Results for 'PSR'

68 found
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  1.  50
    Do Identity and Distinctness Facts Threaten the PSR?Erica Shumener - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-19.
    One conception of the Principle of Sufficient Reason maintains that every fact is metaphysically explained. There are different ways to challenge this version of the PSR; one (...)
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  2. PSR.Michael Della Rocca - 2010 - Philosophers' Imprint 10.
    This paper presents an argument for the Principle of Sufficient Reason, the PSR, the principle according to which each thing that exists has an explanation. I begin (...)
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  3. Ontologically Significant Aggregation: Process Structural Realism (PSR).Joseph E. Earley - 2008 - In Weber (ed.), Handbook of Whiteheadian Process Thought. De Gruyter. pp. 2--179.
    Combinations of molecules, of biological individuals, or of chemical processes can produce effects that are not simply attributable to the constituents. Such non-redundant causality warrants recognition (...)of those coherences as ontologically significant whenever that efficacy is relevant. With respect to such interaction, the effective coherence is more real than are the components. This ontological view is a variety of structural realism and is also a kind of process philosophy. The designationprocess structural realism’ (PSR) seems appropriate. (shrink)
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  4.  40
    Omniscience, Weak PSR, and Method.John F. Post - 2003 - Philo 6 (1):33-48.
    Adhering to the traditional concept of omniscience lands Gale in the incoherence Grims Cantorian arguments reveal in talk ofall propositions.” By constructing variants and extensions (...)of Grims arguments, I explain why various ways out of the incoherence are unacceptable, why theists would do better to adopt a certain revisionary concept of omniscience, and why the Cantorian troubles are so deep as to be troubles as well for Gales Weak PSR. I conclude with some brief reflections on method, suggesting that we pursue the full implications of Gales own revisionary remarks and replace his method of analytic argumentation with non-analytic revisionary theory-construction. (shrink)
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  5.  47
    Spinoza's PSR as a Principle of Clear and Distinct Representation.Daniel Schneider - 2014 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (1):109-129.
    It is argued first, that Spinoza's Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) is best seen as an auxiliary premise and not as an axiom of the Ethics; (...)second, that Spinoza held the PSR to be a self-evident truth that indicates a necessary condition for clearly and distinctly representing the existence or non-existence of a thing; and third, that this interpretation of Spinoza's PSR explains the near absence of the PSR within the demonstrations of the Ethics as well as the importance of the principle in Spinoza's thought. (shrink)
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  6. PSR and Probabilities.Alexander Pruss - 2017 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 10.
     
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  7. Psr.M. D. Rocca - 2010 - Philosophers' Imprint 10.
     
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  8. Spinoza and the Problem of Other Substances.Galen Barry - 2019 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 49 (4):481-507.
    ABSTRACTMost of Spinozas arguments for Gods existence do not rely on any special feature of God, but instead on merely general features of substance. This raises (...) the following worry: those arguments prove the existence of non-divine substances just as much as they prove Gods existence, and yet there is not enough room in Spinozas system for all these substances. I argue that Spinoza attempts to solve this problem by using a principle of plenitude to rule out the existence of other substances and that the principle cannot be derived from the PSR, as many claim.Abbreviation: PSR: Principle of Sufficient Reason. (shrink)
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  9. Alexander Baumgarten on the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Courtney D. Fugate - 2014 - Philosophica -- Revista Do Departamento de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras de Lisboa 44.
    This paper defends the Principle of Sufficient Reason, taking Baumgarten as its guide. The primary aim is not to vindicate the principle, but rather to explore the (...)
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  10.  78
    Kants Regulative Spinozism.Omri Boehm - 2012 - Kant-Studien 103 (3):292-317.
    : The question of Kants relation to Spinozist thought has been virtually ignored over the years. I analyze Kants pre-criticalpossibility-proofof Gods existence, (...)elaborated in the Beweisgrund, as well as the echoes that this proof has in the first Critique, in beginning to uncover the connection between Kants thought and Spinozas. Kants espousal of the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR] for the analysis of modality during the pre-critical period committed him, I argue, to Spinozist substance monism. Much textual evidence suggests that he was aware of this commitment. However, by transforming the PSR into a regulative principle the critical Kant has transformed his pre-critical proof into a regulative ideal. He is thereby committed, I argue, to regulative Spinozism. (shrink)
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  11.  74
    Universal Gravitation and the (Un)Intelligibility of Natural Philosophy.Matias Slavov - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (1):129-157.
    This article centers on Humes position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. To that end, the controversy surrounding universal gravitation shall be scrutinized. It is very (...)well-known that Hume sides with the Newtonian experimentalist approach rather than with the Leibnizian demand for intelligibility. However, what is not clear is Humes overall position on the intelligibility of natural philosophy. It shall be argued that Hume declines Leibnizs principle of intelligibility. However, Hume does not eschew intelligibility altogether; his concept of causation itself stipulates mechanical intelligibility. (shrink)
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  12. Nick Stang on Omri Boehm's "Kant's Critique of Spinoza". [REVIEW]Nicholas Stang - 2017 - Critique 2017:N/A.
  13.  76
    Reply to Yenter: Spinoza, Number, and Diversity.Galen Barry - 2016 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):365-374.
  14. Possibilities That Matter II: Material Contingency and Sufficient Reason.Steven M. Duncan - manuscript
    This is the second of a series of papers inspired by a paper I wrote around 1989. In this paper, I consider the notion of material contingency (...)
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  15. The Metaphysics of Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2010 - In Yitzhak Melamed (ed.), Spinoza's Theological Political Treatise: A Critical Guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  16.  9
    Kant, Hume, and the Interruption of Dogmatic Slumber.Abraham Anderson - 2020 - New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
    Kant, Hume, and the Interruption of Dogmatic Slumber offers an interpretation of Kantsconfession,” in the Prolegomena, thatit was the objection of David Hume that (...)first, many years ago, interrupted my dogmatic slumber.” It argues that Hume roused Kant not, as has often been thought, by challenging the principleevery event has a causethat governs experience, but by attacking the principle of sufficient reason, the basis of rationalist metaphysics and of the cosmological proof of the existence of God. This proposal makes it possible to reconcile Kants declaration about Hume with his later assertion that it was the Antinomy of pure reason that first woke him from dogmatic slumber, because the Antinomy, like Humes challenge, is directed against the dogmatic use of the principle of sufficient reason. The proposal put forward here also makes it possible to understand why Kant speaks ofthe objection of David Humeafter mentioning Humes attack on metaphysics; for theobjectionthat Kant has in mind, it is argued here, is a challenge to metaphysics, rather than to the foundations of empirical knowledge. (shrink)
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  17.  51
    Kant and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Huaping Lu-Adler - forthcoming - Review of Metaphysics.
    Leibniz, and many following him, saw the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) as pivotal to a scientific (demonstrated) metaphysics. Against this backdrop, Kant is expected to pay (...)
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  18.  91
    Principle of Sufficient Reason.Fatema Amijee - 2020 - In Michael J. Raven (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaphysical Grounding. New York: Routledge. pp. 63-75.
    According to the Principle of Sufficient Reason (henceforthPSR’), everything has an explanation or sufficient reason. This paper addresses three questions. First, how continuous is the contemporary (...)
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  19.  23
    Spinoza.Michael Della Rocca - 2008 - New York: Routlege.
    Spinoza ' s understanding and understanding Spinoza -- Spinoza ' s understanding -- Understanding Spinoza -- The metaphysics of substance -- Descartes and substance -- Spinoza contra Descartes on substance -- Modes -- (...)
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  20.  45
    On Some Leibnizian Arguments for the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Stephen Harrop - forthcoming - History of Philosophy Quarterly.
    Leibniz often refers to the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) as something like a first principle. In some texts, however, he attempts to give positive arguments in (...)
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  21. Rationalism and Necessitarianism.Martin Lin - 2012 - Noûs 46 (3):418-448.
    Metaphysical rationalism, the doctrine which affirms the Principle of Sufficient Reason (the PSR), is out of favor today. The best argument against it is that it appears (...)
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  22.  61
    Skepticism and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Robert C. Koons & Alexander R. Pruss - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-21.
    The Principle of Sufficient Reason must be justified dialectically: by showing the disastrous consequences of denying it. We formulate a version of the Principle that is restricted (...)
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  23. A Universe of Explanations.Ghislain Guigon - 2015 - In Karen Bennett & Dean W. Zimmerman (eds.), Oxford Studies in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 345-375.
    This article defends the principle of sufficient reason (PSR) from a simple and direct valid argument according to which PSR implies that there is a truth that (...)
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  24. The Principle of Sufficient Reason: A Reassessment.Alexander R. Pruss - 2006 - Cambridge University Press.
    The Principle of Sufficient Reason says that all contingent facts must have explanation. In this 2006 volume, which was the first on the topic in the English (...)
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  25.  72
    Attitudes Toward Epistemic Risk and the Value of Experiments.Don Fallis - 2007 - Studia Logica 86 (2):215-246.
    Several different Bayesian models of epistemic utilities (see, e. g., [37], [24], [40], [46]) have been used to explain why it is rational for scientists to perform (...)
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  26.  20
    From theism to idealism to monism: a Leibnizian road not taken.Samuel Newlands - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-20.
    This paper explores a PSR-connected trail leading from theistic idealism to a form of substance monism. In particular, I argue that the same style of argument (...)available for a Leibnizian form of metaphysical idealism actually leads beyond idealism to something closer to Spinozistic monism. This path begins with a set of theological commitments about the nature and perfection of God that were widely shared among leading early modern philosophers. From these commitments, there arises an interesting case for metaphysical idealism, roughly the thesis that only minds and mind-dependent states actually exist. However, I contend, that same theistic reasoning also leads to an idealist form of substance monism, the view that God is the only actual substance and that almost everything else is merely an intentional object in Gods mind. (shrink)
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  27.  19
    Tamers, Deniers, and Me.Michael Della Rocca - forthcoming - Philosophical Studies:1-19.
    This paper critically examines a prominent and perennial strategyfound in thinkers as diverse as Kant and Shamik Dasguptaof simultaneously embracing the Principle of Sufficient Reason and (...) also limiting it so as to avoid certain apparently negative consequences of an unrestricted PSR. I will argue that this strategy of taming the PSR faces significant challenges and may even be incoherent. And for my purposes, I will enlist a generally derided argument by Leibniz for the PSR which will help us to see the connections between the PSR and a radical form of monism. (shrink)
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  28. The Paradox of Sufficient Reason.Samuel Levey - 2016 - Philosophical Review Recent Issues 125 (3):397-430.
    It can be shown by means of a paradox that, given the Principle of Sufficient Reason, there is no conjunction of all contingent truths. The question is, (...)
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  29. The Principle of Sufficient Reason and Necessitarianism.Kris McDaniel - 2019 - Analysis 79 (2):230-236.
    Peter van Inwagen presented a powerful argument against the Principle of Sufficient Reason, which I henceforth abbreviate asPSR’. For decades, the consensus was that this argument (...)
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  30. The Sirens of Elea: Rationalism, Monism and Idealism in Spinoza.Yitzhak Melamed - 2012 - In Antonia Lolordo & Duncan Stewart (eds.), Debates in Early Modern Philosophy. Blackwell.
    The main thesis of Michael Della Roccas outstanding Spinoza book (Della Rocca 2008a) is that at the very center of Spinozas philosophy stands the Principle of (...) Sufficient Reason (PSR): the stipulation that everything must be explainable or, in other words, the rejection of any brute facts. Della Rocca rightly ascribes to Spinoza a strong version of the PSR. It is not only that the actual existence and features of all things must be explicable, but even the inexistenceas well as the absence of any feature of any thingdemands an explanation. Della Rocca does not stop here, however. He feeds his PSR monster with some more powerful steroids and suggests that Spinoza advocates what he termsthe twofold use of the PSR.” It is not only that everything must be explained and made intelligible, but it must ultimately be explained in terms of explainability or intelligibility itself. This twofold use of the PSR is the key to the entire book. Della Rocas strategy throughout the book is to argue that any key feature of Spinozas systembe it causality, inherence, essence, consciousness, existence, rejection of teleology, goodness or political rightmust be explained, and ultimately it must be explained in terms of intelligibility. “Spinoza single-mindedly digs and digs until we find that the phenomenon in question is nothing but some form of intelligibility itself, of explicability itself” (Della Rocca 2008a: 2). Della Roccas book came out together with a cluster of articles in which he develops in detail his new reading of Spinoza. In one of these articles, he warns the reader: “Dont let me start” (Dell Rocca 2010: 1). The train that is about to embark leads to very bizarre terrain, and thus one should think twice before embarking on thePSR Express.” In this paper I argue that the train was hijacked. This was a perfect crime: without anyone noticing it, the engine driver diverted the train to a new route, and as with other perfect crimes, it is none but the criminal himself who is capable of, and indeed will, bring about his own demise. As I will later argue, Della RoccasPSR-on-steroidswill eventually cripple reason itself. But let us not run too fast, and start at the very beginning. I happilyor at least, so I think - board thePSR Express.” I believe Spinoza is strongly committed to the PSR and makes very significant use of this principle, but, unlike Della Rocca, I do not think the PSR is the key to all mysteries Spinozist, nor do I believe Spinoza was committed to the reductionist program of explaining all things through intelligibility (i.e., the second use of the PSR). (shrink)
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  31.  47
    Without Reason?Benjamin Schnieder & Alex Steinberg - 2016 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 97 (4):523-541.
    The argument for modal collapse is partly responsible for the widespread rejection of the so-called Principle of Sufficient Reason in recent times. This paper discusses the (...)PSR against the background of the recent debate about grounding and develops principled reasons for rejecting the argument from modal collapse. (shrink)
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  32. Without Reason?Benjamin Schnieder & Alex Steinberg - 2015 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 96 (3).
    The argument for modal collapse is partly responsible for the widespread rejection of the so-called Principle of Sufficient Reason in recent times. This paper discusses the (...)PSR against the background of the recent debate about grounding and develops principled reasons for rejecting the argument from modal collapse. (shrink)
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  33.  25
    Ethical Climate and Purchasing Social Responsibility: A Benevolence Focus[REVIEW]Constantin Blome & Antony Paulraj - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):567-585.
    Using a sample of multinational firms in Germany, we develop and empirically examine a model to test the effects of ethical climate and its antecedents on purchasing (...)
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  34. Reasoning Without the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Shieva Kleinschmidt - 2013 - In Tyron Goldschmidt (ed.), The Philosophy of Existence: Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing? Routledge. pp. 64-79.
    According to Principles of Sufficient Reason, every truth (in some relevant group) has an explanation. One of the most popular defenses of Principles of Sufficient Reason has (...)
     
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  35.  70
    Spinoza on Inherence, Causation, and Conception.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (3):365-386.
    Spinozas philosophy is bold and rich in challenges to ourcommon-sense intuitions”, and insofar as it provides powerful arguments to motivate these challenges, I believe that (...) we cannot ask for more. Bold and well-argued philosophy has the indispensable virtue of being able to unsettle and try us, to move us to reconsider what seems natural and obvious, and possibly even to change our most basic beliefs. Indeed, for those who seek to testrather than confirm - their old and well-fortified intuitions, Spinoza is nothing short of a living spring. My deep support for rigorous, counter-intuitive philosophy notwithstanding, a considerable part of the current paper will be dedicated to an examination and critique of one of the boldest and most fascinating readings of Spinoza of the past few years. In his recent piece, “Rationalism Run Amok: Representation and the Reality of Emotions in Spinoza,” and in his outstanding new book, Michael Della Rocca suggests a strict identification of the relations of inherence, causation, and conception in Spinoza (Della Rocca develops this view partly in response to a position recently articulated by Don Garret). In order to see the striking implications of this claim, one need only realize that, according to Della Rocca, Spinoza holds that insofar as the sun is the (partial) cause of some states of the sunflower, the sunflower (partly) inheres in the sun. Furthermore, insofar as my great-great-grandparents caused me, I inhere in them (though we never co-existed at the same time). The mere oddity of Della Roccas claim will play only a limited role, if any, in my discussion below. Della Rocca provides important and interesting arguments to the effect that if we are to accept Spinozas radical version of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (henceforth, PSR), we should bite the bullet and accept the odd implications of Spinozas alleged view. While I have nothing but admiration for this willingness to read Spinoza in an allegedly consistent and uncompromising manner, I do think that Della Roccas argument that a strict endorsement of the PSR leads necessarily to the identification of the relations of inherence, causation and conception is wrong. I will argue that (1) Spinoza never endorsed this identity, and (2) that Della Roccas suggestion could not be considered as a legitimate reconstruction or friendly amendment to Spinozas system because it creates several severe and irresolvable problems in the system, and for that reason (and not because the threefold identity contravenes common sense) it should be rejected. In the rest of the paper I rely on my analysis of the relations of inherence, causation, and conception, and suggest a new interpretation of core issues in Spinozas metaphysics, and particularly of the conceived through and in another relations and the nature of the substance/modes opposition. Against Della Roccas claim that the bifurcation of efficient causation (into causation which is, and is not, accompanied by inherence) constitutes an illegitimate brute fact, I will argue that the bifurcation of causation in Spinoza is paralleled by a bifurcation of conception and that the two relations are grounded in the foundational bifurcation of existence into substance and modes. If we are to recognize the reality of modes in Spinoza, we must also acknowledge the bifurcations that result from the bifurcation of existence into substance and modes. (shrink)
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  36. Grounding the Principle of Sufficient Reason: Leibnizian Rationalism Versus the Humean Challenge.Brandon C. Look - 2011 - In Carlos Fraenkel, Dario Perinetti & Justin Smith (eds.), The Rationalists: Between Tradition and Revolution. Springer. pp. 201--219.
    This essay examines arguments offered in support of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) by Leibniz and his followers as well as Hume's critique of the (...)PSR. It is shown that Leibniz has a defensible argument for the PSR, whereas the arguments of his self-proclaimed followers are weak. Thus, Hume's challenge is met by Leibniz, by Wolff and Baumgarten not so much. (shrink)
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  37.  76
    Avicenna and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Kara Richardson - 2014 - Review of Metaphysics 67 (4):743-768.
    The termprinciple of sufficient reasonwas coined by Leibniz, and he is often regarded as its paradigmatic proponent. But as Leibniz himself often insisted, he was (...)
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  38.  66
    Interpreting Spinoza: The Real is the Rational.Michael Della Rocca - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (3):523-535.
    in his characteristically generous and searching discussion of my book, Spinoza, Daniel Garber rightly points out that I structure my interpretation of Spinozas system around the (...)principle of sufficient reason. This is the principle that, as I and others sometimes put it, each fact has an explanation and is thus not brute, or the principle that each thing has an explanation. Theorwill soon be important. Indeed, it might seem that I am too focused on the PSRcertainly I seem that way to Garber1for I seek to use the PSR to unlock any number of problems that interpreters of Spinoza have faced over the last three centuries. Garber does a great job of conveying the range of uses to which I put the PSR.. (shrink)
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  39. A Response to Oppy, and to Davey and Clifton.Richard M. Gale & Alexander R. Pruss - 2002 - Religious Studies 38 (1):89-99.
    Our paperA new cosmological argumentgave an argument for the existence of God making use of the weak Principle of Sufficient Reason (W-PSR) which states (...)that for every proposition p, if p is true, then it is possible that there is an explanation for p. Recently, Graham Oppy, as well as Kevin Davey and Rob Clifton, have criticized the argument. We reply to these criticisms. The most interesting kind of criticism in both papers alleges that the W-PSR can be justifiably denied by the atheist, and constitutes no improvement on the strong Principle of Sufficient Reason (S-PSR) which claims that every true proposition in fact has an explanation. The criticism is predicated on the fact that it can be shown that the W-PSR entails the S-PSR. We argue that the W-PSR's plausibility remains despite the criticisms. From this it can be seen to follow that the entailment relation between the W-PSR and the S-PSR gives one reason to believe the S-PSR. (shrink)
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  40.  66
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Purchasing and Supply Chain.Mohammad Salam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (2):355 - 370.
    The purpose of this study is to understand the drivers of social responsibility in purchasing (PSR). This study replicated and extended the range of empirical application of (...)
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  41. A Restricted Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Cosmological Argument.Alexander R. Pruss - 2004 - Religious Studies 40 (2):165-179.
    The Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) says that, necessarily, every contingently true proposition has an explanation. The PSR is the most controversial premise in the cosmological argument (...)
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  42.  12
    Retracted Article: Corporate Social Responsibility in Purchasing and Supply Chain[REVIEW]Mohammad Salam - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 85 (S2):355-370.
    The purpose of this study is to understand the drivers of social responsibility in purchasing (PSR). This study replicated and extended the range of empirical application of (...)
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  43.  2
    A Universe of Explanations.Ghislain Guigon - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 9.
    This chapter explores an objection to explanatory universalism, the doctrine that the principle of sufficient reason is true or everything has an explanation. This objection is a (...)
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  44.  23
    Nihil Sine Ratione À Blandior Ratio.Marcelo Dascal - unknown
    blandior ratio : C, 34). I will first survey how extensive, albeit usually overlooked, is Leibnizs concern with theseweakerforms of reasoning, and how crucial they (...)
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  45. Inherence, Causation, and Conceivability in Spinoza.Yitzhak Y. Melamed - 2012 - Journal of the History of Philosophy.
    In this paper I suggest a new interpretation of the relations of inherence, causation and conception in Spinoza. I discuss the views of Don Garrett on this (...)
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  46. A Pragmatic Case Against Pragmatic Scientific Realism.Wang-Yen Lee - 2007 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 38 (2):299-313.
    Pragmatic Scientific Realism (PSR) urges us to take up the realist aim or the goal of truth although we have good reason to think that the goal (...)
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  47. On the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Jacek Wojtysiak - 2007 - Polish Journal of Philosophy 1 (1):111-135.
    The aim of this paper is to defend the ontological Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR-O). I analyse various versions of this principle and various ways of (...)justifying it. Then I attempt to challenge some counterexamples allegedly refuting a universal application of the PSR-O. There are standard and non-standard versions of the PSR-O. The PSR-Ostand can only be valid if there are no chains of contingent reasons and outcomes with first modules, i.e. all chains are actually infinite. However, there are serious arguments against this possibility. The necessary condition of the PSR-Onon-stand is the existence of a necessary substance: that substance would be a direct reason of certain contingent states of affairs obtaining in its domain, and those states of affairs would then be indirect reasons for all other contingent states of affairs and things. There are two advantages of the PSR-Onon-stand: a nomological unity of the world and explanatory simplicity. (shrink)
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  48.  51
    The Principle of Sufficient Reason, the Ontological Argument and the Is/Ought Distinction.Omri Boehm - 2016 - European Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):556-579.
    Kant's attack on metaphysics consists in large part in his attack on a principle that he names the Supreme Principle of Pure Reason. This principle, it (...)is not often noticed, is the Principle of Sufficient Reason [PSR]. In interpreting this principle as such, I argue that Kant's attack on the PSR depends on Kant's claim that existence is not a first-order predicate. If existence isn't what Kant calls a real predicate, the PSR is false. While this constitutes a powerful Kantian argument against dogmatic rationalism, it also poses a problem for Kant. For, as I argue, if the PSR is true, Kant's argument that existence isn't a first-order predicate is false. In this sense, Kant's attack on the PSR is begging the question vis-á-vis radical metaphysicians. Concluding the paper I suggest relying on Kant's 'is'/'ought' distinction in avoiding this circularity, thereby reinforcing the Kantian critique. (shrink)
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  49. Process Structural Realism, Instance Ontology, and Societal Order.Joseph Earley - 2008 - In Franz Riffert and Hans-Joachim Sander (ed.), Rearching with Whitehead: System and Adventure. Berlin: Alber. pp. 190-211.
    Whiteheads cosmology centers on the self-creation of actual occasions that perish as they come to be, but somehow do combine to constitute societies that are persistent (...) agents and/or patients. “Instance Ontologydeveloped by D.W. Mertz concerns unification of relata into facts of relatedness by specific intensions. These two conceptual systems are similar in that they both avoid the substance-property distinction: they differ in their understanding of how basic units combine to constitute complex unities. “Process Structural Realism” (PSR) draws from both of these approaches in developing an account of how combinations of processes may produce ontologically significant coherences. When a group of processes achieves such closure that a set of states recurs continually, the effects of that coherence differ from what would occur in the absence of that closure. Such altered effectiveness is an attribute of the system as a whole, and would have consequences. This indicates that the network of processes, as a unit, has ontological significance. The closed network of processes, together with the conditions that prevail, constitute the form of definiteness of the coherence. That form continues to obtain as long as the coherence persists. Constituents contribute to, rather than share, that characteristic. Aspects of some recent research in systems biology, microeconomics, and social psychology illustrate the application of PSR. (shrink)
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    From a Metaphysical Point of View: Leibniz and the Principle of Sufficient Reason.Lois Frankel - 1986 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (3):321-334.
    The relation between leibniz's logical and his metaphysical views is the subject of much modern scholarship. Some commentators have argued that his metaphysics is based on (...)his logic; others have taken the opposite position. However, Both sides pose the question in terms of 'priority'. On the contrary, I argue that it is likely that leibniz means the psr to play "both" a logical and a metaphysical role. The ambiguity of leibniz's psr indicates that he equates the metaphysical notion of causation with the logical notion of deduction. The psr's ambiguity results less from any confusion on leibniz's part between the notions of cause and reason, Than from his desire to identify logic and metaphysics. That identity is achieved not by reducing one to the other, But by incorporating them on an equal basis into a single discipline. (shrink)
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