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Summary Dialetheism can be glossed as the view that there are true contradictions. This is typically motivated by paradoxes. We can express the core features of dialetheism in several other ways. For certain propositions P, a dialetheist will accept that P is true and P is false, which also means that they are willing to assert P and to assert its negation ¬P. Overlapping cases of truth and falsity are sometimes called truth "gluts" and so dialetheism is also sometimes called glut theory. This view does not consist in an accidental lapse into inconsistency. Rather, dialetheists embrace gluts explicitly and intentionally. The central argument for this view is that it offers the best solution to semantic paradoxes such as the Liar sentence "this very sentence is not true". Of course, naturally, if we want to embrace contradictions, we have to also rethink many things such as the foundations of logic and mathematics.
Key works Formative dialtheic points of view have been attributed to historical figures such as Heraclitus or Nagarjuna, who make admittedly contradictory-sounding claims. However, the seminal contemporary dialetheist manifesto is undoubtedly Graham Priest's "In Contradiction". The term "dialetheia" was coined by Priest and Richard Sylvan to connote a 'two-way truth', or what is now often called a truth glut or simply a true contradiction. Priest sees gluts in many areas of life, such as moments of change from being P to not being P. A more modest form of dialetheism is defended by Beall 2009. Yet another broad approach is found in Berto 2007. Some serious work has been done to develop glutty models for foundational areas of mathematics such as set theory and number theory. This began with Meyer & Mortensen 1984 and Mortensen 2008. The current state of the art is Weber 2021. Garfield & Priest 2003 give a dialetheic interpretation of Buddhist views on ineffability, and Beall 2021 gives a dialetheic interpretation of Christian doctrine on immutability.
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  1. On falsifying empirical contradictions.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    The possibility of testing contradictory statements about the factual world has been suggested but barely discussed in the relevant literature. Here I argue that if we assume that there are contradictory observation sentences, it would be logically impossible to falsify them. Accordingly, the extension of the dialetheist programme into empirical science would be non-advisable, for it would introduce logically unfalsifiable claims.
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  2. Can we test inconsistent empirical theories?Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - manuscript
    This paper discusses the logical possibility of testing inconsistent empirical theories. The main challenge for answering this affirmatively is to avoid that the inconsistent consequences of a theory both corroborate it and falsify it. I answer affirmatively by showing that we can define a class of empirical sentences whose truth would force us to abandon such inconsistent theory: the class of its potential rejecters. Despite this, I show that the observational contradictions implied by a theory could only be verified (provided (...)
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  3. On the Possibility of Metaphysical Dialetheism.Katherine Valde - unknown - Australasian Journal of Logic 18 (4).
    Metaphysical dialetheism is the belief that there are contradictions in the world. I will argue that metaphysical dialetheism is, rightfully understood, the most controversial form of dialetheism, and further that it remains an open possibility. Dialetheism can come in many different forms, but all share the same belief in “dialethas”. Depending on how we understand what it means to be a contradiction, we will develop correspondingly different understandings of dialetheism. I will explore what different versions of the position might look (...)
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  4. Dialetheism and the A-Theory.Sam Baron - forthcoming - Philosophical Quarterly.
    According to dialetheism, there are some true contradictions. According to the A-theory, the passage of time is a mind-independent feature of reality. On some A-theories, the passage of time involves the movement of the present. I show that by appealing to dialetheism one can explain why the present moves. I then argue that A-theorists should adopt this explanation. To do this, I defend two claims. First, that the dialetheic explanation is an improvement on the only other explanation available for why (...)
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  5. Peut-on tester si le mouvement est contradictoire ?Luis F. Bartolo Alegre - forthcoming - Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie.
    Priest's theory of motion is based on Leibniz's Continuity Condition (LCC), which states that any state that exists at each instant in a continuous set of moments also exists at its temporal limit. If we accept the CCL, a free-falling pen would have to be simultaneously in motion and at rest at the instant of change: the critical moment when it hits the ground, thus passing from the state of motion to that of rest. This seems to be a contradictory (...)
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  6. In Defence of Dialetheism: A Reply to Beziau and Tkaczyk.Ben Martin - forthcoming - Logic and Logical Philosophy.
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  7. The Many Faces of Impossibility.Koji Tanaka & Alexander Sandgren - 2024 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Possible worlds have revolutionised philosophy and some related fields. But, in recent years, tools based on possible worlds have been found to be limited in many respects. Impossible worlds have been introduced to overcome these limitations. This Element aims to raise and answer the neglected question of what is characteristically impossible about impossible worlds. The Element sheds new light on the nature of impossible worlds. It also aims to analyse the main features and utility of impossible worlds and examine how (...)
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  8. One Heresy and One Orthodoxy: On Dialetheism, Dimathematism, and the Non-normativity of Logic.Heinrich Wansing - 2024 - Erkenntnis 89 (1):181-205.
    In this paper, Graham Priest’s understanding of dialetheism, the view that there exist true contradictions, is discussed, and various kinds of metaphysical dialetheism are distinguished between. An alternative to dialetheism is presented, namely a thesis called ‘dimathematism’. It is pointed out that dimathematism enables one to escape a slippery slope argument for dialetheism that has been put forward by Priest. Moreover, dimathematism is presented as a thesis that is helpful in rejecting the claim that logic is a normative discipline.
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  9. Dialetheism and the Problem of Evil.Ben Blumson - 2023 - In Soraj Hongladarom, Jeremiah Joven Joaquin & Frank J. Hoffman (eds.), Philosophies of Appropriated Religions: Perspectives from Southeast Asia. Springer Nature Singapore. pp. 69-79.
    According to dialetheism, some contradictions are true. In a recent paper, Aaron Cotnoir has suggested that theists who are also dialetheists can resolve the paradox of the stone by accepting a contradiction, and arguing that God both can and can't make the stone. However, Zach Weber has replied that dialetheism is no help for avoiding one of the most serious problems for theism, namely the problem of evil. In this paper, I argue the situation is even worse than this for (...)
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  10. Dialetheism and distributed sorites.Ben Blumson - 2023 - Synthese 202 (4):1-18.
    Noniterative approaches to the sorites paradox accept single steps of soritical reasoning, but deny that these can be combined into valid chains of soritical reasoning. The distributed sorites is a puzzle designed to undermine noniterative approaches to the sorites paradox, by deriving an inconsistent conclusion using only single steps, but not chains, of soritical reasoning. This paper shows how a dialetheist version of the noniterative approach, the strict-tolerant approach, also solves the distributed sorites paradox, at no further cost, by accepting (...)
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  11. How is Lying to Oneself Possible? The Dialetheism Reading of Sartre’s Bad Faith.Nahum Brown - 2023 - Kritike 17 (1):43-57.
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  12. Correction to: Can Başkent, Thomas Macaulay Ferguson (eds.), Graham Priest on Dialetheism and Paraconsistency, Springer International Publishing, Outstanding Contributions to Logic, Vol. 18, 2019, pp. 704+xi; ISBN 978-3-030-25367-7 (Softcover) 106.99 €, ISBN 978-3-030-25364-6 (Hardcover) 149.79 €. [REVIEW]Bożena Czernecka-Rej - 2023 - Studia Logica 111 (1):145-146.
    A Correction to this paper has been published: 10.1007/s11225-021-09980-z.
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  13. No cause for collapse.Dustin Gooßens & Andrew Tedder - 2023 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):1-19.
    We investigate a hitherto under-considered avenue of response for the logical pluralist to collapse worries. In particular, we note that standard forms of the collapse arguments seem to require significant order-theoretic assumptions, namely that the collection of admissible logics for the pluralist should be closed under meets and joins. We consider some reasons for rejecting this assumption, noting some prima facie plausible constraints on the class of admissible logics which would lead a pluralist admitting those logics to resist such closure (...)
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  14. Between the Void and Emptiness: Ontological Paradox and Spectres of Nihilism in Alain Badiou’s Being and Event_ and Graham Priest’s _One.Georgie Newson - 2023 - Open Philosophy 6 (1).
    In this study, I reconstruct and compare Alain Badiou’sBeing and Event(2005) and Graham Priest’sOne(2014), arguing that the ontologies pursued within the two texts are intriguingly analogous in a number of ways. Both Badiou and Priest are committed to thinking through classically ontological problems without denying the validity of the paradoxes they raise; both regard Plato’sParmenidesas an early and formative account of these paradoxes; both establish conclusions to the effect that unity – or “oneness” – is indeed a contradictory phenomenon; and (...)
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  15. Modest versus ultra-modest dialetheism.T. Parent - 2023 - Asian Journal of Philosophy 2 (2):1-17.
    Jc Beall is known for defending modest dialetheism; this is the view that there are dialetheia, but only in the form of “spandrels” arising otherwise reasonable semantic terminology (e.g., the Liar paradox). Beall also regards his view as modest in partaking of a deflationary view of truth, a view where ‘true’ is a device of disquotational inference which expresses no “substantive property.” Beall supports deflationism by an appeal to Ockham’s razor; however, the premise that ‘true’ is fundamentally disquotational is found (...)
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  16. On Transcending the Limits of Language.Graham Priest - 2023 - In Jens Pier (ed.), Limits of Intelligibility: Issues from Kant and Wittgenstein. Routledge.
    The first half of this article is critical: it develops an interpretation of Kant as trying, and failing, to limit our judgments to phenomena and abstain from making claims about noumena, and an interpretation of Wittgenstein as trying, and failing, to develop a theory of meaning that abstains from attempting to say the unsayable. On the reading offered, both Kant and Wittgenstein find themselves saying things that by their own lights cannot be said: in Kant’s case, claims about noumena, and (...)
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  17. Paradox and Contradiction in Theology.Jonathan Rutledge (ed.) - 2023 - New York, NY: Routledge Academic.
    This book explores and expounds upon questions of paradox and contradiction in theology with an emphasis on recent contributions from analytic philosophical theology. It addresses questions such as: What is the place of paradox in theology? Where might different systems of logic (e.g., paraconsistent ones) find a place in theological discourse (e.g., Christology)? What are proper responses to the presence of contradiction(s) in one's theological theories? Are appeals to analogical language enough to make sense of paradox? Bringing together an impressive (...)
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  18. Dialetheism in Deleuze's event.Corry Shores - 2023 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 61 (4):638-654.
    Deleuze never explicitly formulates his philosophy of logical truth‐values. It thus remains an open question as to the number and types he held there to be. Despite his explicit comments on these matters, additional textual evidence suggests that in his thinking on the event, he favored a third truth‐value, holding either the analetheic view that some truth‐bearers can be truth‐valueless or the dialetheic view that some truth‐bearers can be both true and false. I first argue that taking a logical approach (...)
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  19. Buddhist Shipping Containers.Koji Tanaka - 2023 - In Christian Coseru (ed.), Reasons and Empty Persons: Mind, Metaphysics, and Morality: Essays in Honor of Mark Siderits. Springer. pp. 295-305.
    In his book review of Graham Priest's The Fifth Corner of Four, Mark Siderits, while criticising Priest's philology, suggests that Priest's work is 'of considerable interest' for two reasons. First, 'when two independent traditions use similar methods to work on similar issues, it is always possible that one may have hit on approaches that the other missed'. Second, 'the decentering that can be induced by looking at another tradition may trigger fresh insights, even if those insights are not ones that (...)
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  20. Against Classical Paraconsistent Metatheory.Koji Tanaka & Patrick Girard - 2023 - Analysis 83 (2):285-294.
    There was a time when 'logic' just meant classical logic. The climate is slowly changing and non-classical logic cannot be dismissed off-hand. However, a metatheory used to study the properties of non-classical logic is often classical. In this paper, we will argue that this practice of relying on classical metatheories is problematic. In particular, we will show that it is a bad practice because the metatheory that is used to study a non-classical logic often rules out the very logic it (...)
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  21. Islamic Mystical Dialetheism: Resolving the Paradox of God’s Unknowability and Ineffability.Abbas Ahsan - 2022 - Philosophia 50 (3):925-964.
    Dialetheism is the view that some contradictions are true. Resorting to either metaphysical dialetheism or semantic dialetheism may seem like an appropriate resolve to certain theological contradictions. At least for those who concede to theological contradictions, and take dialetheism seriously. However, I demonstrate that neither of these types of dialetheism would serve to be amenable in resolving an Islamic theological contradiction. This is a theological contradiction that I refer to as ‘the paradox of an unknowable and ineffable God’. As a (...)
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  22. Bad Concepts, Bilateral Contents.Michael Deigan - 2022 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 8:595-614.
    I argue that one need not be an inferentialist in order to model inconsistent concepts, contrary to what some have thought. Representationalists can do so by adopting a form of bilateralism about contents. It remains unclear, however, why conceptual inconsistency would constitute a defect to be eliminated, rather than a vindication of dialetheism to be embraced. I suggest some answers to explore that involve accepting a descriptive form of dialetheism but denying its normative forms.
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  23. Further Reflections on Quasi-factivism: A Reply to Baumann.Michael J. Shaffer - 2022 - Logos and Episteme 13 (2):207-215.
    This paper is a response to Baumann's comments on "Can Knowledge Really be Non-fative?" In this paper Baumann's suggestions for how those who deny the factivty of knowledge might deal with the argument from inconsistency and explosion are addressed.
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  24. Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. [REVIEW]Koji Tanaka - 2022 - Mind 131 (521):292-301.
    Book Review of Impossible Worlds, by Francesco Berto and Mark Jago. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
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  25. Semantics for Pure Theories of Connexive Implication.Yale Weiss - 2022 - Review of Symbolic Logic 15 (3):591-606.
    In this article, I provide Urquhart-style semilattice semantics for three connexive logics in an implication-negation language (I call these “pure theories of connexive implication”). The systems semantically characterized include the implication-negation fragment of a connexive logic of Wansing, a relevant connexive logic recently developed proof-theoretically by Francez, and an intermediate system that is novel to this article. Simple proofs of soundness and completeness are given and the semantics is used to establish various facts about the systems (e.g., that two of (...)
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  26. Islamic Contradictory Theology . . . Is there any such Thing?Abbas Ahsan - 2021 - Logica Universalis 15 (2).
    The application of paraconsistent logics to theological contradictions is a fascinating move. Jc Beall’s (J Anal Theol, 7(1): 400–439, 2019) paper entitled ‘Christ—A Contradiction: A Defense of ‘Contradictory Christology’ is a notable example. Beall proposes a solution to the fundamental problem of Christology. His solution aims at making the case, and defending the viability of, what he has termed, ‘Contradictory Christology’. There are at least two essential components of Beall’s ‘Contradictory Christology’. These include the dogmatic statements of Chalcedon and FDE (...)
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  27. Conciliatory strategies in philosophy.Axel Arturo Barceló Aspeitia - 2021 - Philosophy Compass 17 (1):e12809.
    In philosophy, as in any other theoretical endeavor, it is not rare to find conflicting but equally well grounded positions. Besides defending one of the positions and criticizing the other, philosophers can opt for pursuing other, more sophisticated, approaches aimed at incorporating the insights, intuitions, and arguments from both sides of the debate into a unified theory: Dialetheism, Analetheism, Gradualism, Pluralism and Relativism. The purpose of this article is to present each strategy's basic argumentative structure, relative strengths, and challenges, trying (...)
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  28. Ai confini della contraddizione: Tommaso d'Aquino, Florenskij e Severino.Giuseppe Barzaghi (ed.) - 2021 - Savona: Insedicesimo.
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  29. Dialetheism and Modus Tollens.Ben Blumson & Theresa Helke - 2021 - The Reasoner 15 (4):30.
    Suppose that some contradictions are true – for example, that as I walk through the door, I’m inside and I’m not inside. Then we argue 'if I'm walking through the door, I'm inside; I'm not inside; therefore, I'm not walking through the door' is an invalid instance of modus tollens.
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  30. Rational Belief and Dialetheism.Paolo Bonardi - 2021 - Intercultural Pragmatics 18 (Pragmatics and Philosophy):309-335.
    It is usually maintained that a subject with manifestly contradictory beliefs is irrational. How can we account, then, for the intuitive rationality of dialetheists, who believe that some manifest contradictions are true? My paper aims to answer this question. Its ultimate goal is to determine a characterization of (or rather a constraint for) rational belief approvable by both the theorists of Dialetheism and its opponents. In order to achieve this goal, a two-step strategy will be adopted. First, a characterization of (...)
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  31. Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom: Exploring a Glut-theoretic Account.Mike DeVito - 2021 - Religions 12 (9).
    This essay marks the first steps towards a viable glut-theoretic (contradictory) solution to the longstanding foreknowledge and free will dilemma. Specifically, I offer a solution to the dilemma that accommodates omniscience (foreknowledge) and human freedom (as the ability to do otherwise) in a simple, flat-footed way. This goal is accomplished via viewing the theological fatalist argument not as a problem, but as a sound argument: omniscience and human free will are contradictory and by dropping to a weaker underlying account of (...)
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  32. The Birth of Dialetheism.Elena Ficara - 2021 - History and Philosophy of Logic 42 (3):281-296.
    The aim of this paper is to lay bare the roots of dialetheism in discussions about dialectics and dialectical logic at the time of the first development of paraconsistent logics. In other words, th...
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  33. Sul Dialeteismo. Lezioni Padovane di Graham Priest Ed Altri Saggi Su L Dialeteismo.Filippo Mancini & Massimiliano Carrara - 2021 - Padua, Province of Padua, Italy: Padova University Press.
    Per il dialeteismo ci sono contraddizioni vere. Questa concezione filosofica ha assunto una forma chiara e definita a partire dal lavoro del filosofo e logico Graham Priest – uno dei suoi padri fondatori, nonché uno dei suoi più strenui difensori. Questo libro intende portare il dialeteismo all’attenzione di un ampio pubblico, che non sia solo quello degli addetti ai lavori. Il volume è suddiviso in due parti. La prima include le cinque lezioni su "Dialeteismo e storia della filosofia" tenute da (...)
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  34. Relevance Domains and the Philosophy of Science.Edwin Mares - 2021 - In Ofer Arieli & Anna Zamansky (eds.), Arnon Avron on Semantics and Proof Theory of Non-Classical Logics. Springer Verlag. pp. 223-247.
    This paper uses Avron’s algebraic semantics for the logic RMI to model some ideas in the philosophy of science. Avron’s relevant disjunctive structures are each partitioned into relevance domains. Each relevance domain is a boolean algebra. I employ this semantics to act as a formal framework to represent what Nancy Cartwright calls the “dappled world”. On the dappled world hypothesis, local scientific theories each represent restricted aspects and regions of the universe. I use relevance domains to represent the domains of (...)
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  35. Inclosure and Intolerance.Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini - 2021 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 62 (2):201-220.
    Graham Priest has influentially claimed that the Sorites paradox is an Inclosure paradox, concluding that his favored dialetheic solution to the Inclosure paradoxes should be extended to the Sorites paradox. We argue that, given Priest’s dialetheic solution to the Sorites paradox, the argument purporting to show that that paradox is an Inclosure is unsound, and discuss some issues surrounding this fact.
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  36. L'ontologia della logica immaginaria. Aristotele e Vasil'ev a confronto.Niccolò Rossi - 2021 - Verifiche: Rivista Trimestrale di Scienze Umane 50 (1):147-176.
    The aim of this paper is to show how the invention of imaginary logic by Nikolaj A. Vasil’ev, forerunner of various logical and metaphysical theories appeared in the 20th century, is grounded on a revaluation of Aristotelian ontology. I shall introduce the reason why Aristotle believes that the study of the principle of contradiction is part of ontology (§ 2); I shall explain why Vasil’ev considers the law of contradiction an empirical law, and not a logical one (§ 3.1). I (...)
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  37. Mathematical Perspectives on Liar Paradoxes.José-Luis Usó-Doménech, Josué-Antonio Nescolarde-Selva, Lorena Segura-Abad, Kristian Alonso-Stenberg & Hugh Gash - 2021 - Logica Universalis 15 (3):251-269.
    The liar paradox is a famous and ancient paradox related to logic and philosophy. It shows it is perfectly possible to construct sentences that are correct grammatically and semantically but that cannot be true or false in the traditional sense. In this paper the authors show four approaches to interpreting paradoxes that illustrate the influence of: the levels of language, their belonging to indeterminate compatible propositions or indeterminate propositions, being based on universal antinomy and the theory of dialetheism.
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  38. The proper treatment of identity in dialetheic metaphysics.Nicholas K. Jones - 2020 - The Philosophical Quarterly 70 (278):65-92.
    According to one prominent strand of mainstream logic and metaphysics, identity is indistinguishability. Priest has recently argued that this permits counterexamples to the transitivity and substitutivity of identity within dialetheic metaphysics, even in paradigmatically extensional contexts. This paper investigates two alternative regimentations of indistinguishability. Although classically equivalent to the standard regimentation on which Priest focuses, these alternatives are strictly stronger than it in dialetheic settings. Both regimentations are transitive, and one satisfies substitutivity. It is argued that both regimentations provide better (...)
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  39. Friedrich Engels: Emergenz und Dialektik.Kaan Kangal - 2020 - Widerspruch 70:43-56.
  40. Über Poppers Forderung nach Widerspruchlosigkeit.Luis Felipe Bartolo Alegre - 2019 - Felsefe Arkivi 51:31-36.
    Popper restricted his definition of falsifiability to consistent theories through what we may call his requirement of consistency. His main argument was that an inconsistent theory does not distinguish the sentences that corroborate it from those that contradict it, for all sentences follow from it. I propose to replace this requirement by the more basic requirement that the classes of potential corroborators and falsifiers of a theory do not overlap. This results not only in an unrestricted definition of falsifiability but (...)
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  41. Logical Revision by Counterexamples: A Case Study of the Paraconsistent Counterexample to Ex Contradictione Quodlibet.Seungrak Choi - 2019 - In Byunghan Kim, Jörg Brendle, Gyesik Lee, Fenrong Liu, R. Ramanujam, Shashi M. Srivastava, Akito Tsuboi & Liang Yu (eds.), Proceedings of the 14th and 15th Asian Logic Conferences. World Scientific Publishing Company. pp. 141-167.
    It is often said that a correct logical system should have no counterexample to its logical rules and the system must be revised if its rules have a counterexample. If a logical system (or theory) has a counterexample to its logical rules, do we have to revise the system? In this paper, focussing on the role of counterexamples to logical rules, we deal with the question. -/- We investigate two mutually exclusive theories of arithmetic - intuitionistic and paraconsistent theories. The (...)
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  42. Aristotle’s Argument from Truth in Metaphysics Γ 4.Graham Clay - 2019 - Analysis 79 (1):17-24.
    Some of Aristotle’s statements about the indemonstrability of the Principle of Non-Contradiction (PNC) in Metaphysics Γ 4 merit more attention. The consensus seems to be that Aristotle provides two arguments against the demonstrability of the PNC, with one located in Γ 3 and the other found in the first paragraph of Γ 4. In this article, I argue that Aristotle also relies upon a third argument for the same conclusion: the argument from truth. Although Aristotle does not explicitly state this (...)
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  43. From Iff to Is: Some New Thoughts on Identity in Relevant Logics.Edwin Mares - 2019 - In Can Başkent & Thomas Macaulay Ferguson (eds.), Graham Priest on Dialetheism and Paraconsistency. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag. pp. 343-363.
    In this paper, I set out a semantics for identity in relevant logic that is based on an analogy between the biconditional and identity. This analogy supports the semantics that Priest has set out for identity in basic relevant logic and it motivates a version of the Routley–Meyer semantics in which identities can be viewed as constraints on the ternary relation that is used to treat implication.
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  44. Searching for Deep Disagreement in Logic: The Case of Dialetheism.Ben Martin - 2019 - Topoi 40 (5):1127-1138.
    According to Fogelin’s account of deep disagreements, disputes caused by a clash in framework propositions are necessarily rationally irresolvable. Fogelin’s thesis is a claim about real-life, and not purely hypothetical, arguments: there are such disagreements, and they are incapable of rational resolution. Surprisingly then, few attempts have been made to find such disputes in order to test Fogelin’s thesis. This paper aims to rectify that failure. Firstly, it clarifies Fogelin’s concept of deep disagreement and shows there are several different breeds (...)
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  45. Dialetheism and the Sorites paradox.Graham Priest - 2019 - In Sergi Oms & Elia Zardini (eds.), The Sorites Paradox. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
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  46. Замечания о невозможности, неполноте Paraconsistency, Нерешающость, Случайность вычислительности, парадокс, и неопределенность в Чайтин, Витгенштейн, Хофштадтер Вольперт, Дориа, да Коста, Годель, Сирл, Родыч Берто, Флойд, Мойал-Шаррок и Янофски.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Принято считать, что невозможность, неполнота, Парапоследовательность, Несоответствие, Случайность, вычислительность, парадокс, неопределенность и пределы разума являются разрозненными научными физическими или математическими вопросами, имеющими мало или ничего общего. Я полагаю, что они в значительной степени стандартные философские проблемы (т.е. языковые игры), которые были в основном решены Витгенштейном более 80 лет назад. -/- Я предоставляю краткое резюме некоторых из основных выводов двух из самых выдающихся студентов поведения о Fсовременности, Людвиг Витгенштейн и Джон Сирл, на логическую структуру преднамеренности (ум, язык, поведение), принимая в качестве (...)
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  47. ملاحظات على استحالة, عدم اكتمال, بارااتساق,عدم تحديد, عشوائية, الحوسبة, مفارقة, وعدم اليقين في Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, دوريا, دا كوستا, جوديل, سيرل, روديش, بيرتو, فلويد, مويال شاروك ويانوفسكي.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    ويعتقد عادة أن الاستحالة، وعدم اكتمال، وParaconsistency، وعدم تحديد، العشوائية، والحوسبة، والمفارقة، وعدم اليقين وحدود العقل هي قضايا علمية مادية أو رياضية متباينة وجود القليل أو لا شيء في المشتركه. أقترح أنها مشاكل فلسفية قياسية إلى حد كبير (أي ألعاب اللغة) التي تم حلها في الغالب من قبل فيتغنشتاين أكثر من 80years منذ. -/- "إن ما نميل إلى قوله في مثل هذه الحالة هو، بطبيعة الحال، ليس فلسفة، ولكنه مادة خام. وهكذا، على سبيل المثال، ما يميل عالم الرياضيات إلى قوله (...)
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  48. ¿Qué significa paraconsistente, indescifrable, aleatorio, computable e incompleto? Una revisión de la Manera de Godel: explota en un mundo indecible (Godel’s Way: exploits into an undecidable world) por Gregory Chaitin, Francisco A Doria, Newton C.A. da Costa 160P (2012) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In OBSERVACIONES SOBRE IMPOSIBILIDAD, INCOMPLETA, PARACOHERENCIA,INDECISIÓN,ALEATORIEDAD, COMPUTABILIDAD, PARADOJA E INCERTIDUMBRE EN CHAITIN, WITTGENSTEIN, HOFSTADTER, WOLPERT, DORIA, DACOSTA, GODEL, SEARLE, RODYCH, BERTO,FLOYD, MOYAL-SHARROCK Y YANOFSKY. Reality Press. pp. 44-63.
    En ' Godel’s Way ', tres eminentes científicos discuten temas como la indecisión, la incompleta, la aleatoriedad, la computabilidad y la paraconsistencia. Me acerco a estas cuestiones desde el punto de vista de Wittgensteinian de que hay dos cuestiones básicas que tienen soluciones completamente diferentes. Existen las cuestiones científicas o empíricas, que son hechos sobre el mundo que necesitan ser investigados observacionalmente y cuestiones filosóficas en cuanto a cómo el lenguaje se puede utilizar inteligiblemente (que incluyen ciertas preguntas en matemáticas (...)
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  49. Reseña de ‘Wittgenstein's Metaphilosophy’ de Paul Horwich 248p (2013) (revisión revisada 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Delirios Utópicos Suicidas en el Siglo 21 La filosofía, la naturaleza humana y el colapso de la civilización Artículos y reseñas 2006-2019 4TH Edición. Reality Press. pp. 145-167.
    The first group of articles attempt to give some insight into how we behave that is reasonably free of theoretical delusions. In the next three groups I comment on three of the principal delusions preventing a sustainable world— technology, religion and politics (cooperative groups). People believe that society can be saved by them, so I provide some suggestions in the rest of the book as to why this is unlikely via short articles and reviews of recent books by well-known writers. (...)
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  50. Priest’s Anti-Exceptionalism, Candrakīrti and Paraconsistency.Koji Tanaka - 2019 - In Can Başkent & Thomas Macaulay Ferguson (eds.), Graham Priest on Dialetheism and Paraconsistency. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Verlag. pp. 127-138.
    Priest holds anti-exceptionalism about logic. That is, he holds that logic, as a theory, does not have any exceptional status in relation to the theories of empirical sciences. Crucial to Priest’s anti-exceptionalism is the existence of ‘data’ that can force the revision of logical theory. He claims that classical logic is inadequate to the available data and, thus, needs to be revised. But what kind of data can overturn classical logic? Priest claims that the data is our intuitions about the (...)
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