Truth, Miscellaneous

Edited by Patrick Greenough (University of St. Andrews)
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  1. Doğayla oynanan oyunlarda hakikat arayışı.Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    İnsanların doğa ile kurduğu ilişki, bilgi mefhumunun mantığını gözeten bir dilde, hakikat bildiren ifadelerin (bilgisel) içeriğini varlık bildirimleri yoluyla sağlayan bir sezgiye dayandırıldığında, bu bir bakıma Kant'ın ya da Hilbet'in bilimsel kuramların temelleriyle ilgili projelerine yakın bir izlekte akıl yürütmek anlamına gelir. Söz konusu ilişkide insan etkisinin (seçimlerinin) sonuçları olup insanların bilgisinden bağımsız olarak ortaya çıkan hakikatlerin varlığının bulgulanması insanı ister istemez alışık olunan doğa kavramının ötesine geçen bir çevre anlayışına doğru yönlendirir. Örneğin, küresel ısınma gibi hakikatlerin varlığı, bulgulanışlarında başvurulan (...)
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  2. Hakikat-sonrası, yalan dolan; peki ya daha sonrası?Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Ekolojik hakikatlere ilişkin bilginin çarpıtılması yoluyla oluşan hakikat-sonrası kamusal gerçeklik yaşamı tehdit ediyor. Gündelik etkinliklerin etki alanları içinde vasat birer eylemci olmanın ötesine gidilemiyor. Karamsarlık her yerde ama güçlü bir iradenin özgür ve iyimser olabileceği de öngörülebiliyor. Özgür irade ile iradeye aykırı davranışlar sergilenmesinin bir yol ayrımına karşılık geldiği biliniyor. Eski bir Afrika sözü halâ geçerli: “Hızlı gitmek istiyorsan yalnız git ama eğer uzağa gideceksen beraber gidelim!”.
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  3. Hakikat-sonrası hakikat araştırmaları. [REVIEW]Besim Karakadılar - manuscript
    Lee Mcintyre'ın Hakikat-sonrası adlı kitabının konusu hakikat-sonrası siyaset olarak anlaşılmalı. Konuya ilişkin temel sorun, kamusal yaşantıda insanların hislerine ve kişisel inançlarına nesnel gerçekliğin üstünü örtmeyi amaçlayan bir rol biçilmesi. Bu sorun temelinde kurulan bir dünyada nasıl olup da alenen yalan oldukları tespit edilebilen sözcelerle siyaset yapılabildiği ve eylemde bulunulabildiği bir muamma. Bu da bir bakıma toplum önünde göz göre göre yalan söyleyebilenlerin gerçekte neyi amaçladıkları kadar kim olduklarının da derinlemesine soruşturulmasını kaçınılmaz kılıyor. Hakikat sonrası toplumu “gitgide daha az şeffaf hale (...)
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  4. Verità e Post-Verità: dall'Indagine alla Post-Indagine.Filippo Ferrari & Sebastiano Moruzzi - 2020 - Bologna: 1088 Press & Bononia University Press.
    In this book, we interpret post-truth as a multifaceted phenomenon which involves fake news, emotion-driven rhetoric (vs fact-driven discussion), credulism in the social-media, conspiracy theories and scientific denialism. We develop three models intended to represent the multifaceted nature of post-truth in terms of deviated forms of enquiry – which we label “post-enquiries”. The first form of post-enquiry posits the existence of alternative facts; the second prioritizes emotions over facts; the third limits the scope of the norms of enquiry. We elaborate (...)
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  5. Justification, Truth, and the Development of Science.Stephen Gaukroger - 1998 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 29 (1):97-112.
  6. Value and Truth.T. Foldesi - 1976 - Filosoficky Casopis 24 (1):94-102.
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  7. Seeking Truth and Actionable Knowledge: How the Scientific Method Inhibits Both.Chris Argyris - 1987 - Philosophica 40.
  8. Los cuatro tipos de verdad científica.Garrido Julián Garrido - 1992 - Theoria 7 (1/2/3):1183-1197.
    Four types of truth can be distinguished in scientific knowledge: local truths, truths by definition, mathematical truths and empirical truths. These types are strongly interrelated: empirical theories use the four types; mathematical theories are concerned only with the first three clases, whereas logical theories contain just logical truths and definitions. Those relationships allow to classify the types of truth from two viewpoints concerning, respectively, their degree of abstraction and their relative power. The multiplicity of truth modes means that the idea (...)
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  9. The Transiency of Truth.Pavel Tichý - 1980 - Theoria 46 (2-3):165-182.
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  10. Truth.Cyril Baker Marshall - 1945 - New York: Skeffington.
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  11. Tools of Truth.Max Carl Otto - 1953 - Bennington College.
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  12. Chilli Ŭi Tʻamgu.Pyŏng-hwa[from old catalog] Yun - 1955
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  13. The Truth That Frees.GERARD SMITH - 1956 - Milwaukee, Marquette University Press.
  14. More Than Truth.David Kohn - 1956 - New York: Philosophical Library.
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  15. Thought and Truth.M. H. Amishai - 1956 - New York: Bookman Associates.
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  16. Truth is Everybody's Business.Bessie A. [from old catalog] Link - 1958 - Brooklyn, G. J. Rickard.
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  17. The Principle of Truth.P. D. KING - 1960 - New York: Philosophical Library.
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  18. Truth.George Pitcher - 1964 - Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall.
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  19. Truth and Preconditions.Gunnar Skirbekk - 1969 - Bergen[Universitetet I Bergen].
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  20. Necessary Truth.H. G. Alexander - 1957 - Mind 66 (264):507-521.
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  21. The Prospering of Truth.Kenneth Ewart Boulding - 1970 - London: Friends Home Service Committee.
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  22. Truth of Being.Albert Hofstadter - 1965 - Journal of Philosophy 62 (7):167-183.
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  23. The Whole Truth.Richard C. Jeffrey - 1968 - Synthese 18 (1):24 - 27.
  24. Value Without Truth-Value.Barbara H. Smith - 1988 - In John Fekete (ed.), Life After Postmodernism: Essays on Value and Culture. Macmillan Education.
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Relativism about Truth
  1. The Liar Without Relativism.Poppy Mankowitz - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-22.
    Some in the recent literature have claimed that a connection exists between the Liar paradox and semantic relativism: the view that the truth values of certain occurrences of sentences depend on the contexts at which they are assessed. Sagi :913–928, 2017) argues that contextualist accounts of the Liar paradox are committed to relativism, and Rudnicki and Łukowski propose a new account that they classify as relativist. I argue that a full understanding of how relativism is conceived within theories of natural (...)
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  2. The objectivity of truth, a core truism?Robert Barnard & Joseph Ulatowski - 2017 - Synthese 198 (2):717-733.
    A typical guiding principle of an account of truth is: “truth is objective,” or, to be clear, judging whether an assertion is true or false depends upon how things are in the world rather than how someone or some community believes it to be. Accordingly, whenever a claim is objectively true, its truth conditions ought not depend upon the context in which it is uttered or the utterer making the claim. Part of our ongoing empirical studies surveying people’s responses to (...)
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  3. Centred Propositions, What is Asserted, and Communication.Jakub Rudnicki - 2021 - Theoria 87 (1):187-206.
    In recent years there has been a heated debate on how to accommodate John Perry's observations about the essentiality of indexicality into our models of linguistic communication. This article is an attempt at providing a new perspective on this issue. I argue that we should jettison two elements taken for granted by the views I present, and criticize, here: no centring, uncentring, recentring and multicentring. These elements are: (1) taking the asserted content to be a part of the communication process (...)
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  4. Gadamer's Historically Effected and Effective Consciousness.Iñaki Xavier Larrauri Pertierra - manuscript
    Gadamer's concept of a historically effected consciousness denotes that we cannot help but experience the world through our prejudices and the horizons in which they subsist. Placed within a larger interpretive framework, such that the subject matters of our experiences can always be reinterpreted anew, our horizons also function as the linguistic media through which novel experiences become possible-a historically effective consciousness, as they say. This paper seeks to explore an uncertainty in Gadamer's hermeneutics from the perspective of the dynamic (...)
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  5. Predicates of Personal Taste: Empirical Data.Markus Kneer - manuscript
    According to contextualism, the extension of claims of personal taste is dependent on the context of utterance. According to truth relativism, their extension depends on the context of assessment. On this view, when the tastes of a speaker change, so does the truth value of a previously uttered taste claim, and if it is false, the speaker is required to retract it. Both views make strong empirical assumptions, which are here put to the test for the first time in three (...)
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  6. Relativism, Metasemantics, and the Future.Derek Ball - 2020 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 63 (9-10):1036-1086.
    ABSTRACT Contemporary relativists often see their view as contributing to a semantic/post-semantic account of linguistic data about disagreement and retraction. I offer an independently motivated metasemantic account of the same data, that also handles a number of cases and empirical results that are problematic for the relativist. The key idea is that the content of assertions and beliefs is determined in part by facts about other times, including times after the assertion is made or the belief is formed. On this (...)
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  7. Review of 'Viewpoint Relativism' by Antti Hautamäki. [REVIEW]Markus Seidel - 2020 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:N.N..
  8. Relativism. [REVIEW]Ali Hossein Khani - forthcoming - The Philosophical Quarterly:1-3.
  9. Assessment Sensitivity About Future Contingents, Vindication and Self-Refutation.Corine Besson & Anandi Hattiangadi - manuscript
    John MacFarlane has recently argued that his brand of truth relativism – Assessment Sensitivity – provides the best solution to the puzzle of future contingents: statements about the future that are metaphysically neither necessary nor impossible. In this paper, we show that even if we grant all of the metaphysical, semantic and pragmatic assumptions in terms of which MacFarlane sets and solves the puzzle, Assessment Sensitivity is ultimately self-refuting.
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  10. Talking About Appearances: The Roles of Evaluation and Experience in Disagreement.Rachel Etta Rudolph - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (1):197-217.
    Faultless disagreement and faultless retraction have been taken to motivate relativism for predicates of personal taste, like ‘tasty’. Less attention has been devoted to the question of what aspect of their meaning underlies this relativist behavior. This paper illustrates these same phenomena with a new category of expressions: appearance predicates, like ‘tastes vegan’ and ‘looks blue’. Appearance predicates and predicates of personal taste both fall into the broader category of experiential predicates. Approaching predicates of personal taste from this angle suggests (...)
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  11. Multiple Indexing Relativism About Predicates of Taste.Dan Zeman - 2019 - Crítica. Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 51 (151):5-34.
    Focusing on predicates of taste, this paper puts forward a novel version of relativism, motivated by a recently discussed phenomenon: perspectival plurality. After showing that the phenomenon is problematic for at least some versions of relativism and discussing several possible answers on behalf of the relativist, I put forward my own version. The main feature of the proposal is the introduction in the index not of a single parameter for perspectives, but of a (possibly infinite) sequence of such parameters. In (...)
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  12. Subjective Disagreement.Beddor Bob - 2019 - Noûs 53 (4):819-851.
  13. Sellars, Truth Pluralism, and Truth Relativism.Lionel Shapiro - 2020 - In Stefan Brandt & Anke Breunig (eds.), Wilfrid Sellars and Twentieth-Century Philosophy. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 174–206.
    Two currently much discussed views about truth, truth pluralism and truth relativism, are found in Sellars’s writings. I show that his motivations for adoping these views are interestingly different from those shared by most of their recent advocates. First, I explain how Sellars comes to embrace a version of truth pluralism. I argue that his version overcomes a difficulty confronting pluralists, albeit at a serious cost. Then I argue that Sellars’s truth pluralism isn’t motivated by his interest in domains of (...)
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  14. Relativism and Expressivism.Bob Beddor - forthcoming - In Martin Kusch (ed.), Routledge Handbook to Relativism. Routledge.
    Relativism and expressivism offer two different semantic frameworks for grappling with a similar cluster of issues. What is the difference between these two frameworks? Should they be viewed as rivals? If so, how should we choose between them? This chapter sheds light on these questions. After providing an overview of relativism and expressivism, I discuss three potential choice points: their relation to truth conditional semantics, their pictures of belief and communication, and their explanations of disagreement.
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  15. The Relativistic Legacy of Kuhn and Feyerabend.Howard Sankey - 2020 - In M. Kusch (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 379-387.
    Relativism in the philosophy of science is widely associated with the work of Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend. Kuhn and Feyerabend espoused views about conceptual change and variation of scientific method that have apparent relativistic implications. Both held that scientific theories or paradigms may be incommensurable due to semantic variation. Two ways that truth may be relative because of semantic incommensurability will be distinguished. Davidson’s criticism of the idea of an untranslatable language will be discussed, as well as a response (...)
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  16. The Case Against Semantic Relativism.Teresa Marques - 2019 - In Martin Kusch (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. Routledge.
    This paper presents reasons against semantic relativism. Semantic relativism is motivated by intuitions that are presumed to raise problems for traditional or contextualist semantics in contested domains of discourse. Intuition-based arguments are those based on competent speakers’ putative intuitions about seeming faultless disagreement, eavesdropper, and retraction cases. I will organize the discussion in three parts. First, I shall provide a brief introduction to the intuition-based arguments offered in favor of semantic relativism. Second, I shall indicate that there are ways for (...)
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  17. The Semantics of Implicit Content.Dan Zeman - 2011 - Dissertation, University of Barcelona
    The main aim of the thesis is to give a semantic account of implicit content – the kind of content that plays a crucial role in implicit communication. Implicit communication is a species of communication in which a speaker communicates certain contents that go over and above the contents retrievable from the linguistic meaning of the words used. The focus of the thesis is a certain kind of implicit communication involving locations (when sentences such as “It is raining” are used (...)
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  18. Faultless Disagreement.Dan Zeman - 2020 - In Martin Kusch (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Relativism. Routledge. pp. 486-495.
    In this entry, I tackle the phenomenon known as "faultless disagreement", considered by many authors to pose a challenge to the main views on the semantics of subjective expressions. I first present the phenomenon and the challenge, then review the main answers given by contextualist, absolutist and relativist approaches to the expressions in question. I end with signaling two issues that might shape future discussions about the role played by faultless disagreement in semantics.
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  19. Perspectival Plurality, Relativism, and Multiple Indexing.Dan Zeman - 2018 - In Rob Truswell, Chris Cummins, Caroline Heycock, Brian Rabern & Hannah Rohde (eds.), Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 21, Vol. 2. Semantics Archives. pp. 1353-1370.
    In this paper I focus on a recently discussed phenomenon illustrated by sentences containing predicates of taste: the phenomenon of " perspectival plurality " , whereby sentences containing two or more predicates of taste have readings according to which each predicate pertains to a different perspective. This phenomenon has been shown to be problematic for (at least certain versions of) relativism. My main aim is to further the discussion by showing that the phenomenon extends to other perspectival expressions than predicates (...)
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  20. Essentially Practical Questions.Brendan Balcerak Jackson - 2019 - Analytic Philosophy 60 (1):1-26.
    Questions are known to play a crucial role in helping to structure linguistic communication. I argue that paying attention to questions is also necessary for understanding disagreement, and in particular for distinguishing between genuine and merely verbal disagreements. I argue, moreover, that some of the questions that play this role are essentially practical questions, questions about what to do. Such questions can remain open even after questions about what is the case have been settled. Essentially practical questions help structure discourse (...)
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  21. Assessment Relativism.Filippo Ferrari - forthcoming - In Martin Kusch (ed.), Routledge Handbook to Relativism.
    Assessment relativism, as developed by John MacFarlane, is the view that the truth of our claims involving a variety of English expressions—‘tasty’, ‘knows’, ‘tomorrow’, ‘might’, and ‘ought’—is relative not only to aspects of the context of their production but also to aspects of the context in which they are assessed. Assessment relativism is thus a form of truth relativism which is offered as a new way of understanding perspectival thought and talk. In this article, I present the main theses of (...)
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  22. Relativism and Monadic Truth, by Herman Cappelen and John Hawthorne, Oxford University Press, 2009. [REVIEW]Dan Zeman - 2009 - Disputatio 3 (26):134-142.
  23. Relative Truth. [REVIEW]Filippo Ferrari - 2010 - Disputatio 3 (28):334-343.
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  24. Might Do Better: Flexible Relativism and the QUD.Bob Beddor & Andy Egan - 2018 - Semantics and Pragmatics 11.
    The past decade has seen a protracted debate over the semantics of epistemic modals. According to contextualists, epistemic modals quantify over the possibilities compatible with some contextually determined group’s information. Relativists often object that contextualism fails to do justice to the way we assess utterances containing epistemic modals for truth or falsity. However, recent empirical work seems to cast doubt on the relativist’s claim, suggesting that ordinary speakers’ judgments about epistemic modals are more closely in line with contextualism than relativism (...)
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  25. Meaning Relativism and Subjective Idealism.Andrea Guardo - 2020 - Synthese 197 (9):4047-4064.
    The paper discusses an objection, put forward by - among others - John McDowell, to Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s non-factualist and relativist view of semantic discourse. The objection goes roughly as follows: while it is usually possible to be a relativist about a given domain of discourse without being a relativist about anything else, relativism about semantic discourse entails global relativism, which in turn entails subjective idealism, which we can reasonably assume to be false. The paper’s first section sketches Kripke’s Wittgenstein’s ideas (...)
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  26. Retractions.Teresa Marques - 2018 - Synthese 195 (8):3335-3359.
    Intuitions about retractions have been used to motivate truth relativism about certain types of claims. Among these figure epistemic modals, knowledge attributions, or personal taste claims. On MacFarlane’s prominent relativist proposal, sentences like “the ice cream might be in the freezer” or “Pocoyo is funny” are only assigned a truth-value relative to contexts of utterance and contexts of assessment. Retractions play a crucial role in the argument for assessment-relativism. A retraction of a past assertion is supposed to be mandatory whenever (...)
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