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  1. Francis Jeffry Pelletier Nicholas Asher, Generics and Defaults.
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  2. John Bacon (1973). Do Generic Descriptions Denote? Mind 82 (327):331-347.
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  3. Teresa Bieganska (2003). Finite Generics of P-Compatible Varieties. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 32 (1/2):1-7.
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  4. Paul Bloom (2007). Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics. Cognition 105 (1):166-183.
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  5. Amanda Brandone, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman (2012). Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are About Kinds, Not Quantities. Child Development 83:423-433.
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  6. Greg N. Carlson (1982). Generic Terms and Generic Sentences. Journal of Philosophical Logic 11 (2):145 - 181.
    Whether or not the particular view of generic sentences articulated above is correct, it is quite clear that the study of generic terms and the truth-conditions of generic sentences touches on the representation of other parts of the grammar, as well as on how the world around us is reflected in language. I would hope that the problems mentioned above will highlight the relevance of semantic analysis to other apparently distinct questions, and focus attention on the relevance of linguistic problems (...)
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  7. Greg N. Carlson (1979). Generics and Atemporalwhen. Linguistics and Philosophy 3 (1):49 - 98.
    Beginning with analyses of English generic sentences and English plural indefinite noun phrases (e.g.dogs), we proceed to apply mechanisms there motivated to a characterization of atemporalwhen, a sense ofwhen which does not appear to involve time. Dealt with are such examples as Dogs are intelligent when they have blue eyes, and their relationships to examples like Dogs that have blue eyes are intelligent. The proposed treatment of atemporalwhen helps motivate the existence of a generic verb phrase operator in English, as (...)
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  8. Greg N. Carlson & Beverly Spejewski (1997). Generic Passages. Natural Language Semantics 5 (2):101-165.
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  9. Gregory N. Carlson (2005). Generics, Habituals and Iteratives. In Alex Barber (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier.
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  10. Ariel Cohen (2004). Existential Generics. Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (2):137-168.
    While opinions on the semantic analysis of generics vary widely, most scholars agree that generics have a quasi-universal flavor. However, there are cases where generics receive what appears to be an existentialinterpretation. For example, B''s response is true, even though only theplatypus and the echidna lay eggs:(1) A: Birds lay eggs. B: Mammals lay eggs too.
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  11. Ariel Cohen (2004). Generics and Mental Representations. Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (5):529-556.
    It is widely agreed that generics tolerate exceptions. It turns out, however, thatexceptions are tolerated only so long as they do not violate homogeneity:when the exceptions are not concentrated in a salient ``chunk'''' of the domain ofthe generic. The criterion for salience of a chunk is cognitive: it is dependent onthe way in which the domain is mentally represented. Findings of psychologicalexperiments about the ways in which different domains are represented, and thefactors affecting such representations, account for judgments of generic (...)
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  12. Ariel Cohen (2001). Relative Readings of Many, Often, and Generics. Natural Language Semantics 9 (1):41-67.
    In addition to the familiar cardinal and proportional readings of many and few, there is yet another interpretation, the relative proportional reading. This reading, unlike the ordinary absolute proportional reading, is not conservative. Under the relative reading, 'Many ψs are φs' is true just in case the proportion of φs among ψs is greater than the proportion of φs among members of contextually given alternatives to ψ. I provide a definition of proportional readings that reduces the differences between absolute and (...)
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  13. Veneeta Dayal (2003). Bare Nominals: Non-Specific and Contrastive Readings Under Scrambling. In Simin Karimi (ed.), Word Order and Scrambling. Blackwell Pub.. 67--90.
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  14. Delia Graff Fara & Gillian Russell (eds.) (forthcoming). The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  15. Gerhard Heyer (1988). Generic Generalisations, Discourse Representation Structures, and Knowledge Representation. In Jakob Hoepelman (ed.), Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Stuttgart Conference Workshop on Discourse Representation, Dialogue Tableaux, and Logic Programming. M. Niemeyer Verlag.
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  16. Mark Johnston & Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Concepts, Analysis, Generics and the Canberra Plan1. Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):113-171.
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  17. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg (2012). Inferences About Members of Kinds: The Generics Hypothesis. Language and Cognitive Processes 27:887-900.
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  18. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg (2009). Generics, Prevalence, and Default Inferences. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society:443--8.
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  19. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sam Glucksberg & Paula Rubio-Fernandez (2007). Do Ducks Lay Eggs? How People Interpret Generic Assertions. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  20. Shieva Kleinschmidt & Jacob Ross (2013). And Generics. In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press. 125.
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  21. Shieva Kleinschmidt & Jacob Ross (2013). Repeatable Artwork Sentences and Generics. In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press.
    We seem to talk about repeatable artworks, like symphonies, films, and novels, all the time. We say things like, "The Moonlight Sonata has three movements" and "Duck Soup makes me laugh". How are these sentences to be understood? We argue against the simple subject/predicate view, on which the subjects of the sentences refer to individuals and the sentences are true iff the referents of the subjects have the properties picked out by the predicates. We then consider two alternative responses that (...)
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  22. Kathrin Koslicki (1999). Genericity and Logical Form. Mind and Language 14 (4):441–467.
    In this paper I propose a novel treatment of generic sentences, which proceeds by means of different levels of analysis. According to this account, all generic sentences (I-generics and D-generics alike) are initially treated in a uniform manner, as involving higher-order predication (following the work of George Boolos, James Higginbotham and Barry Schein on plurals). Their non-uniform character, however, re-emerges at subsequent levels of analysis, when the higher-order predications of the first level are cashed out in terms of quantification over (...)
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  23. Manfred Krifka, Definitional Generics.
    This article1 investigates a particular use of generic sentences (or “characterizing” sentences, in the terminology of Krifka e.a. 1995), which is most prevalent with indefinite singular subjects. Such subjects cannot always be interchanged with bare plural NPs, as has been famously pointed out by Lawler (1973).
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  24. Sarah-Jane Leslie (forthcoming). Carving Up the Social World with Generics. Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy.
  25. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Generics. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  26. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2013). Generics Oversimplified. Noûs 47 (3):28-54.
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  27. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Generics. In Gillian Russell & Delia Fara (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  28. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Generics Articulate Default Generalizations. Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes 41:25-45.
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  29. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2008). Generics: Cognition and Acquisition. Philosophical Review 117 (1):1-47.
    Ducks lay eggs' is a true sentence, and `ducks are female' is a false one. Similarly, `mosquitoes carry the West Nile virus' is obviously true, whereas `mosquitoes don't carry the West Nile virus' is patently false. This is so despite the egg-laying ducks' being a subset of the female ones and despite the number of mosquitoes that don't carry the virus being ninety-nine times the number that do. Puzzling facts such as these have made generic sentences defy adequate semantic treatment. (...)
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  30. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2007). Generics and the Structure of the Mind. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):375–403.
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  31. Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman (2012). Quantified Statements Are Recalled as Generics: Evidence From Preschool Children and Adults. Cognitive Psychology 64 (186):214.
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  32. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani & Sam Glucksberg (2011). All Ducks Lay Eggs: The Generic Overgeneralization Effect. Journal of Memory and Language 65:15-31.
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  33. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani, Sandeep Prasada & Sam Glucksberg (2009). Conceptual and Linguistic Distinctions Between Singular and Plural Generics. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  34. David Liebesman (2011). Simple Generics. Noûs 45 (3):409-442.
    Consensus has it that generic sentences such as “Dogs bark” and “Birds fly” contain, at the level of logical form, an unpronounced generic operator: Gen. On this view, generics have a tripartite structure similar to overtly quantified sentences such as “Most dogs bark” and “Typically, birds fly”. I argue that Gen doesn’t exist and that generics have a simple bipartite structure on par with ordinary atomic sentences such as “Homer is drinking”. On my view, the subject terms of generics are (...)
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  35. Angus Macintyre (1972). Omitting Quantifier-Free Types in Generic Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):512-520.
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  36. Friederike Moltmann (2010). Generalizing Detached Self-Reference and the Semantics of Generic 'One'. Mind and Language 25 (4):440-473.
    In this paper I will give an analysis of what I call ‘generalizing detached self-reference’ within a general account of reference to the first person. With generalizing detached self-reference an agent attributes properties to a range of individuals by putting himself into their shoes, or simulating them. I will show that generalizing detached self-reference plays an important role in the semantics of natural language, in particular in the English generic one and in what syntacticians call arbitrary PRO.
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  37. Friederike Moltmann (2006). Generic 'One', Arbitrary PRO, and the First Person. Natural Language Semantics 14 (3):257–281.
    The generic pronoun 'one' (or its empty counterpart, arbitrary PRO) exhibits a range of properties that show a special connection to the first person, or rather the relevant intentional agent (speaker, addressee, or described agent). The paper argues that generic 'one' involves generic quantification in which the predicate is applied to a given entity ‘as if’ to the relevant agent himself. This is best understood in terms of simulation, a central notion in some recent developments in the philosophy of mind (...)
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  38. Bernard Nickel, On Semantics for Characterizing Sentences.
    The paper presents semantics for a subset of generics, so-called “characterizing sentences”. It is argued that claims about the relationship between the truth of characterizing sentences and claims about the distribution of properties among individuals can be viewed independently of considerations about logical form. Some extant approaches are presented and criticized, and a positive analysis of characterizing sentences in terms of normality is introduced and defended. The main innovation is that a notion of normality enters into the analysis in two (...)
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  39. Bernard Nickel (2008). Generics and the Ways of Normality. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (6):629-648.
    I contrast two approaches to the interpretation of generics such as ‘ravens are black:’ majority-based views, on which they are about what is the case most of the time, and inquiry-based views, on which they are about a feature we focus on in inquiry. I argue that majority-based views face far more systematic counterexamples than has previously been supposed. They cannot account for generics about kinds with multiple characteristic properties, such as ‘elephants live in Africa and Asia.’ I then go (...)
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  40. Bernhard Nickel, The Ways of Normality.
    I contrast two approaches to the interpretation of generics such as `ravens are black:' majority-based views, on which they are about what is the case most of the time, and inquiry-based views, on which they are about a feature we focus on in inquiry---an inductive target. I argue that while majority-based views are preferable based on the most basic data about generics, only inquiry-based views can account for a systematic class of sentences: generics with logically complex predicates, such as `cats (...)
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  41. Bernhard Nickel, Processes in the Interpretation of Generics and CP-Laws.
    Ceteris Paribus (cp-)laws may be said to hold only ``other things equal,'' signaling that their truth is compatible with a range of exceptions. Several theorists have taken this feature to introduce the presumption that cp-laws are trivial, one that needs to be countered if we are to appeal to cp-laws in the course of scientific investigation or our philosophical theorizing about it. I argue that the triviality worry is misplaced by pointing out that cp-laws are just a subset of uncontroversially (...)
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  42. Bernhard Nickel (2010). Generically Free Choice. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (6):479-512.
    This paper discusses free-choice like effects in generics. Just as Jane may drink coffee or tea can be used to convey Jane may drink coffee and Jane may drink tea (she is free to choose ), some generics with disjunctive predicates can be used to convey conjunctions of simpler generics: elephants live in Africa or Asia can be used to convey elephants live in Africa and elephants live in Asia. Investigating these logically slightly more complex generics and especially the free-choice (...)
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  43. Hiroki Nomoto (forthcoming). A General Theory of Bare “Singular” Kind Terms. In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29).
    Dayal’s (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare “singular” kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence of bare “singular” (...)
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  44. Hiroki Nomoto (forthcoming). Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29). In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Anual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29). University of Arizona Linguistics Circle.
    Dayal's (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare ``singular'' kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence of bare ``singular'' (...)
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  45. Anna Papafragou, On Generics.
    In this paper I argue against previous approaches to the semantics of generics which involved the notions of prototype, stereotype and relevant quantification. I assume that the logical form of generics includes a generic operator which, as Heim (1992) has suggested, can be construed as the modal operator of necessity. After demonstrating that the presence of the generic operator in a semantic representation, as well as its domain of quantification, are pragmatically supplied, I go on to show how the various (...)
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  46. T. Parent, A Puzzle About Kinds and Kind Terms.
    ‘The kind Dinosaur’ denotes a kind. Yet many generics are thought to denote kinds also, like the subject-terms in ‘Dinosaurs are extinct’, ‘Liquor causes cirrhosis’, and ‘The mosquito carries malaria’. This view may be an adequate view for the linguist’s purposes--however, it raises a puzzle for the ontologist. The problem is that what is often claimed about kinds is never claimed about dinosaurs, liquor, and the mosquito. Thus, kinds are sometimes said to be abstract objects, immanent universals, nominal essences, etc. (...)
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  47. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (2009). Are All Generics Created Equal? In , Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. Oup Usa.
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  48. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed.) (2009). Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. Oup Usa.
    This volume showcases an interplay between leading philosophical and linguistic semanticists on the one side, and leading cognitive and developmental psychologists on the other side. The topic is a class of outstanding questions in the semanticists on the one side, and leading cognitive and developmental psychologists on the other side. The topic is a class of outstanding questions in the semantic and logical theories of generic statements and statements that employ mass terms by looking to the cognitive abilities of speakers (...)
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  49. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Nicholas Asher, Generics and Defaults.
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  50. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Lenhart K. Schubert, Mass Expressions.
    previous theories and the relevance of those criticisms to the new accounts. Additionally, we have included a new section at the end, which gives some directions to literature outside of formal semantics in which the notion of mass has been employed. We looked at work on mass expressions in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics here, and we discussed some research in the history of philosophy and in metaphysics that makes use of the notion of mass.
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