Results for 'Threats'

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  1. Part IV How to Improve European East-West Cooperation in the Face of Existential Environmental Threats?Existential Environmental Threats - 1990 - World Futures 29 (3):173.
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  2. The Threat of Algocracy: Reality, Resistance and Accommodation.John Danaher - 2016 - Philosophy and Technology 29 (3):245-268.
    One of the most noticeable trends in recent years has been the increasing reliance of public decision-making processes on algorithms, i.e. computer-programmed step-by-step instructions for taking a given set of inputs and producing an output. The question raised by this article is whether the rise of such algorithmic governance creates problems for the moral or political legitimacy of our public decision-making processes. Ignoring common concerns with data protection and privacy, it is argued that algorithmic governance does pose a significant threat (...)
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  3. Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women.Rachel McKinnon - 2014 - Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  4. Stereotype Threat, Epistemic Injustice, and Rationality.Stacey Goguen - 2016 - In Michael Brownstein & Jennifer Saul (eds.), Implicit Bias and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 216-237.
    Though stereotype threat is most well-known for its ability to hinder performance, it actually has a wide range of effects. For instance, it can also cause stress, anxiety, and doubt. These additional effects are as important and as central to the phenomenon as its effects on performance are. As a result, stereotype threat has more far-reaching implications than many philosophers have realized. In particular, the phenomenon has a number of unexplored “epistemic effects.” These are effects on our epistemic lives—i.e., the (...)
     
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  5. Stereotype Threat and Intellectual Virtue.Mark Alfano - 2014 - In Owen Flanagan & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Naturalizing Virtue. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155-74.
    For decades, intelligence and achievement tests have registered significant differences between people of different races, ethnicities, classes, and genders. We argue that most of these differences are explained not as reflections of differences in the distribution of intellectual virtues but as evidence for the metacognitive mediation of the intellectual virtues. For example, in the United States, blacks typically score worse than whites on tests of mathematics. This might lead one to think that fewer blacks possess the relevant intellectual virtues, or (...)
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  6. Threats to Military Professionalism: International Perspectives.Douglas Lindsay & Jeffrey M. Stouffer (eds.) - 2012 - Canadian Defence Academy Press.
    South African Military Professionalism: Some Critical Observations and Threats -- Threats to Professionalism in the United States Military -- Higher Education and the Profession of Arms: Explaining the Logic -- Military Professionalism -- An Organizational Challenge by Itself -- The Challenge of Maintaining Military Professionalism in the Face of Transformation: The Indonesian Army Experience -- Threats and Opportunities for Military Professionalism from Social Media -- The Profession of Arms and the Promotion of Ethics: The profession of Arms (...)
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  7.  91
    Innocent Threats and the Moral Problem of Carnivorous Animals.Rainer Ebert & Tibor R. Machan - 2012 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 29 (2):146-159.
    The existence of predatory animals is a problem in animal ethics that is often not taken as seriously as it should be. We show that it reveals a weakness in Tom Regan's theory of animal rights that also becomes apparent in his treatment of innocent human threats. We show that there are cases in which Regan's justice-prevails-approach to morality implies a duty not to assist the jeopardized, contrary to his own moral beliefs. While a modified account of animal rights (...)
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  8.  1
    Addressing Threats Like Covid: Why We Will Tend to Over-React and How We Can Do Better.Mark Pingle - 2022 - Mind and Society 21 (1):9-23.
    A number of behavioral economic insights suggest we will tend to overreact, individually and collectively, to a new, serious, but low probability health threat, like Covid 19. To respond more effectively to such threats, we should recognize why we will tend to overreact and prepare in advance not to do so. We also should recognize the usefulness in giving lower level governments, non-profits, and less formal communities some ability to respond, rather than presuming we should address a significant threat (...)
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  9.  29
    A Threat to Autonomy? The Intrusion of Predictive Brain Implants.Frederic Gilbert - 2015 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 6 (4):4-11.
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  10.  15
    Status Threat and Ethical Leadership: A Power-Dependence Perspective.Guangxi Zhang, Jianan Zhong & Muammer Ozer - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (3):665-685.
    Whether, how and when do leaders engage in ethical leadership as a response to status threat? We propose that leaders facing status threat are likely to develop ethical leadership behaviors toward subordinates. Drawing on power dependence theory, we theorize that experiencing status threat augments leaders’ dependence on subordinates who can provide them with status-relevant resources. Dependence on subordinates further motivates leaders to absorb the resource constraints through displaying ethical leadership. However, if leaders are able to obtain alternative resources to cope (...)
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  11.  61
    Conditional Threats.Gerhard Øverland - 2010 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 7 (3):334-345.
    In this paper I ponder the moral status of conditional threats, in particular the extent to which a threatened party would be permitted to use (lethal) defensive force. I first investigate a mugger case before turning briefly to the more complicated issue of national defence in the face of an invading army. One should not exaggerate the level of protection people under threat owe their conditioned killers simply because what is extorted is of little value. After all, either the (...)
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  12. Coercion, Threats, and the Puzzle of Blackmail.Grant Lamond - 1996 - In A. P. Simester & A. T. H. Smith (eds.), Harm and Culpability. Oxford University Press. pp. 215-38.
    This paper discusses the puzzle of blackmail, i.e. the way in which the threat of an otherwise legally permissible action can in some cases constitute blackmail. It argues that the key to understanding blackmail is in terms of coercion and threats, and the effect such threats have on the validity of a victim’s consent. The nature of coercion and of coercive threats is considered in detail to support the thesis that threats are prima facie impermissible, though (...)
     
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  13.  71
    The Threat Simulation Theory of the Evolutionary Function of Dreaming: Evidence From Dreams of Traumatized Children.Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Outi Pälkäs, Kamaran Hassan Ismail, Karzan Jalal Ali & Raija-Leena Punamäki - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):188-218.
    The threat simulation theory of dreaming states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation (...)
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  14.  17
    Stereotype Threat and Working Memory: Mechanisms, Alleviation, and Spillover.Sian L. Beilock, Robert J. Rydell & Allen R. McConnell - 2007 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (2):256-276.
  15. Two Threats to Representation.Michael Wheeler - 2001 - Synthese 129 (2):211-231.
    I consider two threats to the idea that on-line intelligent behaviour (the production of fluid and adaptable responses to ongoing sensory input) must or should be explained by appeal to neurally located representations. The first of these threats occurs when extra-neural factors account for the kind of behavioural richness and flexibility normally associated with representation-based control. I show how this anti-representational challenge can be met, if we apply the thought that, to be a representational system, an action-oriented neural (...)
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  16.  53
    The Threat of Intergenerational Extortion: On the Temptation to Become the Climate Mafia, Masquerading as an Intergenerational Robin Hood.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2017 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 47 (2-3):368-394.
    This paper argues that extortion is a clear threat in intergenerational relations, and that the threat is manifest in some existing proposals in climate policy and latent in some background tendencies in mainstream moral and political philosophy. The paper also claims that although some central aspects of the concern about extortion might be pursued in terms of the entitlements of future generations, this approach is likely to be incomplete. In particular, intergenerational extortion raises issues about the appropriate limits to the (...)
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  17.  9
    Threat and Selective Exposure: The Moderating Role of Threat and Decision Context on Confirmatory Information Search After Decisions.Peter Fischer, Andreas Kastenmüller, Tobias Greitemeyer, Julia Fischer, Dieter Frey & David Crelley - 2011 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 140 (1):51-62.
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    The Threat of Effective Intentions to Moral Responsibility in the Zygote Argument.Robyn Repko Waller - 2013 - Philosophia 42 (1):209-222.
    In Free Will and Luck, Mele presents a case of an agent Ernie, whose zygote was intentionally designed so that Ernie A-s in 30 years, bringing about a certain event E. Mele uses this case of original design to outline the zygote argument against compatibilism. In this paper I criticize the zygote argument. Unlike other compatibilists who have responded to the zygote argument, I contend that it is open to the compatibilist to accept premise one, that Ernie does not act (...)
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  19.  40
    Threats to Neurosurgical Patients Posed by the Personal Identity Debate.Sabine Müller, Merlin Bittlinger & Henrik Walter - 2017 - Neuroethics 10 (2):299-310.
    Decisions about brain surgery pose existential challenges because they are often decisions about life or death, and sometimes about possible personality changes. Therefore they require rigorous neuroethical consideration. However, we doubt whether metaphysical interpretations of ambiguous statements of patients are useful for deriving ethical and legal conclusions. Particularly, we question the application of psychological theories of personal identity on neuroethical issues for several reasons. First, even the putative “standard view” on personal identity is contentious. Second, diverse accounts of personal identity (...)
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  20.  2
    True Threats, Self-Defense, and the Second Amendment.Joseph Blocher & Bardia Vaseghi - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (S4):112-118.
    Does the Second Amendment protect those who threaten others by negligently or recklessly wielding firearms? What line separates constitutionally legitimate gun displays from threatening activities that can be legally proscribed? This article finds guidance in the First Amendment doctrine of true threats, which permits punishment of “statements where the speaker means to communicate a serious expression of an intent to commit an act of unlawful violence to a particular individual or group of individual.” The Second Amendment, like the First, (...)
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  21.  75
    The Epistemic Threat of Deepfakes.Don Fallis - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (4):623-643.
    Deepfakes are realistic videos created using new machine learning techniques rather than traditional photographic means. They tend to depict people saying and doing things that they did not actually say or do. In the news media and the blogosphere, the worry has been raised that, as a result of deepfakes, we are heading toward an “infopocalypse” where we cannot tell what is real from what is not. Several philosophers have now issued similar warnings. In this paper, I offer an analysis (...)
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  22.  11
    Threat Interpretation and Innovation in the Context of Climate Change: An Ethical Perspective.Aoife Haney - 2017 - Journal of Business Ethics 143 (2):261-276.
    The ability of managers to identify and interpret challenges in the external environment is one of the micro-foundations of dynamic capabilities. The underlying literature on strategic issue interpretation suggests that interpreting environmental challenges as opportunities rather than threats is more likely to lead to proactive and innovative responses, but there are also potentially positive effects of threat interpretation, for instance high levels of commitment and risk-seeking behaviour. In this paper, I use the context of climate change to explore the (...)
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  23.  32
    Welcome Threats and Coercive Offers.Daniel Lyons - 1975 - Philosophy 50 (194):425 - 436.
    In American legal journals over the last decade there were hundreds of pages of articles worrying over threats to justice and freedom arising from the power to withhold benefits. Government officials have tremendous discretion to offer or withhold foreign aid, ration-books, government contracts and jobs, welfare subsidies, public housing, tariff protection, academic grants, alien resident status, paroles, or exemption from conscription or combat, from arrest or prosecution or imprisonment. Right-wing economists have worried about welfare-state emphasis on administrative discretion rather (...)
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  24. Standard Threats: How to Violate Basic Human Rights.Anthony R. Reeves - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (3):403-434.
    The paper addresses the nature of duties grounded in human rights. Rather than being protections against harm, per se, I contend that human rights largely shield against risk impositions to protected interests. “Risk imposition” is a normative idea requiring explication, but understanding dutiful action in its terms enables human rights to provide prospective policy guidance, hold institutions accountable, operate in non-ideal circumstances, embody impartiality among persons, and define the moral status of agencies in international relations. Slightly differently, I indicate a (...)
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  25. The Threat From Manipulation Arguments.Benjamin Matheson - 2018 - American Philosophical Quarterly 55 (1):37-50.
    Most seem to presume that what is threatening about manipulation arguments is the ‘no difference’ premise – that is, the claim that there are no responsibility-relevant differences between a manipulated agent and her merely causally determined counterpart. This presumption underlies three recent replies to manipulation arguments from Kearns (2012), King (2013), and Schlosser (2015). But these replies fail to appreciate the true threat from manipulation arguments – namely, the manipulation cases that are allegedly counterexamples to the leading compatibilist conditions on (...)
     
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  26.  41
    New Threats to Academic Freedom.Francesca Minerva - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):157-162.
    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a good option.
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  27.  93
    Threats, Bystanders and Obstructors.Helen Frowe - 2008 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108 (1pt3):365-372.
    In this paper I argue that the widespread view that obstructors are a special sort of bystander is mistaken. Obstructors make Victim worse off by their presence, and thus are more properly described as innocent threats. Only those characters who do not make Victim worse off by their presence can be classified as bystanders.
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  28.  3
    Threat Vs. Threat: Attention to Fear-Related Animals and Threatening Faces.Elisa Berdica, Antje B. M. Gerdes, Florian Bublatzky, Andrew J. White & Georg W. Alpers - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  29.  23
    Threat and the Body: How the Heart Supports Fear Processing.Sarah N. Garfinkel & Hugo D. Critchley - 2016 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (1):34-46.
  30.  3
    The China-Threat Discourse, Trade, and the Future of Asia. A Symposium.Michael A. Peters, Alexander J. Means, David P. Ericson, Shivali Tukdeo, Joff P. N. Bradley, Liz Jackson, Guanglun Michael Mu, Timothy W. Luke & Greg William Misiaszek - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-21.
  31.  18
    Threat in Dreams: An Adaptation?Susan Malcolm-Smith, Mark Solms, Oliver Turnbull & Colin Tredoux - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1281-1291.
    Revonsuo’s influential Threat Simulation Theory predicts that people exposed to survival threats will have more threat dreams, and evince enhanced responses to dream threats, compared to those living in relatively safe conditions. Participants in a high crime area differed significantly from participants in a low crime area in having greater recent exposure to a life-threatening event . Contrary to TST’s predictions, the SA participants reported significantly fewer threat dreams , and did not differ from the Welsh participants in (...)
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  32.  10
    Persistent Threats to Validity in Single‐Group Interrupted Time Series Analysis with a Cross Over Design.Ariel Linden - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (2):419-425.
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  33. Mental Action and the Threat of Automaticity.Wayne Wu - 2013 - In Andy Clark, Julian Kiverstein & Tillman Vierkant (eds.), Decomposing the Will. Oxford University Press. pp. 244-61.
    This paper considers the connection between automaticity, control and agency. Indeed, recent philosophical and psychological works play up the incompatibility of automaticity and agency. Specifically, there is a threat of automaticity, for automaticity eliminates agency. Such conclusions stem from a tension between two thoughts: that automaticity pervades agency and yet automaticity rules out control. I provide an analysis of the notions of automaticity and control that maintains a simple connection: automaticity entails the absence of control. An appropriate analysis, however, shows (...)
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  34. Knowledge Under Threat.Tomas Bogardus - 2014 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 88 (2):289-313.
    Many contemporary epistemologists hold that a subject S’s true belief that p counts as knowledge only if S’s belief that p is also, in some important sense, safe. I describe accounts of this safety condition from John Hawthorne, Duncan Pritchard, and Ernest Sosa. There have been three counterexamples to safety proposed in the recent literature, from Comesaña, Neta and Rohrbaugh, and Kelp. I explain why all three proposals fail: each moves fallaciously from the fact that S was at epistemic risk (...)
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  35. Stereotype Threat, Epistemic Agency, and Self-Identity.Stacey Goguen - 2016 - Dissertation, Boston University
    Stereotype threat is a psychological phenomenon that occurs when individuals become aware that their behavior could potentially confirm a negative stereotype. Though stereotype threat is a widely studied phenomenon in social psychology, there has been relatively little scholarship on it in philosophy, despite its relevance to issues such as implicit cognition, epistemic injustice, and diversity in philosophy. However, most psychological research on stereotype threat discusses the phenomenon by using an overly narrow picture of it, which focuses on one of its (...)
     
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  36.  15
    Stereotype Threat and Executive Resource Depletion: Examining the Influence of Emotion Regulation.Michael Johns, Michael Inzlicht & Toni Schmader - 2008 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 137 (4):691-705.
  37. Killing Minimally Responsible Threats.Saba Bazargan - 2014 - Ethics 125 (1):114-136.
    Minimal responsibility threateners are epistemically justified but mistaken in thinking that imposing a nonnegligible risk on others is permissible. On standard accounts, an MRT forfeits her right not to be defensively killed. I propose an alternative account: an MRT is liable only to the degree of harm equivalent to what she risks causing multiplied by her degree of responsibility. Harm imposed on the MRT above that amount is justified as a lesser evil, relative to allowing the MRT to kill her (...)
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  38.  90
    The Threat of Ecofascism.Michael E. Zimmerman - 1995 - Social Theory and Practice 21 (2):207-238.
  39.  48
    A Threat for Physicalism: A New Gedankenexperiment.Claudio Calosi & Vincenzo Fano - 2012 - Epistemologia 1:130-140.
    We present a new thought experiment that raises a threat for Minimal Physicalism, i.e. the thesis according to which mental properties supervene on physical properties. Our proposal is an example of the so called hard problems in philosophy of mind, in particular the problem of maximal consciousness. We do not however presuppose anything about its very nature apart from the minimal, weak assumption that it is determined by first order mental properties. We argue that either Minimal Physicalism is unable to (...)
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  40.  70
    Threats and Coercion.Martin Gunderson - 1979 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):247 - 259.
    There is nearly universal agreement that coercion is an evil. Even when it is necessary to avoid a greater evil or to attain some good, it is still a necessary evil. There is also nearly universal agreement that, other things being equal, one ought not to exercise coercion. Here the agreement ends. There is little agreement about just when coercion is justified. More surprisingly, there is little agreement about what coercion is. This latter controversy is more fundamental, and this paper (...)
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  41.  24
    Threat Captures Attention but Does Not Affect Learning of Contextual Regularities.Motonori Yamaguchi & Sarah L. Harwood - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (3).
  42.  30
    The Threat of Cognitive Suicide.Lynne Rudder Baker - 1987 - In Saving Belief. Princeton University Press. pp. 134-148.
  43.  13
    The Threat of Nuclear War: Peace Studies in an Apocalyptic Age.Michael A. Peters - 2017 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 51 (1):1-4.
  44.  15
    A Threat Like No Other Threat, George Berkeley Against the Freethinkers.Timo Airaksinen & Heta Gylling - 2017 - History of European Ideas 43 (6):598-613.
    ABSTRACTIn this paper, our purpose is to show what George Berkeley really said about ethics and the background conditions of religious life. The point is that true happiness is only possible in a religious sense; it means happiness in afterlife. The major threat to this is freethinking, or what we see as emerging enlightened modernism. His rather quixotic fix against freethinking shows the man as he is behind all the conventional panegyrics. He is a real Anglican soldier who anticipated but (...)
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  45.  23
    Threats and Offers in Community Mental Healthcare.Michael Dunn, Daniel Maughan, Tony Hope, Krysia Canvin, Jorun Rugkåsa, Julia Sinclair & Tom Burns - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (4):204-209.
    Next SectionMaking threats and offers to patients is a strategy used in community mental healthcare to increase treatment adherence. In this paper, an ethical analysis of these types of proposal is presented. It is argued (1) that the primary ethical consideration is to identify the professional duties of care held by those working in community mental health because the nature of these duties will enable a threat to be differentiated from an offer, (2) that threatening to act in a (...)
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  46.  61
    The Threat of the Intuition-Shaped Hole.Ethan Landes - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    The assumption that philosophers rely on intuitions to justify their philosophical positions has recently come under substantial criticism. In order to protect philosophy from experimental findings that suggest that intuitions are epistemically problematic, a number of metaphilosophers have argued that intuitions play no substantial epistemic role in philosophy. This paper focuses on attempts to deny intuitions’ epistemic role through exegetical analysis of original thought experiments. Using Deutsch’s particularly well-developed exegesis of Gettier’s 10 coin case as an exemplar of this method, (...)
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  47.  24
    Threats, Offers, Law, Opinion and Liberty.J. P. Day - 1977 - American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (4):257 - 272.
  48.  2
    The Threat and the Glory: Reflections on Science and Scientists.Peter Brian Medawar - 1990 - Oxford University Press.
    Discusses the philosophy of science and the process of scientific discovery, and looks at ethical issues such as genetic engineering, prolonging life through technology, and the role of the physician.
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  49.  23
    Threats to the Common Good: Biochemical Weapons and Human Subjects Research.Alex John London - 2003 - Hastings Center Report 33 (5):17-25.
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  50.  1
    New Threats to Freedom.Adam Bellow (ed.) - 2010 - Templeton Press.
    New Threats to Freedom In the twentieth century, free people faced a number of mortal threats,ranging from despotism, fascism, and communism to the looming menace of global terrorism. While the struggle against some of these overt dangers continues, some insidious new threats seem to have slipped past our intellectual defenses. These often unchallenged threats are quietly eroding our hard-won freedoms and, in some cases, are widely accepted as beneficial. In New Threats to Freedom, editor and (...)
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