Search results for 'Disposition' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Andreas Hüttemann (2013). A Disposition-Based Process Theory of Causation. In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford. 101.score: 24.0
    Given certain well-known observations by Mach and Russell, the question arises what place there is for causation in the physical world. My aim in this chapter is to understand under what conditions we can use causal terminology and how it fi ts in with what physics has to say. I will argue for a disposition-based process-theory of causation. After addressing Mach’s and Russell’s concerns I will start by outlining the kind of problem the disposition based process-theory of causation (...)
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  2. Jaeho Lee (2010). Disposition, Explanation, and Causation—A Defense of the Reformed Conditional Analysis of Disposition. Philosophia 38 (3):569-577.score: 24.0
    D. Lewis proposed the reformed conditional analysis of disposition to handle Martin's influential counterexamples to the simple counterfactual analysis. Some philosophers, however, argue that the mere fact that the reformed conditional analysis of disposition can handle Martin's counterexamples should not be regarded as a reason to prefer the reformed conditional analysis to the simple analysis. In this paper, I argue that the reformed version should be preferred not because it can handle Martin's counterexamples but because there are other (...)
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  3. Alastair Wilson (2009). Disposition-Manifestations and Reference-Frames. Dialectica 63 (4):591-601.score: 24.0
    Dispositions can combine as vector sums. Recent authors on dispositions, such as George Molnar and Stephen Mumford, have responded to this feature of dispositions by introducing a distinction between effects and contributions to effects, and by identifying disposition-manifestations with the latter. But some have been sceptical of the reality or knowability of component vectors; Jennifer McKitrick (forthcoming) presses these concerns against the conception of manifestations as contributions to effects. In this paper, I aim to respond to McKitrick's arguments and (...)
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  4. Jaeho Lee (2011). Genuine Counterexamples to the Simple Conditional Analysis of Disposition: A Reply to Choi. Philosophia 39 (2):327-334.score: 24.0
    Choi (Philosophia, 38(3), 2010) argues that my counterexamples in Lee (Philosophia, 38(3), 2010) to the simple conditional analysis of disposition ascription are bogus counterexamples. In this paper, I argue that Choi’s arguments are not satisfactory and that my examples are genuine counterexamples.
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  5. Peter A. Facione (2000). The Disposition Toward Critical Thinking: Its Character, Measurement, and Relationship to Critical Thinking Skill. Informal Logic 20 (1):61-84.score: 24.0
    Theorists have hypothesized that skill in critical thinking is positively correlated with the consistent internal motivation to think and that specific critical thinking skills are matched with specific critical thinking dispositions. If true, these assumptions suggest that a skill-focused curriculum would lead persons to be both willing and able to think. This essay presents a researchbased expert consensus definition of critical thinking, argues that human dispositions are neither hidden nor unknowable, describes a scientific process of developing conventional testing tools to (...)
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  6. Young-Ran Roh (2005). Is the Disposition of Constrained Maximization Chosen Rationally? Theory and Decision 59 (1):19-41.score: 24.0
    One of the most important issues in moral philosophy is whether morality can be justified by rationality. The purpose of this study is to examine Gauthier’s moral theory, focusing on the disposition of constrained maximization, which is the main thrust of his project to justify morality rationally. First of all, I shall investigate Gauthier’s assumption and condition for the rationality of the disposition of constrained maximization so as to disclose that the disposition of constrained maximization is not (...)
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  7. Isaac Levi & Sidney Morgenbesser (1964). Belief and Disposition. American Philosophical Quarterly 1 (July):221-232.score: 21.0
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  8. Myeong-Seok Kim (2014). Respect in Mengzi as a Concern-Based Construal: How It Is Different From Desire and Behavioral Disposition. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (2):231-250.score: 21.0
    Previous scholars seem to assume that Mengzi’s 孟子 four sprouts are more or less homogeneous in nature, and the four sprouts are often viewed as some sort of desires for or instinctive inclinations toward virtues or virtuous acts. For example, Angus Graham interprets sìduān 四端 as “incipient moral impulses” to do what is morally good or right, or “spontaneous inclinations” toward virtues or moral good. However, this view is incompatible with the recently proposed more sound views that regard Mengzi’s four (...)
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  9. Tobias Hansson Wahlberg (2009). 4-D Objects and Disposition Ascriptions. Philosophical Papers 38 (1):35-72.score: 20.0
    Disposition ascription has been discussed a good deal over the last few decades, as has the revisionary metaphysical view of ordinary, persisting objects known as 'fourdimensionalism'. However, philosophers have not merged these topics and asked whether four-dimensional objects can be proper subjects of dispositional predicates. This paper seeks to remedy this oversight. It argues that, by and large, four-dimensional objects are not suited to take dispositional predicates.
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  10. Stephen P. Norris (1992). Testing for the Disposition to Think Critically. Informal Logic 14 (2).score: 20.0
    In order to tesl for critical thinking dispositions, the presence of the requisite critical thinking abilities must first be established. Otherwise, it is always a plausible counterexplanation of failure to use certain abilities that they were not possessed. If a person spontaneously uses some ability on a task, then it is often legitimate to conclude that the person has both the ability and the disposition to use it. However, if the person does not use the ability spontaneously, the conclusion (...)
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  11. Juhani Yli-Vakkuri (2010). Conditional and Habitual Analyses of Disposition Ascriptions. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (240):624-630.score: 18.0
    Michael Fara's ‘habitual analysis’ of disposition ascriptions is equivalent to a kind of ceteris paribus conditional analysis which has no evident advantage over Martin's well known and simpler analysis. I describe an unsatisfactory hypothetical response to Martin's challenge, which is lacking in just the same respect as the analysis considered by Martin; Fara's habitual analysis is equivalent to this hypothetical analysis. The feature of the habitual analysis that is responsible for this cannot be harmlessly excised, for the resulting analysis (...)
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  12. Jonathan Webber (2013). Character, Attitude and Disposition. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (1).score: 18.0
    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation manipulation experiments at the heart of the recent (...)
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  13. Stephen Mumford (1999). Intentionality and the Physical: A New Theory of Disposition Ascription. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (195):215-25.score: 18.0
    This paper has three aims. First, I aim to stress the importance of the issue of the dispositional/categorical distinction in the light of the evident failure of the traditional formulation, which is in terms of conditional entailment. Second, I consider one radical new alternative on offer from Ullin Place: intentionality as the mark of the dispositional. I explain the appeal of physical intentionality, but show it ultimately to be unacceptable. Finally, I suggest what would be a better theory. If we (...)
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  14. W. Malzkorn (2001). Defining Disposition Concepts: A Brief History of the Problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 32 (2):335-353.score: 18.0
    The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, I give a brief account of the history of the debate on the problem of defining disposition concepts from its beginning in the late 1920s until today. This account is divided into four parts, corresponding with sections 2 to 5 of the paper, each of which deals with a major period of the debate. Section 2 reports up to the mid-1950s. Section 3 deals with important contributions to the discussion between 1955 (...)
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  15. Sandra D. Mitchell (1995). Function, Fitness and Disposition. Biology and Philosophy 10 (1):39-54.score: 18.0
    In this paper I discuss recent debates concerning etiological theories of functions. I defend an etiological theory against two criticisms, namely the ability to account for malfunction, and the problem of structural doubles. I then consider the arguments provided by Bigelow and Pargetter (1987) for a more forward looking account of functions as propensities or dispositions. I argue that their approach fails to address the explanatory problematic for which etiological theories were developed.
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  16. Justin C. Fisher, Disposition-Based Decision Theory.score: 18.0
    I develop and defend a version of what I call Disposition-Based Decision Theory (or DBDT). I point out important problems in David Gauthier’s (1985, 1986) formulation of DBDT, and carefully develop a more defensible formulation. I then compare my version of DBDT to the currently most widely accepted decision theory, Causal Decision Theory (CDT). Traditional intuition-based arguments fail to give us any strong reason to prefer either theory over the other, but I propose an alternative strategy for resolving this (...)
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  17. Fred Wilson (1985). Dispositions Defined: Harré and Madden on Analyzing Disposition Concepts. Philosophy of Science 52 (4):591-607.score: 18.0
    If one proposes to analyze dispositions by means of statements involving only the 'if-then' of material implication--that is, for example, to define 'x is soluble' by means of 'x is in water ⊃ x dissolves'--then one faces the problem first raised by Carnap, the match which is never put in water and which therefore turns out to be not only soluble but also both soluble and insoluble. I have elsewhere argued that if one refers to appropriate laws, then one can (...)
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  18. Joshua Schulz (2007). Grace and the New Man: Conscious Humiliation and the Revolution of Disposition in Kant's Religion. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):439-446.score: 18.0
    Kant’s discussion of radical evil and moral regeneration in Religion Within the Bounds of Reason Alone raises numerous moral and metaphysical problems.If the ground of one’s disposition does not lie in time, as Kant argues, how can it be reformed, as the moral law commands? If divine aid is necessary for thisimpossible reformation, how does this not destroy a person’s moral personality by bypassing her freedom? This paper argues that these problems can be resolved by showing how Kant can (...)
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  19. Otis Dudley Duncan (1986). Probability, Disposition, and the Inconsistency of Attitudes and Behavior. Synthese 68 (1):65 - 98.score: 18.0
    Inconsistency of attitudes and behavior is due to the probabilistic connection between responses or actions and the (not directly observable) dispositions on which they depend. Latent variable models provide criteria for recognizing when attitude and behavior depend on the same disposition. Statistical tests of such models and techniques of parameter estimation are described. The viewpoint proposed here and illustrated with empirical examples contrasts with the prevalent reliance on correlational models and methods.
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  20. Edita Gruodytė (2010). Problematic Aspects of Subject Matter in Criminal Deeds, Related to Illegal Disposition of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 122 (4):153-167.score: 18.0
    Lithuania’s legislation, establishing criminal liability for illegal disposition of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, uses two different terms while identifying the subject matter for criminal deeds: “narcotic and psychotropic substances” and “plants, incorporated into the lists of controlled substances.” The legislation in article 269 of the Lithuanian criminal code explains that narcotic and psychotropic substances, indicated in the respective chapter of the Lithuanian criminal code, shall be those substances that are included in the lists of narcotic and psychotropic substances (...)
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  21. Fred Wilson (1985). I. Addis on Analysing Disposition Concepts. Inquiry 28 (1-4):247-260.score: 18.0
    Addis (1981) has criticized a proposal of ours (Wilson [1969b]) for analysing disposition predications in terns of the horseshoe of material implication, and has proposed a related but significantly different analysis. This paper restates the original proposal, and defends it against Addis's criticisms. It is further argued that his proposal will not do as a general account of disposition predications; that, however, if it is suitably qualified, then it does account for certain special sorts of disposition predication; (...)
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  22. Pascal Engel, Belief As a Disposition to Act: Variations on a Pragmatist Theme.score: 18.0
    In this paper I want to show that, although it is a common thread of many pragmatist or pragmatist-inspired doctrines, the belief-as-disposition-to-act theme is played on very different tunes by the various philosophical performers. A whole book could be devoted to the topic. I shall limit myself here to the views of Peirce, James, Ramsey, contemporary functionalists, and Isaac Levi. Depending on how they interpret this theme, the pragmatist philosophers can emphasise more or less the role of theory and (...)
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  23. Emmanuelle Danblon (2009). Dissuasion as a Rhetorical Technique of Creating a General Disposition to Inaction. Argumentation 23 (1):1-9.score: 18.0
    In this paper, it is argued that the classical rhetorical framework undergoes a transformation because of an important change in Western thought. Following this hypothesis, I analyze a rhetorical notion of “dissuasion” as a rhetorical technique of creating a “general disposition to inaction” in addition to a classical rhetorical notion of “dissuasion” that aims at “refraining from an action”.
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  24. Lisa Johnson (2008). Teacher Candidate Disposition: Moral Judgement or Regurgitation? Journal of Moral Education 37 (4):429-444.score: 18.0
    Developing teacher candidates who are able to make moral judgements to equitably resolve classroom dilemmas, conduct student assessment and allocate resources is critical for today's diverse classrooms and should be part of fostering professional disposition. However, one challenge of incorporating dispositions in teacher education and a valid argument for those opposing the trend is how to accurately assess growth in the development of in teacher candidates. This study investigates two measures of moral judgement and explores the congruence between these (...)
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  25. Troy Cross (2005). What is a Disposition? Synthese 144 (3):321-41.score: 16.0
    Attempts to capture the distinction between categorical and dispositional states in terms of more primitive modal notions – subjunctive conditionals, causal roles, or combinatorial principles – are bound to fail. Such failure is ensured by a deep symmetry in the ways dispositional and categorical states alike carry modal import. But the categorical/dispositional distinction should not be abandoned; it underpins important metaphysical disputes. Rather, it should be taken as a primitive, after which the doomed attempts at reductive explanation can be transformed (...)
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  26. Karim Jebari (2014). What to Enhance: Behaviour, Emotion or Disposition? Neuroethics 7 (3):253-261.score: 16.0
    As we learn more about the human brain, novel biotechnological means to modulate human behaviour and emotional dispositions become possible. These technologies could be used to enhance our morality. Moral bioenhancement, an instance of human enhancement, alters a person’s dispositions, emotions or behaviour in order to make that person more moral. I will argue that moral bioenhancement could be carried out in three different ways. The first strategy, well known from science fiction, is behavioural enhancement. The second strategy, favoured by (...)
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  27. Timothy F. Murphy (2013). Adoption First? The Disposition of Human Embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics (6):2013-101525.score: 16.0
    Anja Karnein has suggested that because of the importance of respect for persons, law and policy should require some human embryos created in vitro to be available for adoption for a period of time. If no one comes forward to adopt the embryos during that time, they may be destroyed (in the case of embryos left over from fertility medicine) or used in research (in the case of embryos created for that purpose or left over from fertility medicine). This adoption (...)
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  28. Stephen Barker (2009). Leaving Things to Take Their Chances : Cause and Disposition Grounded in Chance. In Toby Handfield (ed.), Dispositions and Causes. Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press ;.score: 16.0
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  29. Adrian Bardon (2007). Empiricism, Time-Awareness, and Hume's Manners of Disposition. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 5 (1):47-63.score: 15.0
    The issue of time-awareness presents a critical challenge for empiricism: if temporal properties are not directly perceived, how do we become aware of them? A unique empiricist account of time-awareness suggested by Hume's comments on time in the Treatise avoids the problems characteristic of other empiricist accounts. Hume's theory, however, has some counter-intuitive consequences. The failure of empiricists to come up with a defensible theory of time-awareness lends prima facie support to a non-empiricist theory of ideas.
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  30. C. S. Jenkins & Daniel Nolan (2012). Disposition Impossible. Noûs 46 (4):732-753.score: 15.0
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  31. Philip Gerrans (2004). The Disposition of Things: Spontaneous Order in the Esprit des Lois 1. The European Legacy 9 (6):751-765.score: 15.0
    The article states that in the "Esprit des Lois" Charles Louis de Secondat Montesquieu famously proposes a version of the doctrine of the separation of judicial, executive and legislative power as a way of protecting political liberty ("the opinion each has of his security"). Given the context in which he situates his arguments: an immense and theoretically opaque excursus which discusses almost everything known to political theory, anthropology and economics before his time, and essentially descriptive methodology, it is not easy (...)
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  32. Warren S. Quinn (1968). Pleasure -- Disposition or Episode? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 28 (June):578-86.score: 15.0
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  33. James Behuniak Jr (2002). Disposition and Aspiration in the Mencius and Zhuangzi. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 29 (1):65–79.score: 15.0
  34. David Pickus (2007). Wishes of the Heart: Walter Kaufmann, Karl Jaspers, and Disposition in Nietzsche Scholarship. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 33 (1):5-24.score: 15.0
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  35. Lorne Falkenstein (1997). Hume on Manners of Disposition and the Ideas of Space and Time. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 79 (2):179-201.score: 15.0
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  36. Éric Brian (2006). Combinaisons et disposition. Langue universelle et géométrie de situation chez Condorcet (1793-1794). Early Science and Medicine 11 (4):455-477.score: 15.0
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  37. A. James Gregor (1966). Psychoanalytic Disposition Terms and Reduction Sentences. Journal of Philosophy 63 (23):737-745.score: 15.0
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  38. Sing-Nan Fen (1963). On Learning as Disposition. Educational Theory 13 (1):39-43.score: 15.0
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  39. Leon J. Goldstein (1963). Disposition Concepts and History. Mind 72 (288):573-576.score: 15.0
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  40. Gilbert Hottois (1991). Solidarité et disposition du corps humain. (Au-delà de la symbolique du don et de l'opérativité du marché). Dialogue 30 (03):365-.score: 15.0
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  41. H. Kockler, L. Scheef, R. Tepest, N. David, B. H. Bewernick, A. Newen, H. H. Schild, M. May & K. Vogeley (2010). Visuospatial Perspective Taking in a Dynamic Environment: Perceiving Moving Objects From a First-Person-Perspective Induces a Disposition to Act☆. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (3):690-701.score: 15.0
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  42. W. L. Lorimer (1938). Editorum in Usum J. Bidez et A. B. Drachmann: Emploi des signes critiques, disposition de l'apparat, dans les éditions savantes de textes grecs et latins. Edition nouvelle par A. Delatte et A. Severyns. Pp. 50. Brussels: Union Académique Internationale; Paris: 'Les Belles Lettres', 1938. Paper. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 52 (06):230-.score: 15.0
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  43. David Miller, The Disposition of Complete Theories.score: 15.0
    The purpose of this paper is to give a purely logical proof of a result of Mostowski [1937] concerning the complete theories of a calculus based on classical propositional logic; and then modestly to generalize it. Mostowski’s result is announced by Tarski on p. 370 of Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics [1956]. (All references to Tarski’s work here are to this book.) Tarski himself provides only a fragment of a proof, and the proof published by Mostowski makes extensive use of topological methods (...)
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  44. Jean Phillips (1950). The Concept "Disposition to Respond" in a Behavioral Semiotic. Philosophy of Science 17 (4):347-353.score: 15.0
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  45. Jan Berg (1960). Some Problems Concerning Disposition Concepts. Theoria 26 (1):3--16.score: 15.0
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  46. Parvis Emad (1985). Boredom as Limit and Disposition. Heidegger Studies 1:63-78.score: 15.0
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  47. Leonard V. Kaplan (1977). The Mad and the Bad: An Inquiry Into the Disposition of the Criminally Insane. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 2 (3):244-304.score: 15.0
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  48. Rik van Nieuwenhove (2009). The Religious Disposition as a Critical Resource to Resist Instrumentalisation. Heythrop Journal 50 (4):689-696.score: 15.0
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  49. Yiu-ming Fung (2010). Disposition or Imposition?—Remarks on Fingarette's Lunyu. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (2):295-311.score: 15.0
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  50. Mark Schweda & Silke Schicktanz (2008). Public Moralities Concerning Donation and Disposition of Organs: Results From a Cross-European Study. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (03):308-317.score: 15.0
    There are not many international consensuses in the governance of biomedicine. One that exists concerns a general reluctance toward a commercialization of organ procurement. However, with reference to the problem of there is an increasingly louder call in ethical and legal discourse to and to establish a debate on financial incentives Other ethicists and jurists criticize this development, and warn of injustice, exploitation of the poor, and a commodification of the human body.
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