Results for 'plural subject'

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  1. Against Atomic Individualism in Plural Subject Theory.Neil W. Williams - 2012 - Phenomenology and Mind 3:65-81.
    Within much contemporary social ontology there is a particular methodology at work. This methodology takes as a starting point two or more asocial or atomic individuals. These individuals are taken to be perfectly functional agents, though outside of all social relations. Following this, combinations of these individuals are considered, to deduce what constitutes a social group. Here I will argue that theories which rely on this methodology are always circular, so long as they purport to describe the formation of all (...)
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  2. We and the Plural Subject.Boudewijn de Bruin - 2009 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):235-259.
    Margaret Gilbert's plural subject theory defines social collectives in terms of common knowledge of expressed willingness to participate in some joint action. The author critically examines Gilbert's application of this theory to linguistic phenomena involving "we," arguing that recent work in linguistics provides the tools to develop a superior account. The author indicates that, apart from its own relevance, one should care about this critique because Gilbert's claims about the first person plural pronoun play a role in (...)
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  3.  37
    Sociality and Responsibility: New Essays in Plural Subject Theory.Margaret Gilbert - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    One of the most distinguished living social philosophers, Margaret Gilbert develops and extends her application of plural subject theory of human sociality, first introduced in her earlier works On Social Facts and Living Together. Sociality and Responsibility presents an extended discussion of her proposal that joint commitments inherently involve obligations and rights, proposing, in effect, a new theory of obligations and rights. In addition, it demonstrates the extensive range and fruitfulness of plural subject theory by presenting (...)
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  4.  28
    A Plural Subject Approach to the Responsibilities of Groups and Institutions.Ludger Jansen - 2014 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):91-102.
    Margaret Gilbert has defended the claim that her plural subject theory can give a reasonable account of retrospective (or backward-looking) collective responsibility. On one occasion, publishing in this periodical, she writes that she deliberately left out the discussion of prospective (or forward-looking) collective responsibility, or the “responsibilities” of a collective. In the present paper, I want to show that plural subject theory, in fact, also allows accounting for prospective responsibilities of groups and institutions. In order to (...)
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  5.  66
    Individual Beliefs and Collective Beliefs in Sciences and Philosophy: The Plural Subject and the Polyphonic Subject Accounts: Case Studies.Alban Bouvier - 2004 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (3):382-407.
    The issue of knowing what it means for a group to have collective beliefs is being discussed more and more in contemporary philosophy of the social sciences and philosophy of mind. Margaret Gilbert’s reconsideration of Durkheim’s viewpoint in the framework of the plural subject’s account is one of the most famous. This has implications in the history and the sociology of science—as well asin the history and sociology of philosophy—although Gilbert only outlined them in the former fields and (...)
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  6. Sociality and Responsibility: New Essays in Plural Subject Theory.Margaret Gilbert - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):756-759.
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  7.  42
    On Plural Subject Theory.Paul Sheehy - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (3):377–394.
  8.  68
    Sociality and Responsibility: New Essays in Plural Subject Theory. Margaret Gilbert.David Schmidtz - 2001 - Mind 110 (439):756-759.
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  9. Love, Plural Subjects & Normative Constraint.Joseph Kisolo-Ssonko - 2012 - Phenomenology and Mind (3).
    Andrea Westlund's account of love involves lovers becoming a Plural Subject mirroring Margaret Gilbert's Plural Subject Theory. However, while for Gilbert the creation of a plural will involves individuals jointly committing to pool their wills and the plural will directly normatively constraining those individuals, Westlund, in contrast, sees the creation of a plural will as a continual process thus rejecting the possibility of such direct normative constraint. This rejection appears to be required to (...)
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  10.  5
    The Enunciation of the Subject: Sharing Jean-Luc Nancy’s Singular Plural in the Classroom.Ashok Collins - 2015 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 47 (8):774-785.
  11.  97
    Simulation and the We-Mode. A Cognitive Account of Plural First Persons.Matteo Bianchin - 2015 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 45 (4-5):442-461.
    In this article, I argue that a capacity for mindreading conceived along the line of simulation theory provides the cognitive basis for forming we-centric representations of actions and goals. This explains the plural first personal stance displayed by we-intentions in terms of the underlying cognitive processes performed by individual minds, while preserving the idea that they cannot be analyzed in terms of individual intentional states. The implication for social ontology is that this makes sense of the plural subjectivity (...)
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  12. Walking Together: A Paradigmatic Social Phenomenon.Margaret P. Gilbert - 1990 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15 (1):1-14.
    The everyday concept of a social group is approached by examining the concept of going for a walk together, an example of doing something together, or "shared action". Two analyses requiring shared personal goals are rejected, since they fail to explain how people walking together have obligations and rights to appropriate behavior, and corresponding rights of rebuke. An alternative account is proposed: those who walk together must constitute the "plural subject" of a goal. The nature of plural (...)
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  13. On Social Facts.Margaret Gilbert - 1989 - Routledge.
    This book offers original accounts of a number of central social phenomena, many of which have received little if any prior philosophical attention. These phenomena include social groups, group languages, acting together, collective belief, mutual recognition, and social convention. In the course of developing her analyses Gilbert discusses the work of Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, Max Weber, David Lewis, among others.
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  14.  26
    On Being a ‘We’: Edith Stein’s Contribution to the Intentionalism Debate.Timothy Burns - 2015 - Human Studies 38 (4):529-547.
    It is commonplace to speak of social groups as if they were capable of the same sorts of activities as individuals. We say, “Germany won the World Cup”; “The United States invaded Iraq”; and “The world mourned the passing of Nelson Mandela”. In so doing, we attribute agency, belief, and emotional states to groups themselves. In recent years, much literature devoted to analyzing such statements and their implications has emerged. Within this literature, the issue of “intentionalism,” whether individuals must have (...)
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  15.  94
    Plural Self-Awareness.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2014 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):7-24.
    It has been claimed in the literature that collective intentionality and group attitudes presuppose some “sense of ‘us’” among the participants (other labels sometimes used are “sense of community,” “communal awareness,” “shared point of view,” or “we-perspective”). While this seems plausible enough on an intuitive level, little attention has been paid so far to the question of what the nature and role of this mysterious “sense of ‘us’” might be. This paper states (and argues for) the following five claims: (1) (...)
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  16.  90
    The Primacy of the We?Ingar Brinck, Vasudevi Reddy & Dan Zahavi (eds.) - 2016 - MIT Press.
    The question of the relation between the collective and the individual has had a long but patchy history within both philosophy and psychology. In this chapter we consider some arguments that could be adopted for the primacy of the we, and examine their conceptual and empirical implications. We argue that the we needs to be seen as a developing and dynamic identity, not as something that exists fully fledged from the start. The concept of we thus needs more nuanced and (...)
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  17.  10
    The Subject of “We Intend”.Hans Bernhard Schmid - 2018 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 17 (2):231-243.
    This paper examines and compares the ways in which intentions of the singular kind and the plural kind are subjective. Are intentions of the plural kind ours in the same way intentions of the singular kind are mine? Starting with the singular case, it is argued that “I intend” is subjective in virtue of self-knowledge. Self-knowledge is special in that it is self-identifying, self-validating, self-committing, and self-authorizing. Moving to the plural form, it is argued that in spite (...)
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  18.  35
    Moral Machines?Michael S. Pritchard - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):411-417.
    Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen’s Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right From Wrong (Oxford University Press, 2009) explores efforts to develop machines that, not only can be employed for good or bad ends, but which themselves can be held morally accountable for what they do— artificial moral agents (AMAs). This essay is a critical response to Wallach and Allen’s conjectures. Although Wallach and Allen do not suggest that we are close to being able to create full-fledged AMAs, they do talk seriously (...)
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  19.  18
    A Curious Plural: T. S. Champlin.T. S. Champlin - 1993 - Philosophy 68 (266):435-455.
    Statements of identity with a plural subject, of the form ‘They are the same person ,’ as illustrated in each of the answers to the above two questions, give rise to a philosophical problem.
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  20.  6
    Reflective Solidarity as to Provincial Globalism and Shared Health Governance.Michael J. DiStefano & Jennifer Prah Ruger - 2015 - Diametros 46:151-158.
    There is a special need for solidarity at the global level to address global health disparities. Ter Meulen argues that solidarity must complement justice, and is, in fact, more fundamental than justice to the arrangement of health care practices. We argue that PG/SHG, though a theory of justice, is fundamentally synergistic with solidarity. We relate PG/SHG to Jodi Dean’s conceptual work on reflective solidarity, contrasted with conventional solidarity, as an approach to transnational solidarity that dovetails with PG/SHG. We argue that (...)
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  21.  81
    Relations as Plural-Predications in Plato.Theodore Scaltsas - 2013 - Studia Neoaristotelica 10 (1):28-49.
    Plato was the first philosopher to discover the metaphysical phenomenon of plural-subjects and plural-predication; e.g. you and I are two, but neither you, nor I are two. I argue that Plato devised an ontology for plural-predication through his Theory of Forms, namely, plural-partaking in a Form. Furthermore, I argue that Plato used plural-partaking to offer an ontology of related individuals without reifying relations. My contention is that Plato’s theory of plural-relatives has evaded detection in (...)
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  22.  58
    The Ethical Possibilities of the Subject as Play: In Nietzsche and Derrida.Nicole Anderson - 2003 - Journal of Nietzsche Studies 26 (1):79-90.
    In "The Ends of Man," when talking about a deconstructive process of writing, Jacques Derrida says that "what we need, perhaps, as Nietzsche said, is a change of "style," and if there is style, Nietzsche reminds us, it must be plural". On his debt to Nietzsche, Derrida remains elusive, although it is obvious that there are many manifestations of Nietzsche's presence throughout Derrida's writings. As this quote suggests, if there is not a similarity in style between Nietzsche and Derrida, (...)
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  23.  12
    German Noun Plural Reconsidered.Dieter Wunderlich - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):1044-1045.
    German noun plurals not ending in -s are not as irregular as Clahsen suggests. Feminine nouns get the -n plural, unless they umlaut and are subject to a constraint that requires a reduced final syllable in the plural. Another regular class is masculine nouns ending in schwa, which are weakly inflected. It is suggested that more differentiated psycholinguistic experiments can identify these regularities.
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  24.  18
    First Person Plural: Roman Jakobson's Grammatical Fictions.Julia Kursell - 2010 - Studies in East European Thought 62 (2):217 - 236.
    Roman Jakobson, who had left Russia in 1920 and in 1941 took refuge in the USA from the Nazis, was one of the main figures in post war linguistics and structuralism. Two aspects of his work are examined in this article. Firstly, Jakobson purifies his linguistic theory of pragmatic references. Secondly, he develops his own diplomatic mission of mediating between East and West. In this article, I argue that these two aspects did not develop independently from one another. Instead I (...)
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  25.  5
    La noción plural de sujeto de justicia. Un nuevo reto para la filosofía.Lidia de Tienda Palop - 2010 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía:171-179.
    Thinking the future of Justice implies not only answering the question, considered its object: what is it due?, but another more original: To whom is it due? Theories of Social contract, specially the rawlsian, have a great influence on contemporary models of justice. Some of the most powerful critics are the ones held by Walzer, who integrates the plurality in the very structure of the justice, and by Nussbaum, who emphasizes the importance of grasping the subject of justice as (...)
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  26.  1
    Durchbruch zum plural der begriff der kulturen bei Nietzsche.Rolf Elberfeld - 2008 - Nietzsche-Studien 37:115-142.
    Der kulturbegriff wurde in der deutschen Wissenschaftssprache bis weit ins 19. Jahrhundert ausschließlich als Singularetantum verwendet. Jacob Burkhardt prägte den Plural in einer Vorlesung von 1868, die Nietzsche in der Wiederholung von 1870/71 hörte. Er übernahm den Plural 'Kulturen' in seinen Wortschatz und entwickelt daraus ab 1876 eine Philosophie der Kulturen. In einem ersten Schritt entwickelt der Aufsatz sein kritisches Verständnis zum Plural der Kulturen bis 1876. Im zweiten Schritt wird der neu gewendete Kulturenbegriff ab 1876 entfaltet (...)
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  27.  1
    Plural Intelligences.Roberto Marchesini - 2016 - Angelaki 21 (1):143-158.
    Like perception, physical abilities, and digestion, cognition must be treated as a skill that is subject to evolutionary adaptation. There are many forms of animal cognition keyed to different contexts and to different physical skills and needs. From an evolutionary point of view it is not possible to establish a hierarchy or ranking of these types of cognition, which are manifestations of difference. I deem them “plural intelligences” that flow from the ethological characteristics and individual experiences of each (...)
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  28. Plural Predication.Agustin Rayo - 2000 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    My thesis consists of three self-contained but interconnected papers. In the first one, 'Word and Objects', I assume that it is possible to quantify over absolutely everything, and show that certain English sentences containing collective predicates resist paraphrase in first-order languages and even in first-order languages enriched with plural quantifiers. To capture such sentences I develop a language containing plural predicates . ;The introduction of plural predicates leads to an extension of Quine's criterion of ontological commitment. I (...)
     
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  29. Being Singular Plural.Robert Richardson & Anne O.’Byrne (eds.) - 2000 - Stanford University Press.
    This book, by one of the most innovative and challenging contemporary thinkers, consists of an extensive essay from which the book takes its title and five shorter essays that are internally related to “Being Singular Plural.” One of the strongest strands in Nancy’s philosophy is his attempt to rethink community and the very idea of the social in a way that does not ground these ideas in some individual subject or subjectivity. The fundamental argument of the book is (...)
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  30.  79
    The Identity of the Constitutional Subject: Selfhood, Citizenship, Culture, and Community.Michel Rosenfeld - 2010 - Routledge.
    The constitutional subject : singular, plural or universal? -- The constitutional subject and the clash of self and other : on the uses of negation, metaphor, and metonymy -- Reinventing tradition through constitutional interpretation : the case of unenumerated rights in the United States -- Recasting and reorienting identity through constitution-making : the pivotal case of Spain's 1978 Constitution -- Constitutional models : shaping, nurturing, and guiding the constitutional subject -- Models of constitution making -- The (...)
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  31.  4
    Scientific Authorship In The Age Of Collaborative Research.K. Brad Wray - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):505-514.
    I examine two challenges that collaborative research raises for science. First, collaborative research threatens the motivation of scientists. As a result, I argue, collaborative research may have adverse effects on what sorts of things scientists can effectively investigate. Second, collaborative research makes it more difficult to hold scientists accountable. I argue that the authors of multi-authored articles are aptly described as plural subjects, corporate bodies that are more than the sum of the individuals involved. Though journal editors do not (...)
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  32.  53
    Being Singular Plural.Jean-Luc Nancy - 2000 - Stanford University Press.
    One of the strongest strands in Nancy's philosophy is an attempt to rethink community and the very idea of the social in a way that does not ground these ideas in some individual subject or subjectivity. The fundamental argument of this book is that being is always 'being with', that 'I' is not prior to 'we', that existence is essentially co-existence. He thinks this being together, not as a comfortable enclosure in a pre-existing group, but as a mutual abandonment (...)
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  33.  49
    Generalized Quantifiers, and Beyond.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse (208):309-326.
    I show that the contemporary dominant analysis of natural language quantifiers that are one-place determiners by means of binary generalized quantifiers has failed to explain why they are, according to it, conservative. I then present an alternative, Geachean analysis, according to which common nouns in the grammatical subject position are plural logical subject-terms, and show how it does explain that fact and other features of natural language quantification.
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  34.  34
    A Critique of Frege on Common Nouns.Hanoch Ben-Yami - 2006 - Ratio 19 (2):148–155.
    Frege analyzed the grammatical subject-term 'S' in quantified subject-predicate sentences, 'q S are P', as being logically predicative. This is in contrast to Aristotelian Logic, according to which it is a logical subject-term, like the proper name 'a' in 'a is P' – albeit a plural one, designating many particulars. I show that Frege's arguments for his analysis are unsound, and explain how he was misled to his position by the mathematical concept of function. If common (...)
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  35.  32
    Untyped Pluralism.Salvatore Florio - 2014 - Mind 123 (490):317-337.
    In the semantic debate about plurals, pluralism is the view that a plural term denotes some things in the domain of quantification and a plural predicate denotes a plural property, i.e. a property that can be instantiated by many things jointly. According to a particular version of this view, untyped pluralism, there is no type distinction between objects and properties. In this article, I argue against untyped pluralism by showing that it is subject to a variant (...)
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  36.  5
    Konstituirovanie pliuralizma obrazov nauki kak istoricheskaia zadacha fenomenologii (Constituting of Plural Images of Science as Historical Task of Philosophy).Sergey Kulikov - 2014 - HORIZON. Studies in Phenomenology 3 (2):9-20.
    The main purpose of article is representation of conceptual introduction to a cycle of the future researches devoted to reconstruction of phenomenological views on processes of creation of images of science. That purpose is achieved as a result of detection of key features (the conceptual bases) of pre-phenomenological and phenomenological ways of a reflection of science. Research leans on a method of the comparative analysis. Classical and non-classical variant of creation of images of science were compared. Members of classical philosophy (...)
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  37.  80
    Shared Emotions.Mikko Salmela - 2012 - Philosophical Explorations 15 (1):33-46.
    Existing scientific concepts of group or shared or collective emotion fail to appreciate several elements of collectivity in such emotions. Moreover, the idea of shared emotions is threatened by the individualism of emotions that comes in three forms: ontological, epistemological, and physical. The problem is whether or not we can provide a plausible account of ?straightforwardly shared? emotions without compromising our intuitions about the individualism of emotions. I discuss two philosophical accounts of shared emotions that explain the collectivity of emotions (...)
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  38. Collective Guilt and Collective Guilt Feelings.Margaret Gilbert - 2002 - The Journal of Ethics 6 (2):115-143.
    Among other things, this paper considers what so-called collective guilt feelings amount to. If collective guilt feelings are sometimes appropriate, it must be the case that collectives can indeed be guilty. The paper begins with an account of what it is for a collective to intend to do something and to act in light of that intention. An account of collective guilt in terms of membership guilt feelings is found wanting. Finally, a "plural subject" account of collective guilt (...)
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  39. Romantic Love and Loving Commitment: Articulating a Modern Ideal.Neil Delaney - 1996 - American Philosophical Quarterly 33 (4):339 - 356.
    This essay presents an ideal for modern Western romantic love.The basic ideas are the following: people want to form a distinctive sort of plural subject with another, what Nozick has called a "We", they want to be loved for properties of certain kinds, and they want this love to establish and sustain a special sort of commitment to them over time.
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  40. The Epistemic Features of Group Belief.Kay Mathiesen - 2006 - Episteme 2 (3):161-175.
    Recently, there has been a debate focusing on the question of whether groups can literally have beliefs. For the purposes of epistemology, however, the key question is whether groups can have knowledge. More specifi cally, the question is whether “group views” can have the key epistemic features of belief, viz., aiming at truth and being epistemically rational. I argue that, while groups may not have beliefs in the full sense of the word, group views can have these key epistemic features (...)
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  41.  33
    Scientific Authorship in the Age of Collaborative Research.K. Brad Wray - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):505-514.
    I examine two challenges that collaborative research raises for science. First, collaborative research threatens the motivation of scientists. As a result, I argue, collaborative research may have adverse effects on what sorts of things scientists can effectively investigate. Second, collaborative research makes it more difficult to hold scientists accountable. I argue that the authors of multi-authored articles are aptly described as plural subjects, corporate bodies that are more than the sum of the individuals involved. Though journal editors do not (...)
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  42.  77
    Group Wrongs and Guilt Feelings.Margaret Gilbert - 1997 - The Journal of Ethics 1 (1):65-84.
    Can it ever be appropriate to feel guilt just because one's group has acted badly? Some say no, citing supposed features of guilt feelings as such. If one understands group action according to my plural subject account of groups, however, one can argue for the appropriateness of feeling guilt just because one's group has acted badly - a feeling that often occurs. In so arguing I sketch a plural subject account of groups, group intentions and group (...)
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  43. Romantic Love.Thomas H. Smith - 2011 - Essays in Philosophy 12 (1):68-92.
    Nozick provides us with a compelling characterization of romantic love, but, as I argue, he under-describes the phenomenon, for he fails to distinguish it from attitudes that those who are not romantically involved may bear to each other. Frankfurt also offers a compelling characterization of love, but he is sceptical about its application to the case of romantic love. I argue that each account has the resources with which to complete the other. I consider a preliminary synthesis of the two (...)
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  44.  43
    Topic, Focus, and the Interpretation of Bare Plurals.Ariel Cohen & Nomi Erteschik-Shir - 2002 - Natural Language Semantics 10 (2):125-165.
    In this paper we show that focus structure determines the interpretation of bare plurals in English: topic bare plurals are interpreted generically, focused bare plurals are interpreted existentially. When bare plurals are topics they must be specific, i.e. they refer to kinds. After type-shifting they introduce variables which can be bound by the generic quantifier, yielding characterizing generics. Existentially interpreted bare plurals are not variables, but denote properties that are incorporated into the predicate.The type of predicate determines the interpretation of (...)
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  45.  62
    Reconsidering the “Actual Contract” Theory of Political Obligation.Margaret Gilbert - 1999 - Ethics 109 (2):236-260.
    Do people have obligations by virtue of the fact that a given country is their country? Actual contract theory says they do because they have agreed to act in certain ways. Contemporary philosophers standardly object in terms of the 'no agreement' objection and the 'not morally binding' objection. I argue that the 'not morally binding' objection is not conclusive. As for the 'no agreement' objection, though actual contract theory succumbs, a closely related plural subject theory of political obligation (...)
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  46.  52
    Shared Values, Social Unity, and Liberty.Margaret P. Gilbert - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (1):25-49.
    May social unity - the unity of a society or social group - be a matter of sharing values? Political philosophers disagree on this topic. Kymlicka answers: No. Devlin and Rawls answer: Yes. It is argued that given one common 'summative' account of sharing values a negative answer is correct. A positive answer is correct, however, given the plural subject account of sharing values. Given this account, those who share values are unified in a substantial way by their (...)
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  47.  4
    Collective Action and Rational Choice Explanations.Randall Harp - 2017 - Journal of Philosophical Research 42:149-176.
    In order for traditional rational choice theory to explain the production of collective action, it must be able to distinguish between two behaviorally identical possibilities: one, that all of the agents in a group are each performing behaviors in pursuit of a set of individual actions; and two, that all of those agents are performing those behaviors in pursuit of a collective action. I argue that RCT does not have the resources necessary to distinguish between these two possibilities. RCT could (...)
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  48.  43
    Nou zeg, waar bemoei je je mee.Jan Bransen - 2011 - Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 103 (1):4.
    This paper investigates the possibilities of ordinary people to estabish a moral authority in a subclass of everyday scenarios in the public domain that are characterised by an underdetermination of the obtaining norms and regulations. The paper offers a strategy based on hospitality to challenge the all too common practice of ignoring one’s responsibility as a moral agent and to hide in one’s shell, hoping that others (police power!) will solve one’s problem. The paper begins with a description of a (...)
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  49.  6
    3. Historiography Without God: A Reply to Gregory1.Tor Egil Førland - 2008 - History and Theory 47 (4):520-532.
    This reply aims both to respond to Gregory and to move forward the debate about God’s place in historiography. The first section is devoted to the nature of science and God. Whereas Gregory thinks science is based on metaphysical naturalism with a methodological corollary of critical-realist empiricism, I see critical, empiricist methodology as basic, and naturalism as a consequence. Gregory’s exposition of his apophatic theology, in which univocity is eschewed, illustrates the fissure between religious and scientific worldviews—no matter which basic (...)
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  50.  35
    Party Politics and Democratic Disagreement.Maura Priest - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):1-13.
    Political parties seem inclined to dogmatism. Understanding party politics via a plural-subject account of collective belief explains this phenomenon. It explains inter-party outrage at slight deviations from the party line and dogged refusals to compromise. It also aligns with an alternative theory of political representation. I argue that party dogmatism is unlikely to change and can be a democratic good. I conclude that not parties but patriots counteract the democratic ills of dogmatic party politics.
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