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  1. B. . Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk & M. Thelen (eds.) (2008). Translation and Meaning. Hogeschool Zuyd.
  2. Jonas Åkerman (2015). Indexicals and Reference‐Shifting: Towards a Pragmatic Approach. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 93 (3):n/a-n/a.
    I propose a pragmatic approach to the kind of reference-shifting occurring in indexicals as used in e.g. written notes and answering machine messages. I proceed in two steps. First, I prepare the ground by showing that the arguments against such a pragmatic approach raised in the recent literature fail. Second, I take a first few steps towards implementing this approach, by sketching a pragmatic theory of reference-shifting, and showing how it can handle cases of the relevant kind. While the immediate (...)
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  3. Hubert G. Alexander (1969). Meaning in Language. [Glenview, Ill.]Scott, Foresman.
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  4. Emmanuel Alloa & Miriam Fischer (eds.) (2013). Leib und Sprache. Zur Reflexivität verkörperter Ausdrucksformen. Velbrück.
    Die elf Beiträge dieses Bandes gehen aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln dem Problem der Verkörperung von Sinn nach: phänomenologische, psychoanalytische und sprachwissenschaftliche Ansätze bilden dabei den Schwerpunkt; sie werden aber durch Studien aus der Literaturtheorie, der politischen Theorie und der Filmwissenschaft ergänzt. Was heißt es – das ist die zentrale Frage –, den Körper als leibliches Medium aufzufassen, welches Sinn nicht nur verkörpert, sondern überhaupt erst entstehen lässt? Gibt es bereits eine Sprache des Leibes diesseits der Ebene ausdrücklicher Rede?
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  5. Emmanuel Alloa & Miriam Fischer (eds.) (2013). Leib und Sprache. Zur Reflexivität verkörperter Ausdrucksformen. Velbrück.
    Die elf Beiträge dieses Bandes gehen aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln dem Problem der Verkörperung von Sinn nach: phänomenologische, psychoanalytische und sprachwissenschaftliche Ansätze bilden dabei den Schwerpunkt; sie werden aber durch Studien aus der Literaturtheorie, der politischen Theorie und der Filmwissenschaft ergänzt. Was heißt es – das ist die zentrale Frage –, den Körper als leibliches Medium aufzufassen, welches Sinn nicht nur verkörpert, sondern überhaupt erst entstehen lässt? Gibt es bereits eine Sprache des Leibes diesseits der Ebene ausdrücklicher Rede?
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  6. William P. Alston (1965). Expressing. In Max Black (ed.), Philosophy in America. Ithaca, N.Y.,Cornell University Press 15--34.
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  7. William P. Alston (1962). Ziff's Semantic Analysis. Journal of Philosophy 59 (1):5-20.
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  8. David Leech Anderson (2009). A Semantics for Virtual Environments and the Ontological Status of Virtual Objects. APA Newsletter on Philosophy and Computers 9 (1):15-19.
    Virtual environments engage millions of people and billions of dollars each year. What is the ontological status of the virtual objects that populate those environments? An adequate answer to that question requires a developed semantics for virtual environments. The truth-conditions must be identified for “tree”-sentences when uttered by speakers immersed in a virtual environment (VE). It will be argued that statements about virtual objects have truth-conditions roughly comparable to the verificationist conditions popular amongst some contemporary antirealists. This does not mean (...)
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  9. I. Angelelli & P. Pérez-Ilzarbe (eds.) (2000). Medieval and Renaissance Logic in Spain. Olms.
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  10. Ian Angus (2005). Bodies of Meaning. Symposium: Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy/Revue canadienne de philosophie continentale 9 (1):142-145.
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  11. Gil Anidjar (2011). The Meaning of Life. Critical Inquiry 37 (4):697-723.
    The starting point of this essay is that there is a contradiction at the heart of our current and hyperbolic understandings of life. To be more precise, on the one hand there is the historical novelty of biology as a modern science and set of technologies. On the other hand, life is simultaneously understood according to biological protocols that seem void of history.
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  12. Rani Lill Anjum & Stephen Mumford (2011). What We Tend to Mean. Norsk Filosofisk Tidsskrift 1 (46):20-33.
    In this paper a dispositional account of meaning is offered. Words might dispose towards a particular or ‘literal’ meaning, but whether this meaning is actually conveyed when expressed will depend on a number of factors, such as speaker’s intentions, the context of the utterance and the background knowledge of the hearer. It is thus argued that no meaning is guaranteed or necessitated by the words used.
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  13. László Antal (1963). Questions of Meaning. The Hague, Mouton.
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  14. Syamsuddin Arif (2007). Preserving the Semantic Structure of Islamic Key Terms and Concepts: Izutsu, Al-Attas, and Al-Raghib Al-Isfahani. Islam & Science 5 (2):107 (10).
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  15. Bradley Armour-Garb & James A. Woodbridge (2003). Curried Katz with Epimenidean Dilemma. Philosophical Forum 34 (3-4):351-366.
  16. D. M. Armstrong (1971). Meaning and Communication. Philosophical Review 80 (4):427-447.
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  17. Jody Azzouni (2013). Inconsistency in Natural Languages. Synthese 190 (15):3175-3184.
    An argument for Trivialism, the view that natural languages are logically inconsistent, is provided that does not rely on contentious empirical assumptions about natural language terms such as “and” or “or.” Further, the view is defended against an important objection recently mounted against it by Thomas Hofweber.
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  18. Kent Bach, Meaning and Communication.
    Words mean things, speakers mean things in using words, and these need not be the same. For example, if you say to someone who has just finished eating a super giant burrito at the Taqueria Guadalajara, “You are what you eat,” you probably do not mean that the person is a super giant burrito. So we need to distinguish the meaning of a linguistic expression – a word, phrase, or sentence – from what a person means in using it. To (...)
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  19. Kent Bach (2012). Saying, Meaning, and Implicating. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press
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  20. Kent Bach (2001). You Don't Say? Synthese 128 (1-2):15--44.
    This paper defends a purely semantic notionof what is said against various recent objections. Theobjections each cite some sort of linguistic,psychological, or epistemological fact that issupposed to show that on any viable notion of what aspeaker says in uttering a sentence, there ispragmatic intrusion into what is said. Relying on amodified version of Grice's notion, on which what issaid must be a projection of the syntax of the utteredsentence, I argue that a purely semantic notion isneeded to account for the (...)
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  21. Mark Balaguer (2008). Fictionalism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Mathematical fictionalism (or as I'll call it, fictionalism) is best thought of as a reaction to mathematical platonism. Platonism is the view that (a) there exist abstract mathematical objects (i.e., nonspatiotemporal mathematical objects), and (b) our mathematical sentences and theories provide true descriptions of such objects. So, for instance, on the platonist view, the sentence ‘3 is prime’ provides a straightforward description of a certain object—namely, the number 3—in much the same way that the sentence ‘Mars is red’ provides a (...)
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  22. Steven James Bartlett & Peter Suber (eds.) (1987). Self-Reference: Reflections on Reflexivity. Distributors for the United States and Canada, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    From the Editor’s Introduction: -/- THE INTERNAL LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN UNDERSTANDING -/- We carry, unavoidably, the limits of our understanding with us. We are perpetually confined within the horizons of our conceptual structure. When this structure grows or expands, the breadth of our comprehensions enlarges, but we are forever barred from the wished-for glimpse beyond its boundaries, no matter how hard we try, no matter how much credence we invest in the substance of our learning and mist of speculation. -/- (...)
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  23. Peter Baumann (2015). Begriffe Analysieren? In Dirk Koppelberg & Stefan Tolksdorf (eds.), Erkenntnistheorie – wie und wozu? Mentis 133-151.
    This article discusses the very limited definability of philosophically interesting concepts as well as the prospects for the project of conceptual analysis.
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  24. David I. Beaver (2008). Sense and Sensitivity: How Focus Determines Meaning. Blackwell Pub..
    Sense and Sensitivity explores the semantics and pragmatics of focus in natural language discourse, advancing a new account of focus sensitivity which posits a three-way distinction between different effects of focus. Makes a valuable contribution to the ongoing research in the field of focus sensitivity Discusses the features of QFC, an original theory of focus implying a new typology of focus-sensitive expressions Presents novel cross-linguistic data on focus and focus sensitivity Concludes with a case study of exclusives (like “only”), arguing (...)
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  25. Markus Beckmann & Ingo Pies, Ordo-Responsibility - Conceptual Reflections Towards a Semantic Innovation.
    Based on economic ethics, this paper reflects on and aims to improve the semantics of responsibility. The traditional concept of responsibility is threatened with erosion when responsibility is attributed to an actor who is unable to exercise individual control over the outcome of his actions. In the modern world-society this is increasingly the case. The concept of ordo-responsibility is helpful in identifying a suitable approach for the attribution and acceptance of responsibility. The perspective of economic ethics systematically differentiates between the (...)
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  26. Delia Belleri (2016). The Underdeterminacy of Sentences and the Expressibility of Our Thoughts. Dialectica 70 (1):29-48.
    It has been argued by many authors that sentences fail to express full-blown propositions: a phenomenon known as semantic underdeterminacy. In some cases, this thesis is accompanied by a conception of thought as fully propositional. This implies that sentences fail to fully express our thoughts. Against this, I argue that many thoughts can be fully expressed by sentences, where by ‘fully expressed’ I mean encoded by a sentence plus minimal contextual information. These are thoughts that may be characterized as less (...)
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  27. Nuel Belnap (2005). Under Carnap's Lamp: Flat Pre-Semantics. Studia Logica 80 (1):1 - 28.
    “Flat pre-semantics” lets each parameter of truth (etc.) be considered sepa-rately and equally, and without worrying about grammatical complications. This allows one to become a little clearer on a variety of philosophical-logical points, such as the use fulness of Carnapian tolerance and the deep relativity of truth. A more definite result of thinking in terms of flat pre-semantics lies in the articulation of some instructive ways of categorizing operations on meanings in purely logical terms in relation to various parame- ters (...)
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  28. Wera Berlin & Mouton de Gruyter (1994). Meaning and Grammar: Cross-Linguis-Tic Perspectives. Ed. By MICHEL. In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press
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  29. Corine Besson (2012). Empty Natural Kind Terms and Dry-Earth. Erkenntnis 76 (3):403-425.
    This paper considers the problem of assigning meanings to empty natural kind terms. It does so in the context of the Twin-Earth externalist-internalist debate about whether the meanings of natural kind terms are individuated by the external physical environment of the speakers using these terms. The paper clarifies and outlines the different ways in which meanings could be assigned to empty natural kind terms. And it argues that externalists do not have the semantic resources to assign them meanings. The paper (...)
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  30. R. S. Bhatnagar (2005). Religion' or 'Dharma' : Meaning and Motivation Primarily in Indian Context. In Ashok Vohra, Arvind Sharma & Mrinal Miri (eds.), Dharma, the Categorial Imperative. D.K. Printworld
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  31. Bishnupada[from old catalog] Bhattacharya (1962). A Study in Language and Meaning: A Critical Examination of Some Aspects of Indian Semantics. Calcutta, Progressive Publishers.
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  32. Ned Block (1986). Advertisement for a Semantics for Psychology. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 10 (1):615-78.
  33. Thomas D. Bontly (2005). The Things We Mean. Review of Metaphysics 58 (4):916-917.
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  34. Emma Borg, Language: A Biological Model.
    Ruth Garrett Millikan is one of the most important thinkers in philosophy of mind and language of the current generation. Across a number of seminal books, and in the company of theorists such as Jerry Fodor and Fred Dretske, she has championed a wholly naturalistic, scientific understanding of content, whether of thought or words. Many think that naturalism about meaning has found its most defensible form in her distinctively “teleological” approach, and in Language: A Biological Model she continues the expansion (...)
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  35. Richard Bradley (2010). Proposition-Valued Random Variables as Information. Synthese 175 (1):17 - 38.
    The notion of a proposition as a set of possible worlds or states occupies central stage in probability theory, semantics and epistemology, where it serves as the fundamental unit both of information and meaning. But this fact should not blind us to the existence of prospects with a different structure. In the paper I examine the use of random variables—in particular, proposition-valued random variables— in these fields and argue that we need a general account of rational attitude formation with respect (...)
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  36. Bob Brandom (1997). Reply to Commentators: [Tomberlin, Macbeth, Lance]. Philosophical Issues 8:199-214.
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  37. Lajos L. Brons (2011). The Grammar of 'Meaning'. In S. Watanabe (ed.), CARLS Series of Advanced Study of Logic and Sensibility, volume 4. Keio University Press
    This paper analyzes some grammatical aspects of the English verb "to mean" and its nominalizations, and based on that, argues that meaning is something that people do rather than something that words have.
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  38. Cecil H. Brown (1976). Semantic Components, Meaning, and Use in Ethnosemantics. Philosophy of Science 43 (3):378-395.
    The epistemological status of semantic components of ethnosemantics is investigated with reference to Wittgenstein's definition of the meaning of a word as its use in language. Semantic components, like the intension of words in logistic philosophy, constitute the conditions which must pertain to objects in order that they are denoted by particular words. "Componential meaning" is determined to be another form of "unitary meaning" and hence subject to the same critical arguments made by Wittgenstein against the latter's three fundamental types: (...)
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  39. Norman Brown (1988). Meaning and Force. Review of Metaphysics 42 (2):405-407.
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  40. Alexis Burgess & David Plunkett (2013). Conceptual Ethics I. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1091-1101.
    Which concepts should we use to think and talk about the world and to do all of the other things that mental and linguistic representation facilitates? This is the guiding question of the field that we call ‘conceptual ethics’. Conceptual ethics is not often discussed as its own systematic branch of normative theory. A case can nevertheless be made that the field is already quite active, with contributions coming in from areas as diverse as fundamental metaphysics and social/political philosophy. In (...)
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  41. P. Byrne (1958). Truth and Meaning. Philosophical Studies 8:221-222.
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  42. Steinar Bøyum (2008). Words From Nowhere – Limits of Criticism. Philosophical Investigations 31 (2):161–181.
    In the present essay, I aim to accentuate an analogy between the patterns of thought articulated by Berkeley's Hylas and those of Nagel in his philosophy of bats and aliens. The comparison has a critical purpose, with Philonous playing a role similar to that of Wittgenstein. I argue that Nagel's central claim comes down to statements that are marked by a peculiar form of emptiness. Towards the end, though, I will concede that this kind of Wittgensteinian criticism runs up against (...)
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  43. J. R. Cameron (1970). Sentence-Meaning and Speech Acts. Philosophical Quarterly 20 (79):97-117.
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  44. Elisabeth Camp (2007). Thinking with Maps. Philosophical Perspectives 21 (1):145–182.
    Most of us create and use a panoply of non-sentential representations throughout our ordinary lives: we regularly use maps to navigate, charts to keep track of complex patterns of data, and diagrams to visualize logical and causal relations among states of affairs. But philosophers typically pay little attention to such representations, focusing almost exclusively on language instead. In particular, when theorizing about the mind, many philosophers assume that there is a very tight mapping between language and thought. Some analyze utterances (...)
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  45. Herman Cappelen & Ernie Lepore (1997). On an Alleged Connection Between Indirect Speech and the Theory of Meaning. Mind and Language 12 (3&4):278–296.
    A semantic theory T for a language L should assign content to utterances of sentences of L. One common assumption is that T will assign p to some S of L just in case in uttering S a speaker A says that p. We will argue that this assumption is mistaken.
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  46. Rudolf Carnap (1945). Hall and Bergmann on Semantics. Mind 54 (214):148-155.
  47. Rudolf Carnap (1937). Testability and Meaning--Continued. Philosophy of Science 4 (1):1-40.
  48. Laurent Cesalli & Nadja Germann (2008). Signification and Truth Epistemology at the Crossroads of Semantics and Ontology in Augustine's Early Philosophical Writings. Vivarium 46 (2):123-154.
    This article is about the conception of truth and signification in Augustine's early philosophical writings. In the first, semantic-linguistic part, the gradual shift of Augustine's position towards the Academics is treated closely. It reveals that Augustine develops a notion of sign which, by integrating elements of Stoic epistemology, is suited to function as a transmitter of true knowledge through linguistic expressions. In the second part, both the ontological structure of signified (sensible) things and Augustine's solution to the apparent tautologies of (...)
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  49. Hugh S. Chadler (1966). Three Kinds of Classes. American Philosophical Quarterly 3 (1):77-81.
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  50. Arindam Chakrabarti (1989). Sentence-Holism, Context-Principle and Connected-Designation Anvitabhidhāna: Three Doctrines or One? [REVIEW] Journal of Indian Philosophy 17 (1):37-41.
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