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Philosophy of Mind

Edited by David Chalmers and David Bourget
Assistant editor: Chang Liu (University of Western Ontario)
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  1. added 2016-08-25
    Susana Monsó (2016). The Moral Dimension of Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness. Animal Sentience 1 (10).
    Rowlands offers a de-intellectualised account of personhood that is meant to secure the unity of a mental life. I argue that his characterisation also singles out a morally relevant feature of individuals. Along the same lines that the orthodox understanding of personhood reflects a fundamental precondition for moral agency, Rowlands’s notion provides a fundamental precondition for moral patienthood.
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  2. added 2016-08-24
    Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Multisensory Processing and Perceptual Consciousness: Part II. Philosophy Compass.
    The first part of this survey article presented a cartography of some of the more extensively studied forms of multisensory processing. In this second part, I turn to examining some of the different possible ways in which the structure of conscious perceptual experience might also be characterized as multisensory. In addition, I discuss the significance of research on multisensory processing and multisensory consciousness for philosophical debates concerning the modularity of perception, cognitive penetration, and the individuation of the senses.
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  3. added 2016-08-24
    Neil Van Leeuwen (forthcoming). Do Religious "Beliefs" Respond to Evidence? Philosophical Explorations.
    Some examples suggest that religious credences (or “beliefs”) respond to evidence. Other examples suggest they are wildly unresponsive. So the examples taken together suggest there is a puzzle about whether descriptive religious attitudes respond to evidence or not. I argue for a solution to this puzzle according to which religious credences are characteristically not responsive to evidence; that is, they do not tend to be extinguished by evidence contrary to them. And when they appear to be responsive, it is because (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-24
    Pablo López-Silva (2016). Schizophrenia and the Place of Egodystonic States in the Aetiology of Thought Insertion. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 7 (3):577-594.
    Despite the diagnostic relevance of thought insertion for disorders such as schizophrenia, the debates about its aetiology are far from resolved. This paper claims that in paying exclusive attention to the perceptual and cognitive impairments leading to delusional experiences in general, current deficit approaches overlook the role that affective disturbances might play in giving rise to cases of thought insertion. In the context of psychosis, affective impairments are often characterized as a consequence of the stress and anxiety caused by delusional (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-24
    Michael Roche (2016). Physicalism and Supervenience: A Case for a New Sense of Physical Duplication. Erkenntnis 81 (4):669-681.
    Physicalism is the view, roughly, that everything is physical. This thesis is often characterized in terms of a particular supervenience thesis. Central to this thesis is the idea of physical duplication. I argue that the standard way of understanding physical duplication leads—along with other claims—to a sub-optimal consequence for the physicalist. I block this consequence by shifting to an alternative sense of physical duplication. I then argue that physicalism is best characterized by a supervenience thesis that employs both the new (...)
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  6. added 2016-08-22
    A. Halliday, Photons and Properties.
    In this paper I will argue that, given the very limited quantity of information carried by photons, the only known property is colour and that all knowledge of the objective world is psychological only. -/- .
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  7. added 2016-08-22
    Piotr Kozak (2015). Co to jest myślenie? Pojęcia, sądy, percepcja w perspektywie kantowskiej. Wydawnictwo Scholar.
    W Co to jest myślenie? staram się za pomocą narzędzi dostarczonych przez filozofię Kanta rozjaśnić problem związku między percepcją a pojęciami, który ujmuję pod postacią tzw. problemu kierowania się regułą. Argumentuję, po pierwsze, że możemy pod pewnym względem utożsamiać myślenie i percepcję, a sam problem kierowania się regułą oddalić jako wynik źle postawionego zagadnienia badawczego. Po drugie, wskazuję na to, że warunkiem możliwości kierowania się regułą jest umiejętność odróżniania reguł istotnych i nieistotnych. Brak tej ostatniej umiejętności Kant nazywa głupotą. -/- (...)
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  8. added 2016-08-21
    Geoffrey Lee (forthcoming). Worlds, Voyages and Experiences: Commentary on Pelczar’s Sensorama. [REVIEW] Analysis.
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  9. added 2016-08-21
    Eugene Mills (forthcoming). Introspection in Michael Pelczar’s Sensorama. [REVIEW] Analysis.
  10. added 2016-08-21
    Michael Pelczar (forthcoming). Author's Summary, and Replies to Commentators. [REVIEW] Analysis.
  11. added 2016-08-20
    A. Halliday, Photons and Colour.
    In this paper, I will argue that there is a fundamental difference between the objective world and its psychological Representation: in that only the latter contains colour. -/- .
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  12. added 2016-08-19
    Dimitria Electra Gatzia & Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). What Can Neuroscience Tell Us About the Hard Problem of Consciousness? (Doi: 10.3389/Fnins.2016.00395). Frontiers in Neuroscience.
    Rapid advances in the field of neuroimaging techniques including magnetoencephalography (MEG), electroencephalography (EEG), functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel based morphomentry (VBM), and optical imaging, have allowed neuroscientists to investigate neural processes in ways that have not been possible until recently. Combining these techniques with advanced analysis procedures during different conditions such as hypnosis, psychiatric and neurological conditions, subliminal stimulation, and psychotropic drugs began transforming the study of neuroscience, ushering a new paradigm that may allow neuroscientists to tackle (...)
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  13. added 2016-08-19
    Marianna Bergamaschi Ganapini (forthcoming). Why We Can Still Believe the Error Theory. International Journal of Philosophical Studies:1-14.
  14. added 2016-08-19
    Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2015). Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). CEUR Vol. 1515 1-5.
    The Information Artifact Ontology (IAO) was created to serve as a domain‐neutral resource for the representation of types of information content entities (ICEs) such as documents, data‐bases, and digital im‐ages. We identify a series of problems with the current version of the IAO and suggest solutions designed to advance our understanding of the relations between ICEs and associated cognitive representations in the minds of human subjects. This requires embedding IAO in a larger framework of ontologies, including most importantly the Mental (...)
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  15. added 2016-08-19
    Nicola Mößner (2010). Wie wirklich ist die Wirklichkeit. Wissenschaftliche Fotografien als Daten. In Richard Heinrich, Elisabeth Nemeth & Wolfram Pichler (eds.), Bild und Bildlichkeit in Philosophie, Wissenschaft und Kunst (Image and Imaging in Philosophy, Science, and the Arts), Papers of the 33 rd International Wittgenstein Symposium. Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society 216-219.
    Fotografien können als paradigmatische Instanzen des Bildbegriffs aufgefasst werden. Sie finden umfangreiche Verwendung in den Wissenschaften. Die kausale Relation zum abgebildeten Objekt sowie die vermeintliche Ähnlichkeit des Bildes mit seinem Gegenstand scheinen ihren Gebrauch als Belege im Forschungsprozess zu legitimieren. Anhand einer Fallstudie zur Oberflächenerfassung des Planeten Mars mit Hilfe einer digitalen Spezialkamera soll in diesem Beitrag untersucht werden, inwiefern Fotografien der Status eines wissenschaftlichen Datums tatsächlich zugesprochen werden kann oder nicht.
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  16. added 2016-08-19
    Jean Nicod (1924). La Geometrie dans le Monde Sensible. F. Alcan.
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  17. added 2016-08-19
    Jean Nicod (1924). La Geometrie dans le Monde Sensible. F. Alcan.
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  18. added 2016-08-18
    Dwayne Moore (forthcoming). Mental Causation, Compatibilism and Counterfactuals. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-23.
    According to proponents of the causal exclusion problem, there cannot be a sufficient physical cause and a distinct mental cause of the same piece of behaviour. Increasingly, the causal exclusion problem is circumvented via this compatibilist reasoning: a sufficient physical cause of the behavioural effect necessitates the mental cause of the behavioural effect, so the effect has a sufficient physical cause and a mental cause as well. In this paper, I argue that this compatibilist reply fails to resolve the causal (...)
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  19. added 2016-08-18
    Santiago Echeverri (forthcoming). How to Undercut Radical Skepticism. Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Radical skepticism relies on the hypothesis that one could be completely cut off from the external world. In this paper, I argue that this hypothesis can be rationally motivated by means of a conceivability argument. Subsequently, I submit that this conceivability argument does not furnish a good reason to believe that one could be completely cut off from the external world. To this end, I show that we cannot adequately conceive scenarios that verify the radical skeptical hypothesis. Attempts to do (...)
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  20. added 2016-08-18
    Alfred Gierer (1988). Physics, Life and Mind: The Scope and Limitations of Science. In Iain Paul Jan Fennema (ed.), Second European Conference on Science and Religion. Kluwer Academic Publishers 61-71.
    What, precisely, are the ‘changing perspectives on reality’ in contemporary scientific thought? The topics of the lecture are the scope and the limits of science with emphasis on the physical foundations of biology. The laws of physics in general and the physics of molecules in particular form the basis for explaining the mechanism of reproduction, the generation of structure and form in the course of the development of the individual organism, the evolution of the diversity and complexity of organisms by (...)
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  21. added 2016-08-16
    Piero De Rossi (2016). Present and Future Trajectories Towards a Possible Valid and Useful Diagnosis of ADHD. Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences 9 (1):34-35.
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  22. added 2016-08-16
    Miguel Ángel Sebastián (2016). Cognitive Access and Cognitive Phenomenology: Conceptual and Empirical Issues. Philosophical Explorations 19 (2):188-204.
    The well-known distinction between access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness has moved away from the conceptual domain into the empirical one, and the debate now is focused on whether the neural mechanisms of cognitive access are constitutive of the neural correlate of phenomenal consciousness. In this paper, I want to analyze the consequences that a negative reply to this question has for the cognitive phenomenology thesis – roughly the claim that there is a “proprietary” phenomenology of thoughts. If the mechanisms responsible (...)
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  23. added 2016-08-16
    Marta Jorba & Dermot Moran (2016). Conscious Thinking and Cognitive Phenomenology: Topics, Views and Future Developments. Philosophical Explorations 19 (2):95-113.
    This introduction presents a state of the art of philosophical research on cognitive phenomenology and its relation to the nature of conscious thinking more generally. We firstly introduce the question of cognitive phenomenology, the motivation for the debate, and situate the discussion within the fields of philosophy, cognitive psychology and consciousness studies. Secondly, we review the main research on the question, which we argue has so far situated the cognitive phenomenology debate around the following topics and arguments: phenomenal contrast, epistemic (...)
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  24. added 2016-08-16
    Julia Jansen (2016). Kant’s and Husserl’s Agentive and Proprietary Accounts of Cognitive Phenomenology. Philosophical Explorations 19 (2):161-172.
    In this paper, I draw from Kantian and Husserlian reflections on the self-awareness of thinking for a contribution to the cognitive phenomenology debate. In particular, I draw from Kant’s conceptions of inner sense and apperception, and from Husserl’s notions of lived experience and self-awareness for an inquiry into the nature of our awareness of our own cognitive activity. With particular consideration of activities of attention, I develop what I take to be Kant’s and Husserl’s “agentive” and “proprietary” accounts. These, I (...)
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  25. added 2016-08-16
    Alberto Voltolini (2016). Why Frege Cases Do Involve Cognitive Phenomenology but Only Indirectly. Philosophical Explorations 19 (2):205-221.
    In this paper, I want to hold, first, that a treatment of Frege cases in terms of a difference in cognitive phenomenology of the involved experiential mental states is not viable. Second, I will put forward another treatment of such cases that appeals to a difference in intentional objects metaphysically conceived not as exotica, but as schematic objects, that is, as objects that have no metaphysical nature qua objects of thought. This allows their nature to be settled independently of their (...)
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  26. added 2016-08-15
    Jan Scheffel, The Unsolvability of the Mind-Body Problem Frees the Will.
    The mind-body problem is analyzed in a reductionist perspective. By combining the concepts of emergence and algorithmic information theory in a thought experiment employing a basic nonlinear process, it is shown that epistemically strongly emergent properties may develop. A comparison with the significantly more complex neural network of the brain shows that also consciousness is epistemically emergent in a strong sense. Thus reductionist understanding of consciousness is not possible; the mind-body problem does not have a reductionist solution. The ontologically emergent (...)
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  27. added 2016-08-15
    Mark Eli Kalderon, Priscian on Perception.
    An aporia posed by Theophrastus prompts Priscian to describe the process by which perception formally assimilates to its object as a progressive perfection. I present an interpretation of Priscian’s account of perception’s progressive perfection. And I consider a dilemma for the general class of accounts to which Priscian’s belongs based on related problems raised by Plotinus and Aquinas.
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  28. added 2016-08-15
    David Bourget (forthcoming). Intensional Perceptual Ascriptions. Erkenntnis:1-18.
    This paper defends the view that perceptual ascriptions such as “Jones sees a cat” are sometimes intensional. I offer a range of examples of intensional perceptual ascriptions, respond to objections to intensional readings of perceptual ascriptions, and show how widely accepted semantic accounts of intensionality can explain the key features of intensional perceptual ascriptions.
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  29. added 2016-08-15
    Berit Brogaard & Elijah Chudnoff (forthcoming). Consciousness and Knowledge. In Uriah Kriegel (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Consciousness. Oxford
    This chapter focuses on the relationship between consciousness and knowledge, and in particular on the role perceptual consciousness might play in justifying beliefs about the external world. We outline a version of phenomenal dogmatism according to which perceptual experiences immediately, prima facie justify certain select parts of their content, and do so in virtue of their having a distinctive phenomenology with respect to those contents. Along the way we take up various issues in connection with this core theme, including the (...)
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  30. added 2016-08-15
    Robert James M. Boyles (2012). Artificial Qualia, Intentional Systems and Machine Consciousness. In Proceedings of the Research@DLSU Congress 2012: Science and Technology Conference. 110a–110c.
    In the field of machine consciousness, it has been argued that in order to build human-like conscious machines, we must first have a computational model of qualia. To this end, some have proposed a framework that supports qualia in machines by implementing a model with three computational areas (i.e., the subconceptual, conceptual, and linguistic areas). These abstract mechanisms purportedly enable the assessment of artificial qualia. However, several critics of the machine consciousness project dispute this possibility. For instance, Searle, in his (...)
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  31. added 2016-08-14
    Joel Krueger & Thomas Szanto (forthcoming). Extended Emotions. Philosophy Compass.
    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and (...)
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  32. added 2016-08-14
    Henry Clarke (2016). Wiggins on Practical Knowledge. Disputatio 8 (42):113-124.
    Wiggins’ (2012) argument against propositional accounts of knowing how is based on a development of some considerations taken from Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics. Aristotle argued that the knowledge needed for participation in an ethos cannot be codified in propositional form so as to let it be imparted to someone who did not already have it. This is because any putative codification would be incomplete, and require that knowledge in order to extend it to novel cases. On a reasonable interpretation of his (...)
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  33. added 2016-08-13
    Elisabetta Sacchi & Alberto Voltolini (2016). Another Argument for Cognitive Phenomenology. Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia 7 (2):256-263.
    __: In this paper, we want to support Kriegel’s argument in favor of the thesis that there is a cognitive form of phenomenology that is both irreducible to and independent of any sensory form of phenomenology by providing another argument in favor of the same thesis. Indeed, this new argument is also intended to show that the thought experiment Kriegel’s argument relies on does describe a genuine metaphysical possibility. In our view, Kriegel has not entirely succeeded in showing that his (...)
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  34. added 2016-08-12
    Allen-Hermanson (2016). Is Cortex Necessary? Animal Sentience 1 (3).
    A key contention of Klein & Barron (2016) is that consciousness does not depend on cortical structures. A critical appraisal suggests they have overestimated the strength of their evidence.
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  35. added 2016-08-11
    Jordan S. Martin, Amy Summerville & Virginia B. Wickline (forthcoming). Persuasion and Pragmatics: An Empirical Test of the Guru Effect Model. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-16.
    Decades of research have investigated the complex role of source credibility in attitude persuasion. Current theories of persuasion predict that when messages are thoughtfully scrutinized, argument strength will tend to have a greater effect on attitudes than source credibility. Source credibility can affect highly elaborated attitudes, however, when individuals evaluate material that elicits low attitude extremity. A recently proposed model called the guru effect predicts that source credibility can also cause attitudinal change by biasing the interpretation of pragmatically ambiguous material. (...)
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  36. added 2016-08-11
    Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (forthcoming). Fictional Persuasion and the Nature of Belief. In Ema Sullivan-Bissett, Helen Bradley & Paul Noordhof (eds.), Art and the Nature of Belief. Oxford University Press
    Psychological studies on fictional persuasion demonstrate that being engaged with fiction systematically affects our beliefs about the real world, in ways that seem insensitive to the truth. This threatens to undermine the widely accepted view that beliefs are essentially regulated in ways that tend to ensure their truth, and may tempt various non-doxastic interpretations of the belief-seeming attitudes we form as a result of engaging with fiction. I evaluate this threat, and argue that it is benign. Even if the relevant (...)
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  37. added 2016-08-11
    Jakub Jonkisz (2016). Świadomość jako zindywidualizowana informacja w działaniu : uniwersalna charakterystyka. Filozofia Nauki 24 (2).
    The aim of the article is to formulate a universal characterization of consciousness, despite the conceptual vagueness of that term. The fundamental aspects of this phenomenon as studied by science consist of four features: its being accessible from the inside and the outside (subjectively and objectively), its being about something (referential), its being bodily determined, and its possessing a certain function (being useful). Approached in this way and in broad terms, consciousness seems to be a graded rather than all-or-none phenomenon. (...)
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  38. added 2016-08-11
    Jakub Jonkisz (2016). Świadomość jako zindywidualizowana informacja w działaniu : uniwersalna charakterystyka. Filozofia Nauki 24 (2).
    The aim of the article is to formulate a universal characterization of consciousness, despite the conceptual vagueness of that term. The fundamental aspects of this phenomenon as studied by science consist of four features: its being accessible from the inside and the outside (subjectively and objectively), its being about something (referential), its being bodily determined, and its possessing a certain function (being useful). Approached in this way and in broad terms, consciousness seems to be a graded rather than all-or-none phenomenon. (...)
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  39. added 2016-08-11
    Jakub Jonkisz (2016). Subjectivity: A Case of Biological Individuation and an Adaptive Response to Informational Overflow. Frontiers in Psychology 7 (1206).
    The article presents a perspective on the scientific explanation of the subjectivity of conscious experience. It proposes plausible answers for two empirically valid questions: the ‘how’ question concerning the developmental mechanisms of subjectivity, and the ‘why’ question concerning its function. Biological individuation, which is acquired in several different stages, serves as a provisional description of how subjective perspectives may have evolved. To the extent that an individuated informational space seems the most efficient way for a given organism to select biologically (...)
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  40. added 2016-08-11
    Donald Davidson (1970). Mental Events. In Essays on Actions and Events. Clarendon Press 207-224.
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  41. added 2016-08-10
    Steven Gross (forthcoming). Perception and Temporal Representation. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly.
    Is temporal representation constitutively necessary for perception? Tyler Burge (2010) argues that it is, in part because perception requires a form of memory sufficiently sophisticated as to require temporal representation. I critically discuss Burge’s argument, maintaining that it does not succeed. I conclude by reflecting on the consequences for the origins of temporal representation.
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  42. added 2016-08-09
    Björn Petersson (forthcoming). Team Reasoning and Collective Intentionality. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-20.
    Different versions of the idea that individualism about agency is the root of standard game theoretical puzzles have been defended by Regan 1980, Bacharach, Hurley, Sugden :165–181, 2003), and Tuomela 2013, among others. While collectivistic game theorists like Michael Bacharach provide formal frameworks designed to avert some of the standard dilemmas, philosophers of collective action like Raimo Tuomela aim at substantive accounts of collective action that may explain how agents overcoming such social dilemmas would be motivated. This paper focuses on (...)
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  43. added 2016-08-09
    Cecilea Mun (forthcoming). The Rationalities of Emotion. Phenomenology and Mind.
    I argue that emotions are not only rational in-themselves, strictly speaking, but they are also instrumentally rational, epistemically rational, and evaluatively rational. I begin with a discussion of what it means for emotions to be rational or irrational in-themselves, which includes the derivation of a criterion for the ontological rationality of emotions (CORe): For emotion or an emotion there exists some normative standard that is given by what emotion or an emotion is against which our emotional responses can be judged (...)
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  44. added 2016-08-09
    Dustin Stokes (2016). Review of Bence Nanay-Aesthetics as Philosophy of Perception. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 8:00.
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  45. added 2016-08-08
    Alex Madva & Michael Brownstein (forthcoming). Stereotypes, Prejudice, and the Taxonomy of the Implicit Social Mind. Noûs.
    How do cognition and affect interact to produce action? Research in intergroup psychology illuminates this question by investigating the relationship between stereotypes and prejudices about social groups. Yet it is now clear that many social attitudes are implicit (roughly, nonconscious or involuntary). This raises the question: how does the distinction between cognition and affect apply to implicit mental states? An influential view—roughly analogous to a Humean theory of action—is that “implicit stereotypes” and “implicit prejudices” constitute two separate constructs, reflecting different (...)
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  46. added 2016-08-08
    Nicholas Shea, Representation in the Genome and in Other Inheritance Systems.
    There is ongoing controversy as to whether the genome is a representing system. Although it is widely recognised that DNA carries information, both correlating with and coding for various outcomes, neither of these implies that the genome has semantic properties like correctness or satisfaction conditions, In the Scope of Logic, Methodology, and the Philosophy of Sciences, Vol. II. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 387-400). Here a modified version of teleosemantics is applied to the genome to show that it does indeed have semantic (...)
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  47. added 2016-08-06
    H. Orri Stefánsson (forthcoming). What is "Real" in Probabilism? Australasian Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper defends two related claims about belief. First, the claim that unlike numerical degrees of belief, comparative beliefs are primitive and psychologically real. Second, the claim that the fundamental norm of Probabilism is not that numerical degrees of belief should satisfy the probability axioms, but rather that comparative beliefs should satisfy certain constraints.
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  48. added 2016-08-06
    Gheorghe-Ilie Farte (2016). How to Change People’s Beliefs? Doxastic Coercion Vs. Evidential Persuasion. Argumentum. Journal of the Seminar of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory and Rhetoric 14 (2):47-76.
    The very existence of society depends on the ability of its members to influence formatively the beliefs, desires, and actions of their fellows. In every sphere of social life, powerful human agents (whether individuals or institutions) tend to use coercion as a favorite shortcut to achieving their aims without taking into consideration the non-violent alternatives or the negative (unintended) consequences of their actions. This propensity for coercion is manifested in the doxastic sphere by attempts to shape people’s beliefs (and doubts) (...)
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  49. added 2016-08-06
    Alexander Batthyany (2015). Complex Visual Imagery and Cognition During Near-Death Experiences. Journal of Near Death Studies 34 (2).
    Near-death experiences (NDEs) entail complex and structured conscious experience during conditions known to coincide with rapid loss of consciousness often associated with decline or disruption of the neurological correlates currently held to be causative factors of visual imagery and cognition. In this study, 653 NDE reports of cardiac and/or respiratory arrest patients were analyzed for unprompted, spontaneous references to quality of conscious visual imagery and mentation during an NDE. Results indicate that in a majority of NDEs, both figurative and abstract (...)
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  50. added 2016-08-05
    Lydia Patton (forthcoming). Helmholtz's Physiological Psychology. In Sandra Lapointe (ed.), Philosophy of Mind in the Nineteenth Century: The History of the Philosophy of Mind, Volume 5. Routledge
    Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) contributed two major works to the theory of sensation and perception in the nineteenth century. The first edition of the The Doctrine of the Sensations of Tone was published in 1863, and the first edition of the Handbook of Physiological Optics was published in toto in 1867. These works established results both controversial and enduring: Helmholtz’s analysis of mixed colors and of combination tones, his arguments against nativism, and his commitment to analyzing sensation and perception using (...)
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