Idealism

Edited by A. P. Taylor (North Dakota State University)
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  1. added 2020-05-22
    Can the Berkeleyan Idealist Resist Spinozist Panpsychism?Graham Clay & Michael Rauschenbach - forthcoming - History of Philosophy and Logical Analysis:1-30.
    We argue that prevailing definitions of Berkeley’s idealism fail to rule out a nearby Spinozist rival view that we call ‘mind-body identity panpsychism.’ Since Berkeley certainly does not agree with Spinoza on this issue, we call for more care in defining Berkeley’s view. After we propose our own definition of Berkeley’s idealism, we survey two Berkeleyan strategies to block the mind-body identity panpsychist and establish his idealism. We argue that Berkeley should follow Leibniz and further develop his account of the (...)
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  2. added 2020-05-11
    Idealism and Illusions.Robert Smithson - forthcoming - European Journal of Philosophy.
    According to the idealist, facts about phenomenal experience determine facts about the physical world. Any such view must account for illusions: cases where there is a discrepancy between the physical world and our experiences of it. In this paper, I critique some recent idealist treatments of illusions before presenting my own preferred account. I then argue that, initial impressions notwithstanding, it is actually the realist who has difficulties properly accounting for illusions.
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  3. added 2020-05-01
    Two Routes to Idealism: Collier and Berkeley.David Bartha - forthcoming - British Journal for the History of Philosophy:1-23.
    In this paper, I raise and analyze two rarely discussed stories about the development of idealism in early modernity. I seek to show that Arthur Collier reaches the conclusion that the mind-indepen...
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  4. added 2020-05-01
    Between Descartes and Berkeley: A Forgotten Chapter in the History of the British Early-Modern Philosophy.Bartosz Żukowski - 2015 - Roczniki Filozoficzne 63 (1):101-115.
    The aim of this paper is to suggest how the internal logic and dynamics of the development of Cartesian philosophy can be reconstructed by means of the historical-theoretical analysis of one of the most forgotten lines of reception of Cartesianism, leading through the philosophy of British thinkers minorum gentium: Arthur Collier, John Norris, Richard Burthogge etc. Such analysis of the particular stages of the evolution of post-Cartesian thought – within one intellectual-cultural context, makes it possible to situate Berkeley’s system (considered (...)
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  5. added 2020-05-01
    Kant Und Das Problem des Metaphysischen Idealismus.Riccardo Pozzo - 2000 - Review of Metaphysics 53 (3):704-706.
    This book is a revised dissertation defended at Cologne in 1997 under the direction of Klaus Düsing. It concentrates on the problem of idealism, that is on the question whether anything exists besides ourselves. It is a question as old as philosophy itself and for this reason the author takes the approach of the “history of the problems”. It is, however, Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason which provides the axis around which this study rotates, because in it Kant succeeded in (...)
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  6. added 2020-05-01
    Robinson on Berkeley: “Bad Faith” or Naive Idealism?Neil Levi and Michael P. Levine - 1992 - Idealistic Studies 22 (2):163-178.
    Howard Robinson has argued that even if the major claims of Berkeleian idealism are mistaken, including its account of the “physical world,” “the overall endeavour of defending idealism is more plausible than it is generally believed to be”. He argues that aspects of Berkeley’s arguments for idealism, including a Berkeleian argument against naive realism, can be shown to refute the representative realist’s view of perception, and its concomitant ontology. This ontology is at least partially materialist. According to Robinson, once naive (...)
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  7. added 2020-05-01
    Idealism Past and Present. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series: 13, Supplement to Philosophy 1982.Thomas O. Buford - 1986 - Idealistic Studies 16 (2):153-153.
    Vesey has collected fifteen essays from Royal Institute of Philosophy lectures on idealism, particularly that of Berkeley, Kant, the Post-Kantians, and, it is claimed, of Wittgenstein. The result is the presentation of idealism as a philosophical viewpoint that is diverse and rooted deeply in Western philosophy. While this volume is not organized into sections, the contributors address such questions as: Did Plato, in Parmenides, lean toward the idealism that holds that the world is essentially structured by categories of thought? How (...)
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  8. added 2020-05-01
    Idealism Past and Present. Royal Institute of Philosophy Lecture Series: 13, Supplement to Philosophy 1982. [REVIEW]Thomas O. Buford - 1986 - Idealistic Studies 16 (2):153-153.
    Vesey has collected fifteen essays from Royal Institute of Philosophy lectures on idealism, particularly that of Berkeley, Kant, the Post-Kantians, and, it is claimed, of Wittgenstein. The result is the presentation of idealism as a philosophical viewpoint that is diverse and rooted deeply in Western philosophy. While this volume is not organized into sections, the contributors address such questions as: Did Plato, in Parmenides, lean toward the idealism that holds that the world is essentially structured by categories of thought? How (...)
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  9. added 2020-05-01
    Boundaries in Mind.Walter Wright - 1985 - Idealistic Studies 15 (2):169-170.
    Because idealism takes mind to be a fundamental reality, one would expect idealistically oriented philosophers to be especially alert to how mind actually occurs. However, like philosophers generally, most idealists study consciousness exclusively from the standpoint of focused and structured states of mind, using such cases as paradigmatic. Whether we examine Plato, Berkeley, Kant, Fichte, Husserl, or any other philosopher with idealistic tendencies, their accounts of mind take concepts like knowing, self, identity, and intentionality to be central. As a result, (...)
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  10. added 2020-05-01
    Idealism Past and Present.Jay Lampert - 1983 - Review of Metaphysics 36 (4):951-953.
    Vesey argues in his introduction that the history of idealism would be worth studying even if it turned out that there is no single sense of "idealism." Just to discover how the term "idea" has evolved in philosophical usage can elucidate the history of philosophy. The majority of the essays in this book focus on a single philosopher or school of philosophy, and so do not raise the problem of defining idealism in general. However, as each author develops a working (...)
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  11. added 2020-05-01
    In Defense of Idealism.T. C. Williams - 1980 - Idealistic Studies 10 (3):199-208.
    It would be generally accepted that G. E. Moore’s celebrated “Refutation of Idealism,” set forth at the turn of the century, constitutes the classic statement of modern realism. The seeming strengths of this position have been elaborated more recently by a notable realist proponent, Don Locke, who, following Moore, takes for granted what is, in effect, the basic assumption of the “Refutation”—the assumption, namely, that each and every variant of the idealist standpoint is embraced under the central Berkeleian contention that (...)
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  12. added 2020-05-01
    Indian Idealism and Modern Challenges. [REVIEW]M. J. - 1962 - Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):529-529.
    Seeks to show, from the development of Vedantic doctrine, and by comparison of it with Plato, Berkeley, Kant, Hegel, Bradley, and some contemporary western philosophic movements, that Indian idealism has attacked similar basic problems.--J. M.
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  13. added 2020-04-24
    Schlusslogische Letztbegründung. Festschrift für Kurt Walter Zeidler zum 65. Geburtstag.Lois Marie Rendl & Robert König (eds.) - 2020 - Berlin, Deutschland: Peter Lang.
    Schlusslogische Letztbegründung is a collection of essays in honor of Kurt Walter Zeidler. Mr. Zeidler is a distinguished Kant- and Neo-Kantian-scholar who has reconstructed Kant's concept of transcendental logic in connection with the logic of the concept of Hegel and the logic of symbolization of Peirce. (cf. Zeidler: Grundriss der transzendentalen Logik, 3rd ed., Wien 2017) He has most notably inquired intensively into the relation of transcendental logic to philosophy of science (cf. Zeidler: Prolegomena zur Wissenschaftstheorie, Wien 2000) and to (...)
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  14. added 2020-04-16
    Defending Phenomenalism.Michael Pelczar - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 69 (276):574-597.
    According to phenomenalism, physical things are a certain kind of possibility for experience. This paper clarifies the phenomenalist position and addresses some main objections to it, with the aim of showing that phenomenalism is a live option that merits a place alongside dualism and materialism in contemporary metaphysical debate.
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  15. added 2020-04-16
    Replies.Michael Pelczar - 2016 - Analysis 76 (4):479-501.
  16. added 2020-04-16
    Summary.Michael Pelczar - 2016 - Analysis 76 (4):449-453.
  17. added 2020-03-09
    Kant and Post-Tractarian Wittgenstein: Transcendentalism, Idealism, Illusion.Bernhard Ritter - forthcoming - London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    This book suggests that to know how Wittgenstein’s post-Tractarian philosophy could have developed from the work of Kant is to know how they relate to each other. The development from the latter to the former is invoked heuristically as a means of interpretation, rather than a historical process or direct influence of Kant on Wittgenstein. Ritter provides a detailed treatment of transcendentalism, idealism, and the concept of illusion in Kant’s and Wittgenstein’s criticism of metaphysics. Notably, it is through the conceptions (...)
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  18. added 2020-03-03
    Two Interpretations of George Berkeley's Idealism.Joshua Woo - unknown
    "If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around to hear it, does it make a sound?" In this article I examine the framework of George Berkeley's global metaphysical theory, 'Esse est Percipi'. Then I highlight two competing potential interpretations of the theory.
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  19. added 2020-02-28
    Review of Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics. [REVIEW]Adam Taylor - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews (2018).
    The familiar narrative about the early days of analytic philosophy tells us of its triumph over the needless metaphysical excesses of its immediate forerunners, the idealists. In one form or another, idealism was the paramount philosophical view of the 19th century. Nowadays, however, the bulwarks of idealism are largely abandoned. Few defend the view, and fewer still are willing to take the time to consider its claims seriously. Materialism and dualism dominate the philosophical landscape.
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  20. added 2020-02-22
    Royce's Model of the Absolute.Eric Steinhart - 2012 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (3):356-384.
    At the end of the 19th century, Josiah Royce participated in what has come to be called the great debate (Royce, 1897; Armour, 2005).1 The great debate concerned issues in metaphysical theology, and, since metaphysics was primarily idealistic, it dealt considerably with the relations between the divine Self and lesser selves. After the great debate, Royce developed his idealism in his Gifford Lectures (1898-1900). These were published as The World and the Individual. At the end of the first volume, Royce (...)
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  21. added 2020-01-22
    How Consciousness Creates Reality.Claus Janew - 2011 - Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 2 (6):838-867.
    We will begin with seemingly simple interactions in our daily lives, examine how they originate on a deeper level, come to understand the essentials of consciousness, and finally recognize that we create our reality in its entirety. In the course of this quest, we will uncover little-heeded paths to accessing our subconscious, other individuals, and that which can be understood by the term "God". And the solution to the classical problem of free will constitutes the gist of the concepts is (...)
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  22. added 2020-01-21
    Parrying Parity: A Reply to a Reidian Critique of Idealism.Todd Buras & Trent Dougherty - 2017 - In Tyron Goldschmidt & Kenneth L. Pearce (eds.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics. New York, NY, USA: pp. 1-17.
    One Berkeleyan case for idealism, recently developed by Robert M. Adams, relies on a seeming disparity between our concepts of matter and mind. Thomas Reid’s critique of idealism directly challenges the alleged disparity. After highlighting the role of the disparity thesis in Adams’s updated Berkeleyan argument for idealism, this chapter offers an updated version of Reid’s challenge, and assesses its strength. What emerges from this historico-philosophical investigation is that a contemporary Reidian has much work to do to transpose her objections (...)
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  23. added 2019-12-28
    Analitik Etiğin Babası Kimdi? George Edward Moore’un DNA Testi (translation by Hatice Altıntaş).Sergio Volodia Marcello Cremaschi - 2013 - Felsefi Düsün 1 (1):5-31.
    I reconstruct the background of ideas, concerns and intentions out of which Moore’s early essays, the preliminary version, and then the final version of Principia Ethica originated. I stress the role of religious concerns, as well as that of the Idealist legacy. I argue that PE is more a patchwork of rather diverging contributions than a unitary work, not to say the paradigm of a new school in Ethics. I add a comparison with Rashdall’s almost contemporary ethical work, suggesting that (...)
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  24. added 2019-11-17
    Response to the Commentaries.Eric Gillett - 1998 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 5 (1):61-65.
  25. added 2019-11-15
    Idealism and the Dissociation of Personality.F. C. S. Schiller - 1906 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 3 (18):477-482.
  26. added 2019-11-05
    Ingarden’s Combinatorial Analysis of The Realism-Idealism Controversy.Raphael Milliere - 2016 - In Sébastian Richard & Olivier Malherbe (eds.), Form(s) and Modes of Being. The Ontology of Roman Ingarden. Bern and New York: pp. 67-98.
    The Controversy over the Existence of the World (henceforth Controversy) is the magnum opus of Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden. Despite the renewed interest for Ingarden’s pioneering ontological work whithin analytic philosophy, little attention has been dedicated to Controversy's main goal, clearly indicated by the very title of the book: finding a solution to the centuries-old philosophical controversy about the ontological status of the external world. -/- There are at least three reasons for this relative indifference. First, even at the time (...)
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  27. added 2019-10-20
    The Continuity Between Madhyamaka and Yogācāra Schools of Mahāyāna Buddhism in India.Christian Coseru - 1996 - Journal of the Asiatic Society 37 (2):48–83.
    Do the two rival schools of Indian Buddhist philosophy, Madhyamaka and Yogācāra, share more in common than it may appear at first blush? Interpretation of Madhyamaka that see it as a philosophical enterprise concerned with language games, conceptual holism, and the limits of philosophical discourse, it is argued, miss the point about its distinctly epistemic concern with conventions of everyday practice. Likewise, interpretations of Yogācāra that regard it as a form of pure idealism overlook its uniquely phenomenological epistemology. Offering a (...)
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  28. added 2019-09-20
    Absolute-Brahma: Royce and the Upanishads.Joshua M. Hall - 2014 - Asian Philosophy 24 (2):121-132.
    While acknowledging a certain affinity between his own thought and the Vedanta concept of a world-soul or universal spirit, Josiah Royce nevertheless locates this concept primarily in what he terms the Second Conception of Being—Mysticism. In his early magnum opus, The World and the Individual, Royce utilizes aspects of the Upanishads in order to flesh out his picture of the mystical understanding of and relationship to being. My primary concern in the present investigation is to introduce some nuance into Royce’s (...)
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  29. added 2019-09-06
    Kant Meets Cyberpunk.Eric Schwitzgebel - 2019 - Disputatio.
    I defend a how-possibly argument for Kantian transcen- dental idealism, drawing on concepts from David Chalmers, Nick Bostrom, and the cyberpunk subgenre of science fiction. If we are ar- tificial intelligences living in a virtual reality instantiated on a giant computer, then the fundamental structure of reality might be very dif- ferent than we suppose. Indeed, since computation does not require spatial properties, spatiality might not be a feature of things as they are in themselves but instead only the way (...)
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  30. added 2019-06-06
    An Idealist Critique of Naturalism.Robert Smithson - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (5):504-526.
    ABSTRACTAccording to many naturalists, our ordinary conception of the world is in tension with the scientific image: the conception of the world provided by the natural sciences. But in this paper, I present a critique of naturalism with precedents in the post-Kantian idealist tradition. I argue that, when we consider our actual linguistic behavior, there is no evidence that the truth of our ordinary judgments hinges on what the scientific image turns out to be like. I then argue that the (...)
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  31. added 2019-06-06
    Idealism, Metaphysics and Community. [REVIEW]David Crossley - 2003 - Dialogue 42 (3):607-608.
    Idealism offers a distinctive perspective on the methods of philosophical inquiry and on the nature of reality. In the version that dominated Britain at the end of the nineteenth century, there was a strong emphasis on the search for unity, for the connections between and among the diverse aspects of experience, and the many spheres of human interest, such as natural science, psychology, ethics, and politics. While each distinct science or area of study tries to explain and to provide a (...)
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  32. added 2019-06-06
    American and Gennan Tendencies In the Thought of Josiah Royce: Bulletin of the Santayana Society.Matthew Caleb Flamm - 2000 - Overheard in Seville 18 (18):24-30.
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  33. added 2019-06-06
    The Theological Orthodoxy of Berkeley’s Immaterialism.James S. Spiegel - 1996 - Faith and Philosophy 13 (2):216-235.
    Ever since George Berkeley first published Principles of Human Knowledge his metaphysics has been opposed by, among others, some Christian philosophers who allege that his ideas fly in the face of orthodox Christian belief. The irony is that Berkeley’s entire professional career is marked by an unwavering commitment to demonstrating the reasonableness of the Christian faith. In fact, Berkeley’s immaterialist metaphysical system can be seen as an apologetic device. In this paper, I inquire into the question whether Berkeley’s immaterialist metaphysics (...)
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  34. added 2019-06-06
    A System of Pragmatic Idealism, Volume III: Metaphilosophical Inquiries. [REVIEW]James V. Penna - 1995 - Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):428-430.
    Rescher's final volume of a trilogy is a sustained defence of philosophy in our "post-philosophical era" and a cogent argument that rationality and pluralism authenticate its pragmatic vitality and idealistic nature.
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  35. added 2019-06-06
    Kant and Dogmatic Idealism: A Defense of Kant’s Refutation of Berkeley.Vance G. Morgan - 1993 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):217-237.
  36. added 2019-06-06
    Contemporary Studies in Philosophical Idealism. [REVIEW]G. W. - 1977 - Review of Metaphysics 31 (1):116-117.
    In tribute to Peter A. Bertocci on his retirement from Boston University as Bowne Professor of Philosophy, 15 American and British scholars prepared essays on aspects of idealism, at the request of the editors. These essays, together with an introduction by the editors, a list of Bertocci’s writings, and an index, comprise the present volume. The British contributors are H. D. Lewis of London and W. M. Pittenger of Cambridge. Among the Americans are John N. Findlay, Errol E. Harris, Charles (...)
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  37. added 2019-06-06
    Coherence and Its Critics.Errol E. Harris - 1975 - Idealistic Studies 5 (3):208-230.
    The Coherence Theory of Truth does not stand upon its own feet; it is the corollary of a metaphysic, without which it has no claim to credence and is without cogency. Likewise, no critique of the theory can have weight against it if it merely assumes an incompatible metaphysic which it does not validate and unless it can demonstrate the falsity of that on which the Coherence Theory rests. If metaphysics is simply a matter of taste and temperament discussion and (...)
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  38. added 2019-06-06
    Conceptual Idealism. [REVIEW]S. C. A. - 1974 - Review of Metaphysics 27 (4):811-812.
    This book formulates and defends a form of idealism that shows the influences of Kant, Leibniz, Peirce, and Anglo-American neo-Hegelians. The general position is characterized as conceptual idealism. "It maintains that the concepts we standardly employ in constituting our view of reality—even extramental, material reality-involves an essential reference to minds and their capabilities." Conceptual idealism is distinct from the causal version; it is essentially concerned with the deployment of our present conceptual framework. "A concept is mind-involving in the present, conceptualistic (...)
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  39. added 2019-06-06
    Ortega y Gasset: An Outline of His Philosophy. [REVIEW]K. B. L. - 1957 - Review of Metaphysics 11 (1):165-166.
    A remarkably condensed statement of the main features of Ortega's philosophy, organized "biographically" around three stages of his intellectual development, termed "objectivism," "perspectivism," and "ratio-vitalism," with chief attention given to the last. The presentation is marked by a soberness unusual in writers on Ortega. As a result, a certain fairness and balance are achieved, yet not at the cost of any adequacy to the vitality of Ortega's own thought.--L. K. B.
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  40. added 2019-06-06
    The Modern Theme. Translated From the Spanish by James Cleugh.José Ortega Y. Gasset - 1933 - New York: W. W. Norton.
    Contents: The Modern Theme – Supplemental: The Sunset of Revolution – Epilogue on the Mental Attitude of Disillusion – The Historical Significance of the Theory of Einstein. Translation of El tema de nuestro tiempo. El ocaso de las revoluciones. El sentido histórico de la teoría de Einstein (1923).
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  41. added 2019-06-05
    On the Imperviousness of Persons: A Reply to Jan Olof Bengtsson. Ferreira - 2011 - The Pluralist 6 (1):125.
    As regular readers of The Pluralist are aware, there appeared in 2008 an issue devoted to Jan Olof Bengtsson's The Worldview of Personalism.1 The issue included five articles, each concerned with a different aspect of the book; and after each article, there was a "Reply" by Bengtsson. In what follows, I shall say something about Bengtsson's reply to my own contribution, "Absolute and Personal Idealism." However, first let me briefly describe that article's argument.In "Absolute and Personal Idealism," I examined the (...)
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  42. added 2019-04-30
    Why Not Solipsism?Elliott Sober - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (3):547-566.
    Solipsism poses a familiar epistemological problem. Each of us has beliefs about a world that allegedly exists outside our own minds. The problem is to justify these nonsolipsistic convictions. One standard approach is to argue that the existence of things outside our own sensations may reasonably be inferred from regularities that obtain within our sensations. Certain experiences, which I will call tiger sounds and tiger visual images, exhibit a striking correlation. We can explain the existence of this correlation by postulating (...)
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  43. added 2019-04-25
    Reception of the Marburg Neo-Kantianism ideas in the early works by Yevhen Spektorskyi.Oksana Slobodian - 2018 - Наукові Записки Наукма. Філософія Та Релігієзнавство 2:35-42.
    This article concerns genealogy of ideas from the Marburg school of neo-Kantian philosophy in’s early works in the context of intellectual and educational tendencies in Europe and the Russian Empire at the turn of the 20th century. Yevhen Spektorskyi (1875–1951) is known as a prominent philosopher and lawyer, professor, and the last president at the Saint Volodymyr University. Analyzing his early works, which were strongly connected to his teaching and scientific activities at the law faculty of Warsaw University, the author (...)
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  44. added 2019-04-17
    Idealist Origins: 1920s and Before.Martin Davies & Stein Helgeby - 2014 - In Graham Oppy & Nick Trakakis (eds.), History of Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. pp. 15-54.
    This paper explores early Australasian philosophy in some detail. Two approaches have dominated Western philosophy in Australia: idealism and materialism. Idealism was prevalent between the 1880s and the 1930s, but dissipated thereafter. Idealism in Australia often reflected Kantian themes, but it also reflected the revival of interest in Hegel through the work of ‘absolute idealists’ such as T. H. Green, F. H. Bradley, and Henry Jones. A number of the early New Zealand philosophers were also educated in the idealist tradition (...)
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  45. added 2019-03-19
    Monism in the Light of Recent Developments in Philosophy.C. E. M. Joad - 1916 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 17:95 - 116.
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  46. added 2019-02-25
    The Plato Cult and Other Philosophical Follies.Anthony O'Hear - 1993 - Philosophical Quarterly 43 (171):264-266.
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  47. added 2019-02-25
    The Plato Cult and other Philosophical Follies.D. C. Stove - 1992 - Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 182 (4):572-575.
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  48. added 2019-02-22
    Transcendental Idealism Without Tears.Nicholas Stang - 2017 - In Tyron Goldschmidt (ed.), Idealism: New Essays in Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 82-103.
    This essay is an attempt to explain Kantian transcendental idealism to contemporary metaphysicians and make clear its relevance to contemporary debates in what is now called ‘meta-metaphysics.’ It is not primarily an exegetical essay, but an attempt to translate some Kantian ideas into a contemporary idiom.
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  49. added 2019-02-15
    Interioridad y Trascendencia. La Metafísica de Caturelli.Juan Manuel Díaz-Torres (ed.) - 2006 - Valencia, España: Edicep.
    El pensamiento filosófico de Alberto Caturelli supone una extraordinaria revitalización del pensamiento metafísico cristiano en el siglo XXI. El presente estudio tiene por finalidad mostrar de qué forma procede a la restauración de las verdades filosóficas fundamentales -tales como la creatio ex nihilo, la participación, la linealidad trascendentista de la historia, la persona humana y la libertad entre otras- sobre la base de la naturaleza contemplativa de la inteligencia y la preeminencia de la vida interior. Tal cometido es esencialmente inseparable (...)
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  50. added 2019-02-14
    Ginčas dėl Leibnizo kūninės substancijos sampratos.Laurynas Adomaitis & Alvydas Jokubaitis - 2014 - Problemos 86:139-152.
    Leibnizian metaphysics is traditionally held to be idealistic. It means that reality is composed of soul-like substances whereas material bodies are mere phenomena. The traditional interpretation presupposes that Leibniz’s view has not changed during the mature period (from 1683 onward). Some commentators have recently challenged this view. They claim that either Leibniz (despite inconsistency) was both a realist and an idealist (Hartz), or changed his view on the nature of substance (Garber). The aim is to defend the traditional interpretation and (...)
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