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  1. Marcus P. Adams (2013). Explaining the Theory of Mind Deficit in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophical Studies 163 (1):233-249.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. Most involved in the debate about the explanation of the ToM deficit have failed to notice that autism’s status as a spectrum disorder has implications about which explanation is more plausible. In this paper, I argue that the shift from viewing autism as a unified syndrome to a spectrum disorder increases the plausibility of the explanation of the (...)
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  2. Marcus P. Adams (2011). Modularity, Theory of Mind, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):763-773.
    The theory of mind (ToM) deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder has been a central topic in the debate about the modularity of the mind. In a series of papers, Philip Gerrans and Valerie Stone argue that positing a ToM module does not best explain the deficits exhibited by individuals with autism (Gerrans 2002; Stone & Gerrans 2006a, 2006b; Gerrans & Stone 2008). In this paper, I first criticize Gerrans and Stone’s (2008) account. Second, I discuss various studies of individuals (...)
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  3. Jami L. Anderson (2014). Discipline and Punishment in Light of Autism. In Selina Doran & Laura Botell (eds.), Reframing Punishment: Making Visible Bodies, Silence and De-humanisation.
    If one can judge a society by how it treats its prisoners, one can surely judge a society by how it treats cognitively- and learning-impaired children. In the United States children with physical and cognitive impairments are subjected to higher rates of corporal punishment than are non-disabled children. Children with disabilities make up just over 13% of the student population in the U.S. yet make up over 18% of those children who receive corporal punishment. Autistic children are among the most (...)
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  4. Jami L. Anderson (2013). A Dash of Autism. In Jami L. Anderson Simon Cushing (ed.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield
    In this chapter, I describe my “post-diagnosis” experiences as the parent of an autistic child, those years in which I tried, but failed, to make sense of the overwhelming and often nonsensical information I received about autism. I argue that immediately after being given an autism diagnosis, parents are pressured into making what amounts to a life-long commitment to a therapy program that (they are told) will not only dramatically change their child, but their family’s financial situation and even their (...)
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  5. Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.) (2013). The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield.
    The Philosophy of Autism examines autism from the tradition of analytic philosophy, working from the premise that so-called autism spectrum disorders raise interesting philosophical questions that need to be and can be addressed in a manner that is clear, jargon-free, and accessible. The goal of the original essays in this book is to provide a philosophically rich analysis of issues raised by autism and to afford dignity and respect to those living with autism by placing it at the center of (...)
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  6. Nancy Bagatell (2010). From Cure to Community: Transforming Notions of Autism. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):33-55.
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  7. Deborah R. Barnbaum (2008). The Ethics of Autism. Indiana University Press.
    Taken from Indiana University Press website: Autism is one of the most compelling, controversial, and heartbreaking cognitive disorders. It presents unique philosophical challenges as well, raising intriguing questions in philosophy of mind, cognitive science, and philosophy of language that need to be explored if the autistic population is to be responsibly served. Starting from the "theory of mind" thesis that a fundamental deficit in autism is the inability to recognize that other persons have minds, Deborah R. Barnbaum considers its implications (...)
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  8. Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright, Amy Burtenshaw & Esther Hobson (2007). Mathematical Talent is Linked to Autism. Human Nature 18 (2):125-131.
    A total of 378 mathematics undergraduates (selected for being strong at “systemizing”) and 414 students in other (control) disciplines at Cambridge University were surveyed with two questions: (1) Do you have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? (2) How many relatives in your immediate family have a diagnosed autism spectrum condition? Results showed seven cases of autism in the math group (or 1.85%) vs one case of autism in the control group (or 0.24%), a ninefold difference that is significant. Controlling for (...)
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  9. Ralf-Peter Behrendt (2005). Affiliative Drive: Could This Be Disturbed in Childhood Autism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):350-351.
    Affect mirroring allows infants to distinguish emotional and intentional states of significant others, which – in the pursuit of their own drive satisfaction, including satisfaction of the affiliative drive – become important contextual stimuli predictive of reward. Learning to perceive and manipulate others' attitudes toward oneself in pursuit of affiliative reward may be an important step in social development that is impaired in autism.
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  10. D. Ben Shalom (2000). Developmental Depersonalization: The Prefrontal Cortex and Self-Functions in Autism. Consciousness and Cognition 9 (3):457-460.
    The human self model suggests that the construct of self involves functions such as agency, body-centered spatial perspectivity, and long-term unity. Vogeley, Kurthen, Falkai, and Maieret (1999) suggest that agency is subserved by the prefrontal cortex and other association areas of the cortex, spatial perspectivity by the prefrontal cortex and the parietal lobes, and long-term unity by the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobes and that all of these functions are impaired in schizophrenia. Exploring the connections between the prefrontal cortex (...)
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  11. Armando Bertone, Laurent Mottron & Jocelyn Faubert (2004). Autism and Schizophrenia: Similar Perceptual Consequence, Different Neurobiological Etiology? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):592-593.
    Phillips & Silverstein (P&S, 2003) propose that NMDA-receptor dysfunction may be the fundamental neurobiological mechanism underlying and associating impaired holistic perception and cognitive coordination with schizophrenic psychopathology. We discuss how the P&S hypothesis shares different aspects of the weak central coherence account of autism from both theoretical and experimental perspectives. Specifically, we believe that neither those persons with autism nor those with schizophrenia integrate visuo-perceptual information efficiently, resulting in incongruous internal representations of their external world. However, although NMDA-hypofunction may be (...)
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  12. Miro Brada, The Existence.
    In 1995, I wrote an essay 'Existence'. From the analysis of the process of self-consciousness, I concluded: "All I know, only I know", because if YOU know 'what I know', only I know that 'YOU know 'what I know'', and if you know that 'only I know that 'YOU know 'what I know''', only I know that... etc. At every moment, I know something more (I know that YOU know), or something less (I don't know that YOU know that I (...)
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  13. R. H. S. Carpenter (1995). RMJ Cotterill: Autism, Intelligence and Consciousness [Book Review]«. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2:86.
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  14. Tony Charman (2001). Understanding the Imitation Deficit in Autism May Lead to a More Specific Model of Autism as an Empathy Disorder. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):29-30.
    Preston & de Waal are understandably cautious in applying their model to autism. They emphasise multiple cognitive impairments in autism, including prefrontal-executive, cerebellar-attention, and amygdala-emotion recognition deficits. Further empirical examination of imitation ability in autism may reveal deficits in the neural and cognitive basis of perception-action mapping that have a specific relation to the empathic deficit.
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  15. Kelso Cratsley & Richard Samuels (2013). Cognitive Science and Explanations of Psychopathology. In K. W. M. Fulford (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press 413.
  16. Simon Cushing (2013). Autism: The Very Idea. In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield 17-45.
    If each of the subtypes of autism is defined simply as constituted by a set of symptoms, then the criteria for its observation are straightforward, although, of course, some of those symptoms themselves might be hard to observe definitively. Compare with telling whether or not someone is bleeding: while it might be hard to tell if someone is bleeding internally, we know what it takes to find out, and when we have the right access and instruments we can settle the (...)
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  17. Richard J. Davidson, Nacewicz, M. B., Dalton, M. K., Johnstone, T., Long, M., McAuliff, M. E., Oakes, R. T., Alexander & L. A., Amygdala Volume and Nonverbal Social Impairment in Adolescent and Adult Males with Autism.
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  18. Michael D. Doan & Andrew Fenton (2013). Embodying Autistic Cognition: Towards Reconceiving Certain 'Autism-Related' Behavioral Atypicalities as Functional. In Jami L. Anderson & Simon Cushing (eds.), The Philosophy of Autism. Rowman & Littlefield
    Some researchers and autistic activists have recently suggested that because some ‘autism-related’ behavioural atypicalities have a function or purpose they may be desirable rather than undesirable. Examples of such behavioural atypicalities include hand-flapping, repeatedly ordering objects (e.g., toys) in rows, and profoundly restricted routines. A common view, as represented in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR (APA, 2000), is that many of these behaviours lack adaptive function or purpose, interfere with learning, and constitute the non-social behavioural (...)
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  19. Nirmala Erevelles (2002). Voices of Silence: Foucault, Disability, and the Question of Self-Determination. Studies in Philosophy and Education 21 (1):17-35.
    In this paper I examine two controversialissues that occurred in two different centuriesbut that are inextricably linked with eachother – the 1835 murder committed by a Frenchpeasant, Pierre Riviere and documented byMichel Foucault and the 1990's debate regardingthe controversial methods of FacilitatedCommunication used with students labeledautistic in the United States. In this paper Iargue that both controversies foreground thecrisis of the humanist subject. In other words,I argue that both controversies are generatedby a seemingly simple question: Are personsidentified as mentally disabledcapable/incapable (...)
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  20. Bonnie Evans (2013). How Autism Became Autism: The Radical Transformation of a Central Concept of Child Development in Britain. History of the Human Sciences 26 (3):3-31.
    This article argues that the meaning of the word ‘autism’ experienced a radical shift in the early 1960s in Britain which was contemporaneous with a growth in epidemiological and statistical studies in child psychiatry. The first part of the article explores how ‘autism’ was used as a category to describe hallucinations and unconscious fantasy life in infants through the work of significant child psychologists and psychoanalysts such as Jean Piaget, Lauretta Bender, Leo Kanner and Elwyn James Anthony. Theories of autism (...)
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  21. Jocelyn Faubert & Armando Bertone (2004). A Common Link Between Aging, Schizophrenia, and Autism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):593-594.
    Phillips & Silverstein (P&S, 2003) have proposed that NMDA-receptor hypofunction is the central reason for impaired cognitive coordination and abnormal gestalt-like perceptual processing in schizophrenia. We suggest that this model may also be applicable to non-pathological (or normal) aging given the compelling evidence of NMDA-receptor involvement during the aging process that results in age-related change in higher-level perceptual performance. Given that such deficits are present in other neurological disorders such as autism, an argument for a systematic assessment of perceptual functioning (...)
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  22. Stephen Flusberg & Helen Tager-Flusberg (2006). Autism, Language, and the Folk Psychology of Souls. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):473-473.
    Anecdotal evidence suggests that people with autism, with known impairments in mechanisms supporting a folk psychology of mind or souls, can hold a belief in an afterlife. We focus on the role language plays, not just in acquiring the specific content of beliefs, but more significantly, in the acquisition of the concept of life after death for all people.
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  23. Shaun Gallagher (2004). Understanding Interpersonal Problems in Autism. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (3):199-217.
    A BSTRACT: I argue that theory theory approaches to autism offer a wholly inadequate explanation of autistic symptoms because they offer a wholly inadequate account of the non-autistic understanding of others. As an alternative I outline interaction theory, which incorporates evidence from both developmental and phenomenological studies to show that humans are endowed with important capacities for intersubjective understanding from birth or early infancy. As part of a neurophenomenological analysis of autism, interaction theory offers an account of interpersonal problems that (...)
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  24. Richard Gipps (2004). Autism and Intersubjectivity: Beyond Cognitivism and the Theory of Mind. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 11 (3):195-198.
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  25. Kathrin Gluer & Peter Pagin (2003). Meaning Theory and Autistic Speakers. Mind and Language 18 (1):23-51.
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  26. Kathrin Glüer-Pagin, Meaning Theory and Autistic Speakers.
    b> Some theories of linguistic meaning, such as those of Paul Grice and David Lewis, make appeal to higher order thoughts: thoughts about thoughts. Because of this, such theories run the risk of being empirically refuted by the existence of speakers who lack, completely or to a high degree, the capacity of thinking about thoughts. Research on autism during the past 15 years provides strong evidence for the existence of such speakers. Some persons with autism have linguistic abilities that qualify (...)
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  27. Marine Grandgeorge, Michel Deleau, Eric Lemonnier, Sylvie Tordjman & Martine Hausberger (2012). Children with Autism Encounter an Unfamiliar Pet: Application of the Strange Animal Situation Test. Interaction Studies 13 (2):165-188.
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  28. Ruud Hendriks (2012). Autistic Company. Editions Rodopi.
    Social interactions of autistic and non-autistic persons are intriguing. In all sorts of situations people with autism are part of the daily life of those around them. Such interactions exist despite the lack of familiar ways of attuning to one another. In Autistic Company, the anthropologist and philosopher Ruud Hendriks—himself trained as a care worker for young people with autism—investigates what alternative means are sometimes found by autistic and non-autistic people to establish a shared existence. Unprecedented in scholarly work on (...)
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  29. Peter Hobson (2011). Autism and the Self. In Shaun Gallagher (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of the Self. OUP Oxford
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  30. Peter R. Hobson & Jessica A. Hobson (2013). Autism: Self and Others. In Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael Lombardo & Helen Tager-Flusberg (eds.), Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives From Developmental Social Neuroscience. OUP Oxford 397.
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  31. Pier Jaarsma & Stellan Welin (2012). Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 20 (1):20-30.
    Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on (...)
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  32. Jeanette Kennett (2002). Autism, Empathy and Moral Agency. Philosophical Quarterly 52 (208):340-357.
    Psychopaths have long been of interest to moral philosophers, since a careful examination of their peculiar deficiencies may reveal what features are normally critical to the development of moral agency. What underlies the psychopath's amoralism? A common and plausible answer to this question is that the psychopath lacks empathy. Lack of empathy is also claimed to be a critical impairment in autism, yet it is not at all clear that autistic individuals share the psychopath's amoralism. How is empathy characterized in (...)
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  33. Terhi Korkiakangas & John Rae (2014). The Interactional Use of Eye-Gaze in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Interaction Studies 15 (2):233-259.
    The well-known impairments in the social use of eye-gaze by children with autism have been chiefly explored through experimental methods. The present study aims to contribute to the naturalistic analysis of social eye-gaze by applying Conversation Analysis to video recordings of three Finnish children with a diagnosis of autism, each interacting with familiar others in ordinary settings . The analysis identifies two interactional environments where some children with autism show eye-gaze related competence with respect to gazing at their co-participants: these (...)
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  34. Timothy Krahn & Andrew Fenton (2012). The Extreme Male Brain Theory of Autism and the Potential Adverse Effects for Boys and Girls with Autism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 9 (1):93-103.
    Autism, typically described as a spectrum neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in verbal ability and social reciprocity as well as obsessive or repetitious behaviours, is currently thought to markedly affect more males than females. Not surprisingly, this encourages a gendered understanding of the Autism Spectrum. Simon Baron-Cohen, a prominent authority in the field of autism research, characterizes the male brain type as biased toward systemizing. In contrast, the female brain type is understood to be biased toward empathizing. Since persons with (...)
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  35. Lucia Kršková, Alžbeta Talarovičová & Lucia Olexová (2010). Guinea Pigs—The “Small Great” Therapist for Autistic Children, Or: Do Guinea Pigs Have Positive Effects on Autistic Child Social Behavior? Society and Animals 18 (2):139-151.
    The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of a small therapeutic animal on the social behavior of nine autistic children. The social contacts of the autistic children were evaluated by a descriptive method of direct observation that was performed without and with the presence of a TA. In period one, contacts with an unfamiliar person and acquaintances were registered; in period two, contacts with the acquaintances and the TA were registered. The frequency of contacts of autistic children (...)
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  36. Robyn Langdon Max Coltheart (1998). Autism, Modularity and Levels of Explanation in Cognitive Science. Mind and Language 13 (1):138-152.
    Over the past century or more, cognitive neuropsychologists have discussed many of the issues raised in this volume. On the basis of this literature, we argue that autism is not a single homogeneous condition, and so can have no single cause. Instead, each of its symptoms has a cause, and the proper study of autism is the separate study of each of these symptoms and its cause. We also offer evidence to support the radical view advanced by Stoljar and Gold (...)
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  37. Maxson J. McDowell (2010). Autism's Direct Cause? Failure of Infant--Mother Eye Contact in a Complex Adaptive System. Biological Theory 5 (4):344-356.
    This article attempts to show why an experimental hypothesis is plausible and merits testing; in brief, the hypothesis is that autism begins with a failure in early learning and that changing the environment of early learning would dramatically change its incidence. Strong statistical evidence supporting this hypothesis has been published by Waldman et al. , but to date this evidence has largely been ignored, perhaps because it challenges prevalent beliefs about autism. This article also suggests that the current epidemic of (...)
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  38. Victoria McGreer (2008). Varieties of Moral Agency: Lessons From Autism (and Psychopathy). In Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology, Volume 3. MIT Press
    How do we come to make moral judgments and act from specifi cally moral motivations? What are our moral concerns? [...] I think some general answers can be given to these questions, answers that acknowledge the importance of reason in our moral lives but which nevertheless give special attention to the central role of affect. Specifically, I claim in a broadly Humean way that we human beings are moral beings—and indeed the kind of moral beings we are—because of our affective (...)
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  39. Aaron L. Mishara (1986). A Phenomenological Approach to Language Acquisition and Autism in Terms of a Motor Unconscious. Analecta Husserliana 20:249.
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  40. Ann Gernsbacher Morton, Dawson Michelle & Mottron Laurent (2006). Autism: Common, Heritable, but Not Harmful. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4).
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  41. Patricia M. Rodier (2009). Science Under Attack: Vaccines and Autism:Autism's False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure. Paul A. Offit . Columbia University Press, 2008. 328 Pp., Illus. $24.95 (ISBN 9780231146364 Cloth). [REVIEW] BioScience 59 (5):440-441.
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  42. David Shoemaker (2015). Responsibility From the Margins. Oxford University Press.
    David Shoemaker presents a new pluralistic theory of responsibility, based on the idea of quality of will. His approach is motivated by our ambivalence to real-life cases of marginal agency, such as those caused by clinical depression, dementia, scrupulosity, psychopathy, autism, intellectual disability, and poor formative circumstances. Our ambivalent responses suggest that such agents are responsible in some ways but not others. Shoemaker develops a theory to account for our ambivalence, via close examination of several categories of pancultural emotional responsibility (...)
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  43. Harry Smit (2010). A Conceptual Contribution to Battles in the Brain. Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):803-821.
    Badcock and Crespi have advanced the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia are caused by imbalanced imprinting in the brain. They argue that an imbalance between the effects of paternally and maternally expressed genes on brain development results in either an extreme paternal (autism) or maternal brain (schizophrenia). In this paper their conceptual model is discussed and criticized since it presupposes an incoherent distinction between observable physical and hidden mental phenomena. An alternative model is discussed that may be more fruitful for (...)
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  44. Olga Solomon & Nancy Bagatell (2010). Introduction: Autism: Rethinking the Possibilities. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):1-7.
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  45. Laura Sterponi & Alessandra Fasulo (2010). “How to Go On”: Intersubjectivity and Progressivity in the Communication of a Child with Autism. Ethos: Journal of the Society for Psychological Anthropology 38 (1):116-142.
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  46. Adriana Tapus, Andreea Peca, Amir Aly, Cristina Pop, Lavinia Jisa, Sebastian Pintea, Alina S. Rusu & Daniel O. David (2012). Children with Autism Social Engagement in Interaction with Nao, an Imitative Robot: A Series of Single Case Experiments. Interaction Studies 13 (3):315-347.
    This paper presents a series of 4 single subject experiments aimed to investigate whether children with autism show more social engagement when interacting with the Nao robot, compared to a human partner in a motor imitation task. The Nao robot imitates gross arm movements of the child in real-time. Different behavioral criteria (i.e. eye gaze, gaze shifting, free initiations and prompted initiations of arm movements, and smile/laughter) were analyzed based on the video data of the interaction. The results are mixed (...)
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  47. Bram Vanderborght, Ramona Simut, Jelle Saldien, Cristina Pop, Alina S. Rusu, Sebastian Pintea, Dirk Lefeber & Daniel O. David (2012). Using the Social Robot Probo as a Social Story Telling Agent for Children with ASD. Interaction Studies 13 (3):348-372.
    This paper aims to study the role of the social robot Probo in providing assistance to a therapist for robot assisted therapy (RAT) with autistic children. Children with autism have difficulties with social interaction and several studies indicate that they show preference toward interaction with objects, such as computers and robots, rather than with humans. In 1991, Carol Gray developed Social Stories, an intervention tool aimed to increase children's social skills. Social stories are short scenarios written or tailored for autistic (...)
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  48. Somogy Varga (2010). Explaining Impaired Play in Autism. Journal für Philosophie Und Psychiatrie 3 (1):1-13.
    Autism has recently become the focus of continuous philosophical inquiry, because it affects inter-subjective capacities in a highly selective manner. One of the first behavioural manifestations of autism is impaired play, particularly the lack of pretend play. This article will show that the prevailing 'Theory-Theory of Mind'-approach cannot explain impaired play. I will suggest a richer, phenomenological account of inter-subjectivity. It will be argued that this improves the understanding of impaired play in autism.
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  49. Lis Waters (1990). Reinforcing the Empty Fortress: An Examination of Recent Research Into the Treatment of Autism. Educational Studies 16 (1):3-16.
    Infantile autism was first diagnosed by Kanner, when he described a group of children as having “autistic disturbances of affective contact”. His 12 characteristics of autism are still influential today. There is little agreement among professionals of an aetiology for autism or of an appropriate treatment. Different schools of thought have dominated autistic research in the past, although behaviour modification has become more influential during the last 20 years and it is arguably the most effective form of intervention. The different (...)
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  50. Dan Zahavi & Josef Parnas (2003). Conceptual Problems in Infantile Autism Research: Why Cognitive Science Needs Phenomenology. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):9-10.
    Until recently, cognitive research in infantile autism primarily focussed on the ability of autistic subjects to understand and predict the actions of others. Currently, researchers are also considering the capacity of autists to understand their own minds. In this article we discuss selected recent contributions to the theory of mind debate and the study of infantile autism, and provide an analysis of intersubjectivity and self-awareness that is informed both by empirical research and by work in the phenomenological tradition. This analysis (...)
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