-American and European-Americans investigated racial differences in viewer evaluations of ethically controversial TV news stories. The study focused on judgments of whether three news stories (Genniger Flowers's alleged affair with Bill Clinton, a hit-and-run accident, and racial discrimination by Realtors) should be aired, the criteria applied in reaching those judgements, and the indications of reasons to attend to or to reject each story. No simple relationship was found between race and judgments of whether the stories (...)
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  38.  60
    Cass R. Sunstein (1991). Why Markets Don't Stop Discrimination. Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):22.
    Markets, it is sometimes said, are hard on discrimination. An employer who finds himself refusing to hire qualified blacks and women will, in the long run, lose out to those who are willing to draw from a broader labor pool. Employer discrimination amounts to a self-destructive “taste” – self-destructive because employers who indulge that taste add to the costs of doing business. Added costs can only hurt. To put it simply, bigots are weak competitors. The market will drive (...)
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  39.  30
    Alexandre Marcellesi (2013). Is Race a Cause? Philosophy of Science 80 (5):650-659.
    Advocates of the counterfactual approach to causal inference argue that race isn’t a cause. I object that their argument is invalid and that its key premise is unwarranted. I also criticize the criterion, which I call ‘Holland’s rule’, the counterfactual approach relies on to distinguish causes from non-causes. Finally, I argue that racial discrimination cannot be causally explained unless one assumes race to be a cause. I conclude that the view that race is not a cause (...)
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  40.  18
    Douglas Lorimer (2009). 8 From Natural Science to Social Science: Race and the Language of Race Relations in Late Victorian and Edwardian Discourse. Proceedings of the British Academy 155:181.
    This chapter focuses on the emergence of modern racist ideology during the nineteenth century. It examines the role played by the Victorian anatomists and anthropologists who constructed classifications of humans according to racial type, and depicted these types as having distinct and certain characteristics determined by their biological inheritance. This ideology of racism is a racial inequality dependent on a biological determinism based on science. From the 1930s to the 1950s, developments in science, specifically in human genetics and anthropology, led (...)
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  41.  41
    M. Lowe, I. H. Kerridge & K. R. Mitchell (1995). 'These Sorts of People Don't Do Very Well': Race and Allocation of Health Care Resources. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (6):356-360.
    Recent literature has highlighted issues of racial discrimination in medicine. In order to explore the sometimes subtle influence of racial determinants in decisions about resource allocation, we present the case of a 53-year-old Australian Aboriginal woman with end-stage renal failure. The epidemiology of renal failure in the Australian Aboriginal population and amongst other indigenous peoples is discussed. We show that the use of utilitarian outcome criteria for resource allocation may embody subtle racial discrimination where consideration is not given (...)
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  42.  20
    Claus Strue Frederiksen & Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen (2014). Do Anti-Discrimination Policies Sometimes Imply Discrimination?: The Asymmetry Between Religious and Secular Clothing. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):107-124.
    To claim that companies should not discriminate on the basis of race, gender or religion seems almost as trivial as stating that they should not use forced labor or dump radioactive waste into the local river. Among other things, non-discrimination seems to imply that companies recognize and respect a range of religious preferences, including allowing religious clothing, e.g., by allowing Muslim women to wear headscarves. However, many companies do not believe that employees generally should be allowed to wear (...)
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  43.  6
    Geoffrey Short & Bruce Carrington (1991). Unfair Discrimination: Teaching the Principles to Children of Primary School Age. Journal of Moral Education 20 (2):157-176.
    This paper describes an initiative to promote social justice in two groups of primary aged children. The initiative was concerned with the extent to which first? and third?year juniors can apply principles of unfair discrimination to issues of gender,?race? and social class having been taught the principles in contexts unrelated to structural inequality. The study provides evidence consistent with the claim that children between the ages of seven and 11 can learn to recognise certain manifestations of unfair (...) against oppressed groups. The data further suggest that children in this age group can learn to recognise such discrimination on the basis of principles acquired in contexts that make no reference to oppressed groups. It is argued that the data are sufficiently encouraging to warrant a replication of the study on a larger scale. (shrink)
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  44.  16
    Polycarp Ikuenobe (2013). Conceptualizing and Theorizing About the Idea of a “Post‐Racial” Era. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (4):446-468.
    I critically examine the eliminativist theories of race or racism, and the behavioral theory of racism, which provide the theoretical foundation, respectively, for the nominalist and substantive conceptualizations of the idea of a post-racial era. The eliminativist theories seek to eliminate the concepts of “race” or “racism” from our discourse. Such elimination indicates a nominalist sense of the idea of a post-racial era. The behavioral theory of racism argues that racism must be manifested in obviously harmful actions. And (...)
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  45.  11
    Claus Strue Frederiksen & Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen (2014). Do Anti-Discrimination Policies Sometimes Imply Discrimination? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (1):107-124.
    To claim that companies should not discriminate on the basis of race, gender or religion seems almost as trivial as stating that they should not use forced labor or dump radioactive waste into the local river. Among other things, non-discrimination seems to imply that companies recognize and respect a range of religious preferences, including allowing religious clothing, e.g., by allowing Muslim women to wear headscarves. However, many companies do not believe that employees generally should be allowed to wear (...)
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  46.  18
    Michael A. Rosenthal (2005). ‘The Black, Scabby Brazilian’: Some Thoughts on Race and Early Modern Philosophy. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (2):211-221.
    When Spinoza described his dream of a ‘black, scabby Brazilian’, was the image indicative of a larger pattern of racial discrimination? Should today’s readers regard racist comments and theories in the texts of 17th- and 18th-century philosophers as reflecting the prejudices of their time or as symptomatic of philosophical discourse? This article discusses whether a critical discussion of race is itself a form of racism and whether supposedly minor prejudices are evidence of a deeper social pathology. Given historical (...)
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  47.  5
    Rida Usman Khalafzai (2009). Racial Discrimination and Health. Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 14 (3):9.
    Khalafzai, Rida Usman This article explores race as a social construct, discrimination based on race, and its impact on health.
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  48.  2
    J. Carl Ficarrotta (1996). Discrimination by Generality. Public Affairs Quarterly 10 (3):203-217.
    In assigning the benefits and burdens of society, we sometimes discriminate using a broad category (age, gender, race, etc.) we think correlates well with the possession of some other skill, qualification, or character trait. In this essay, I explore one rationale for this type of discrimination. I suggest a method for determining when this rationale provides a moral justification for the discrimination, and when it does not. I defend the method against some potential criticisms, and point out (...)
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  49.  11
    Sharjeel Sabir (2003). Chimerical Categories: Caste, Race, and Genetics. Developing World Bioethics 3 (2):170–177.
    ABSTRACTIs discrimination based on caste equivalent to racism? This paper explores the complex relationship between genetic, race and caste. It also discusses the debate over the exclusion of a discussion of caste‐based discrimination at the 2001 World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance held in Durban, South Africa.
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  50. John Arthur (2007). Race, Equality, and the Burdens of History. Cambridge University Press.
    John Arthur philosophically addresses the problems of racism and the legacy of past racial discrimination in the United States. Offering a thorough analysis of the concepts of race and racism, Arthur also discusses racial equality, poverty and race, reparations and affirmative action, and merit in ways that cut across the usual political lines. A philosopher, former civil-rights plaintiff and professor at an historically black college in the South, Arthur draws on both his personal experiences as well as (...)
     
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