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  1. Francis Jeffry Pelletier Nicholas Asher, Generics and Defaults.
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  2. John Bacon (1973). Do Generic Descriptions Denote? Mind 82 (327):331-347.
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  3. Paul Bloom (2007). Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics. Cognition 105 (1):166-183.
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  4. Amanda Brandone, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman (2012). Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are About Kinds, Not Quantities. Child Development 83:423-433.
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  5. Greg N. Carlson & Beverly Spejewski (1997). Generic Passages. Natural Language Semantics 5 (2):101-165.
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  6. Ariel Cohen (2004). Existential Generics. Linguistics and Philosophy 27 (2):137-168.
    While opinions on the semantic analysis of generics vary widely, most scholars agree that generics have a quasi-universal flavor. However, there are cases where generics receive what appears to be an existentialinterpretation. For example, B''s response is true, even though only theplatypus and the echidna lay eggs:(1) A: Birds lay eggs. B: Mammals lay eggs too.
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  7. Ariel Cohen (2001). Relative Readings of Many, Often, and Generics. Natural Language Semantics 9 (1):41-67.
    In addition to the familiar cardinal and proportional readings of many and few, there is yet another interpretation, the relative proportional reading. This reading, unlike the ordinary absolute proportional reading, is not conservative. Under the relative reading, 'Many ψs are φs' is true just in case the proportion of φs among ψs is greater than the proportion of φs among members of contextually given alternatives to ψ. I provide a definition of proportional readings that reduces the differences between absolute and (...)
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  8. Veneeta Dayal (2003). Bare Nominals: Non-Specific and Contrastive Readings Under Scrambling. In Simin Karimi (ed.), Word Order and Scrambling. Blackwell Pub.. 67--90.
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  9. Delia Graff Fara & Gillian Russell (eds.) (forthcoming). The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  10. Gerhard Heyer (1988). Generic Generalisations, Discourse Representation Structures, and Knowledge Representation. In Jakob Hoepelman (ed.), Representation and Reasoning: Proceedings of the Stuttgart Conference Workshop on Discourse Representation, Dialogue Tableaux, and Logic Programming. M. Niemeyer Verlag.
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  11. Mark Johnston & Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Concepts, Analysis, Generics and the Canberra Plan1. Philosophical Perspectives 26 (1):113-171.
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  12. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg (2012). Inferences About Members of Kinds: The Generics Hypothesis. Language and Cognitive Processes 27:887-900.
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  13. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Sam Glucksberg (2009). Generics, Prevalence, and Default Inferences. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society:443--8.
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  14. Sangeet Khemlani, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sam Glucksberg & Paula Rubio-Fernandez (2007). Do Ducks Lay Eggs? How People Interpret Generic Assertions. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  15. Shieva Kleinschmidt & Jacob Ross (2013). Repeatable Artwork Sentences and Generics. In Christy Mag Uidhir (ed.), Art and Abstract Objects. Oxford University Press.
    We seem to talk about repeatable artworks, like symphonies, films, and novels, all the time. We say things like, "The Moonlight Sonata has three movements" and "Duck Soup makes me laugh". How are these sentences to be understood? We argue against the simple subject/predicate view, on which the subjects of the sentences refer to individuals and the sentences are true iff the referents of the subjects have the properties picked out by the predicates. We then consider two alternative responses that (...)
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  16. Kathrin Koslicki (1999). Genericity and Logical Form. Mind and Language 14 (4):441–467.
    In this paper I propose a novel treatment of generic sentences, which proceeds by means of different levels of analysis. According to this account, all generic sentences (I-generics and D-generics alike) are initially treated in a uniform manner, as involving higher-order predication (following the work of George Boolos, James Higginbotham and Barry Schein on plurals). Their non-uniform character, however, re-emerges at subsequent levels of analysis, when the higher-order predications of the first level are cashed out in terms of quantification over (...)
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  17. Manfred Krifka, Definitional Generics.
    This article1 investigates a particular use of generic sentences (or “characterizing” sentences, in the terminology of Krifka e.a. 1995), which is most prevalent with indefinite singular subjects. Such subjects cannot always be interchanged with bare plural NPs, as has been famously pointed out by Lawler (1973).
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  18. Sarah-Jane Leslie (forthcoming). Carving Up the Social World with Generics. Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy.
  19. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Generics. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  20. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2013). Generics Oversimplified. Noûs 47 (3).
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  21. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Generics. In Gillian Russell & Delia Fara (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  22. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2012). Generics Articulate Default Generalizations. Recherches Linguistiques de Vincennes 41:25-45.
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  23. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2008). Generics: Cognition and Acquisition. Philosophical Review 117 (1):1-47.
    Ducks lay eggs' is a true sentence, and `ducks are female' is a false one. Similarly, `mosquitoes carry the West Nile virus' is obviously true, whereas `mosquitoes don't carry the West Nile virus' is patently false. This is so despite the egg-laying ducks' being a subset of the female ones and despite the number of mosquitoes that don't carry the virus being ninety-nine times the number that do. Puzzling facts such as these have made generic sentences defy adequate semantic treatment. (...)
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  24. Sarah-Jane Leslie (2007). Generics and the Structure of the Mind. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):375–403.
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  25. Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman (2012). Quantified Statements Are Recalled as Generics: Evidence From Preschool Children and Adults. Cognitive Psychology 64 (186):214.
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  26. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani & Sam Glucksberg (2011). All Ducks Lay Eggs: The Generic Overgeneralization Effect. Journal of Memory and Language 65:15-31.
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  27. Sarah-Jane Leslie, Sangeet Khemlani, Sandeep Prasada & Sam Glucksberg (2009). Conceptual and Linguistic Distinctions Between Singular and Plural Generics. Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.
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  28. David Liebesman (2011). Simple Generics. Noûs 45 (3):409-442.
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  29. Angus Macintyre (1972). Omitting Quantifier-Free Types in Generic Structures. Journal of Symbolic Logic 37 (3):512-520.
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  30. Friederike Moltmann (2010). Generalizing Detached Self-Reference and the Semantics of Generic 'One'. Mind and Language 25 (4):440-473.
    In this paper I will give an analysis of what I call ‘generalizing detached self-reference’ within a general account of reference to the first person. With generalizing detached self-reference an agent attributes properties to a range of individuals by putting himself into their shoes, or simulating them. I will show that generalizing detached self-reference plays an important role in the semantics of natural language, in particular in the English generic one and in what syntacticians call arbitrary PRO.
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  31. Friederike Moltmann (2006). Generic 'One', Arbitrary PRO, and the First Person. Natural Language Semantics 14 (3):257–281.
    The generic pronoun 'one' (or its empty counterpart, arbitrary PRO) exhibits a range of properties that show a special connection to the first person, or rather the relevant intentional agent (speaker, addressee, or described agent). The paper argues that generic 'one' involves generic quantification in which the predicate is applied to a given entity ‘as if’ to the relevant agent himself. This is best understood in terms of simulation, a central notion in some recent developments in the philosophy of mind (...)
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  32. Bernard Nickel, On Semantics for Characterizing Sentences.
    The paper presents semantics for a subset of generics, so-called “characterizing sentences”. It is argued that claims about the relationship between the truth of characterizing sentences and claims about the distribution of properties among individuals can be viewed independently of considerations about logical form. Some extant approaches are presented and criticized, and a positive analysis of characterizing sentences in terms of normality is introduced and defended. The main innovation is that a notion of normality enters into the analysis in two (...)
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  33. Bernard Nickel (2008). Generics and the Ways of Normality. Linguistics and Philosophy 31 (6):629-648.
    I contrast two approaches to the interpretation of generics such as ‘ravens are black:’ majority-based views, on which they are about what is the case most of the time, and inquiry-based views, on which they are about a feature we focus on in inquiry. I argue that majority-based views face far more systematic counterexamples than has previously been supposed. They cannot account for generics about kinds with multiple characteristic properties, such as ‘elephants live in Africa and Asia.’ I then go (...)
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  34. Bernhard Nickel, Processes in the Interpretation of Generics and CP-Laws.
    Ceteris Paribus (cp-)laws may be said to hold only ``other things equal,'' signaling that their truth is compatible with a range of exceptions. Several theorists have taken this feature to introduce the presumption that cp-laws are trivial, one that needs to be countered if we are to appeal to cp-laws in the course of scientific investigation or our philosophical theorizing about it. I argue that the triviality worry is misplaced by pointing out that cp-laws are just a subset of uncontroversially (...)
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  35. Bernhard Nickel, The Ways of Normality.
    I contrast two approaches to the interpretation of generics such as `ravens are black:' majority-based views, on which they are about what is the case most of the time, and inquiry-based views, on which they are about a feature we focus on in inquiry---an inductive target. I argue that while majority-based views are preferable based on the most basic data about generics, only inquiry-based views can account for a systematic class of sentences: generics with logically complex predicates, such as `cats (...)
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  36. Bernhard Nickel (2010). Generically Free Choice. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (6):479-512.
    This paper discusses free-choice like effects in generics. Just as Jane may drink coffee or tea can be used to convey Jane may drink coffee and Jane may drink tea (she is free to choose ), some generics with disjunctive predicates can be used to convey conjunctions of simpler generics: elephants live in Africa or Asia can be used to convey elephants live in Africa and elephants live in Asia. Investigating these logically slightly more complex generics and especially the free-choice (...)
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  37. Hiroki Nomoto (forthcoming). A General Theory of Bare “Singular” Kind Terms. In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29).
    Dayal’s (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare “singular” kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence of bare “singular” (...)
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  38. Hiroki Nomoto (forthcoming). Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Annual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29). In Proceedings of the Poster Session of the 29th Anual West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (WCCFL 29). University of Arizona Linguistics Circle.
    Dayal's (2004) theory of kind terms accounts for the definiteness and number marking patterns in kind terms in many languages. Brazilian Portuguese has been claimed to be a counter-example to her theory as it seems to allow bare ``singular'' kind terms, which are predicted to be impossible according to her theory. However, the empirical status of the relevant data has not been clear so far. This paper presents a new data point from Singlish and confirms the existence of bare ``singular'' (...)
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  39. Anna Papafragou, On Generics.
    In this paper I argue against previous approaches to the semantics of generics which involved the notions of prototype, stereotype and relevant quantification. I assume that the logical form of generics includes a generic operator which, as Heim (1992) has suggested, can be construed as the modal operator of necessity. After demonstrating that the presence of the generic operator in a semantic representation, as well as its domain of quantification, are pragmatically supplied, I go on to show how the various (...)
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  40. T. Parent, A Puzzle About Kinds and Kind Terms.
    'The kind Dinosaur’ denotes a kind. Yet many generics are thought to denote a kind also, like the subject-terms in ‘Dinosaurs are extinct’, ‘Water is a liquid’, and ‘The mosquito carries malaria’. This may be an adequate view for the linguist’s purposes--however, it raises a puzzle for the ontologist. The problem is that what is often claimed about kinds is never claimed about dinosaurs, water, and the mosquito. Thus, kinds are sometimes claimed to be abstract objects, immanent universals, nominal essences, (...)
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  41. Francis Jeffry Pelletier (ed.) (2009). Kinds, Things, and Stuff: Mass Terms and Generics. OUP USA.
    A generic statement is a type of generalization that is made by asserting that a "kind" has a certain property. For example we might hear that marshmallows are sweet. Here, we are talking about the "kind" marshmallow and assert that individual instances of this kind have the property of being sweet. Almost all of our common sense knowledge about the everyday world is put in terms of generic statements. What can make these generic sentences be true even when there are (...)
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  42. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Nicholas Asher, Generics and Defaults.
    1: Linguistic and Epistemological Background 1 . 1 : Generic Reference vs. Generic Predication 1 . 2 : Why are there any Generic Sentences at all? 1 . 3 : Generics and Exceptions, Two Bad Attitudes 1 . 4 : Exceptions and Generics, Some Other Attitudes 1 . 5 : Generics and Intensionality 1 . 6 : Goals of an Analysis of Generic Sentences 1 . 7 : A Little Notation 1 . 8 : Generics vs. Explicit Statements of Regularities..
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  43. Francis Jeffry Pelletier & Lenhart K. Schubert, Mass Expressions.
    previous theories and the relevance of those criticisms to the new accounts. Additionally, we have included a new section at the end, which gives some directions to literature outside of formal semantics in which the notion of mass has been employed. We looked at work on mass expressions in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics here, and we discussed some research in the history of philosophy and in metaphysics that makes use of the notion of mass.
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  44. Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Christina Tworek (2012). Cultural Transmission of Social Essentialism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (34):13526-13531.
  45. Laura Rimell, Habitual Sentences and Generic Quantification.
    Generic sentences express generalizations about objects or situations in the world. The ways in which genericity can arise in natural language have long been of interest to semanticists. In some sentences, the source of the generalization is visible – the adverb often in (1a), for example. However, generic meaning can also arise in the absence of an overt marker, as in (1b), which, like (1a), expresses a generalization about Mary.
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  46. Catharine Saint Croix & Richmond Thomason (2014). Chisholm's Paradox and Conditional Oughts. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8554:192-207.
    Since it was presented in 1963, Chisholm’s paradox has attracted constant attention in the deontic logic literature, but without the emergence of any definitive solution. We claim this is due to its having no single solution. The paradox actually presents many challenges to the formalization of deontic statements, including (1) context sensitivity of unconditional oughts, (2) formalizing conditional oughts, and (3) distinguishing generic from nongeneric oughts. Using the practical interpretation of ‘ought’ as a guideline, we propose a linguistically motivated logical (...)
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  47. Eric Swanson (forthcoming). The Language of Causation. In Delia Graff Fara & Gillian Russell (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Routledge.
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  48. Matthias Unterhuber (forthcoming). Do Ceteris Paribus Laws Exist? A Regularity-Based Best System Analysis. Erkenntnis.
    The paper argues that ceteris paribus (cp) laws exist, based on a Lewisian best system analysis of lawhood (BSA). Furthermore, it is shown that a BSA faces a second trivialization problem besides the one identified by Lewis. The first point concerns an argument against cp laws by Earman and Roberts. The second point aims to help making some assumptions of the BSA explicit. To address the second trivialization problem, a restriction in terms of natural logical constants is proposed that allows (...)
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  49. Frank O. Wagner (1991). Small Stable Groups and Generics. Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (3):1026-1037.
    We define an R-group to be a stable group with the property that a generic element (for any definable transitive group action) can only be algebraic over a generic. We then derive some corollaries for R-groups and fields, and prove a decomposition theorem and a field theorem. As a nonsuperstable example, we prove that small stable groups are R-groups.
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  50. Ryan Wasserman (2011). Dispositions and Generics. Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):425-453.
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