Results for 'public goods'

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  1. Public Goods and Government Action.Jonny Anomaly - 2015 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):109-128.
  2.  51
    Concerning Publicized Goods (or, the Promiscuity of the Public Goods Argument).Vaughn Bryan Baltzly - forthcoming - Economics and Philosophy:1-19.
    Proponents of the public goods argument ('PGA') seek to ground the authority of the state on its putative indispensability as a means of providing public goods. But many of the things we take to be public goods – including many of the goods commonly invoked in support of the PGA – are actually what we might term publicized goods. A publicized good is any whose ‘public’ character results only from a policy (...)
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  3. Public Goods and Procreation.Jonny Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
  4. Valuing Public Goods: The Purchase of Moral Satisfaction.Daniel Kahneman & Jack L. Knetsch - forthcoming - Environmental Values.
  5. Public Goods and Education.Jonny Anomaly - 2018 - In Andrew I. Cohen (ed.), Philosophy and Public Policy. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  6.  77
    Paleolithic Public Goods Games: Why Human Culture and Cooperation Did Not Evolve in One Step.Benoît Dubreuil - 2010 - Biology and Philosophy 25 (1):53-73.
    It is widely agreed that humans have specific abilities for cooperation and culture that evolved since their split with their last common ancestor with chimpanzees. Many uncertainties remain, however, about the exact moment in the human lineage when these abilities evolved. This article argues that cooperation and culture did not evolve in one step in the human lineage and that the capacity to stick to long-term and risky cooperative arrangements evolved before properly modern culture. I present evidence that Homo heidelbergensis (...)
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  7. Public Goods and Fairness.Garrett Cullity - 2008 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (1):1 – 21.
    To what extent can we as a community legitimately require individuals to contribute to producing public goods? Most of us think that, at least sometimes, refusing to pay for a public good that you have enjoyed can involve a kind of 'free riding' that makes it wrong. But what is less clear is under exactly which circumstances this is wrong. To work out the answer to that, we need to know why it is wrong. I argue that (...)
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  8.  3
    Public Goods and Procreation.Jonathan Anomaly - 2014 - Monash Bioethics Review 32 (3-4):172-188.
    Procreation is the ultimate public goods problem. Each new child affects the welfare of many other people, and some children produce uncompensated value that future people will enjoy. This essay addresses challenges that arise if we think of procreation and parenting as public goods. These include whether individual choices are likely to lead to a socially desirable outcome, and whether changes in laws, social norms, or access to genetic engineering and embryo selection might improve the aggregate (...)
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  9.  30
    Public Goods, Private Goods.Raymond Geuss - 2001 - Princeton University Press.
    "--Daniel Brudney, University of Chicago "The fund of information Geuss brings into his discussion of the ancients, and the verve and charm with which it is all presented, make the central chapters of this book particularly engaging.
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  10. Fairness, Public Good, and Emotional Aspects of Punishment Behavior.Klaus Abbink, Abdolkarim Sadrieh & Shmuel Zamir - 2004 - Theory and Decision 57 (1):25-57.
    We report an experiment on two treatments of an ultimatum minigame. In one treatment, responders’ reactions are hidden to proposers. We observe high rejection rates reflecting responders’ intrinsic resistance to unfairness. In the second treatment, proposers are informed, allowing for dynamic effects over eight rounds of play. The higher rejection rates can be attributed to responders’ provision of a public good: Punishment creates a group reputation for being “tough” and effectively “educate” proposers. Since rejection rates with informed proposers drop (...)
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  11. Public Health and Public Goods.Jonny Anomaly - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (3):251-259.
  12.  12
    Educating Engineers for the Public Good Through International Internships: Evidence From a Case Study at Universitat Politècnica de València.Alejandra Boni, José Javier Sastre & Carola Calabuig - 2015 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (6):1799-1815.
    At Universitat Politècnica de València, Meridies, an internship programme that places engineering students in countries of Latin America, is one of the few opportunities the students have to explore the implications of being a professional in society in a different cultural and social context. This programme was analyzed using the capabilities approach as a frame of reference for examining the effects of the programme on eight student participants. The eight pro-public-good capabilities proposed by Melanie Walker were investigated through semi-structured (...)
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  13.  27
    Going Public: Good Scientific Conduct.Gitte Meyer & Peter Sandøe - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):173-197.
    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem underexposed as ethical challenges. Consequently, individual scientists here tend to be left alone with problems and dilemmas, with no guidance for good conduct. Ideas are presented about how to make up for this omission. Using a practical, ethical (...)
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  14.  48
    The Public Good That Does the Public Good: A New Reading of Mohism.Whalen Lai - 1993 - Asian Philosophy 3 (2):125 – 141.
    Abstract Mohism has long been misrepresented. Mo?tzu is usually called a utilitarian because he preached a universal love that must benefit. Yet Mencius, who pined the Confucian way of virtue (humaneness and righteousness) against Mo?tzu's way of benefit, basically borrowed Mo?tzu's thesis: that the root cause of chaos is this lack of love?except Mencius renamed it the desire for personal benefit. Yet Mo?tzu only championed ?benefit? to head off its opposite, ?harm?, specifically the harm done by Confucians who with good (...)
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  15.  31
    Public Health, Public Goods, and Market Failure.L. Chad Horne - 2019 - Public Health Ethics 12 (3):287-292.
    This discussion revises and extends Jonny Anomaly's ‘public goods’ account of public health ethics in light of recent criticism from Richard Dees. Public goods are goods that are both non-rival and non-excludable. What is significant about such goods is that they are not always provided efficiently by the market. Indeed, the state can sometimes realize efficiency gains either by supplying such goods directly or by compelling private purchase. But public goods (...)
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  16.  20
    Public Goods Games in Japan.Keiko Ishii & Robert Kurzban - 2008 - Human Nature 19 (2):138-156.
    Social dilemmas, in which individually selfish behavior leads to collectively deficient outcomes, continue to be an important topic of research because of their ubiquity. The present research with Japanese participants replicates, with slight modifications, public goods games previously run in the United States. In contrast to recent work showing profound cross-cultural differences, the results of two studies reported here show remarkable cross-cultural similarities. Specifically, results suggest that (1) as in the U.S., allowing incremental commitment to a public (...)
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  17.  47
    Public Goods and Externalities: The Case of Roads.Walter Block - 1983 - Journal of Libertarian Studies 7 (1):1-34.
  18.  38
    Private Equity and the Public Good.Kevin Morrell & Ian Clark - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 96 (2):249 - 263.
    The dominance of agency theory can reduce our collective scope to analyse private equity in all its diversity and depth. We contribute to theorisation of private equity by developing a contrasting perspective that draws on a rich tradition of virtue ethics. In doing so, we juxtapose 'private equity' with 'public good' to develop points of rhetorical and analytical contrast. We develop a typology differentiating various forms of private equity, and focus on the 'take private' form. These takeovers are where (...)
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  19.  58
    Public Health and Normative Public Goods.Richard H. Dees - 2018 - Public Health Ethics 11 (1):20-26.
    Public health is concerned with increasing the health of the community at whole. Insofar as health is a ‘good’ and the community constitutes a ‘public’, public health by definition promotes a ‘public good’. But ‘public good’ has a particular and much more narrow meaning in the economics literature, and some commentators have tried to limit the scope of public health to this more narrow meaning of a ‘public good’. While such a move makes (...)
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  20.  38
    Public Goods, Mutual Benefits, and Majority Rule.Rutger Claassen - 2013 - Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (3):270-290.
  21.  88
    Public Goods and the Paying Public.Edmund F. Byrne - 1995 - Journal of Business Ethics 14 (2):117 - 123.
    This paper proposes a way to undercut anarchist objections to taxation without endorsing an authoritarian justification of government coercion. The argument involves public goods, as understood by economists and others. But I do not analyse options of autonomous prisoners and the like; for, however useful otherwise, these abstractions underestimate the real-world task of sorting out the prerogatives of and limits on ownership. Proceeding more contextually, I come to recommend a shareholder addendum to the doctrine of public (...). This recommendation involves modifying the public goods argument for government coercion to include a contributor-specific compensation provisio, thinking of contributors as investors, and including among the latter those whose investment is in the form not of a market transaction strictly speaking but of sacrifice. To reach this recommendation I constrain the market liberal''s limited endorsement of taxation by drawing on the (idealized) postcommunist privatizer''s continuing commitment to populism. (shrink)
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  22.  13
    Against the Public Goods Conception of Public Health.Justin Bernstein & Pierce Randall - 2020 - Public Health Ethics 13 (3):225-233.
    Public health ethicists face two difficult questions. First, what makes something a matter of public health? While protecting citizens from outbreaks of communicable diseases is clearly a matter of public health, is the same true of policies that aim to reduce obesity, gun violence or political corruption? Second, what should the scope of the government’s authority be in promoting public health? May government enact public health policies some citizens reasonably object to or policies that are (...)
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  23.  70
    Children as Public Goods?Serena Olsaretti - 2013 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 41 (3):226-258.
  24.  39
    Genomic Databases as Global Public Goods?Ruth Chadwick & Sarah Wilson - 2004 - Res Publica 10 (2):123-134.
    Recent discussions of genomics and international justice have adopted the concept of ‘global public goods’ to support both the view of genomics as a benefit and the sharing of genomics knowledge across nations. Such discussion relies on a particular interpretation of the global public goods argument, facilitated by the ambiguity of the concept itself. Our aim in this article is to demonstrate this by a close examination of the concept of global public goods with (...)
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  25. The Public Interest, Public Goods, and Third-Party Access to UK Biobank.B. Capps - 2012 - Public Health Ethics 5 (3):240-251.
    In 2007, the Ethics and Governance Council of the UK Biobank commissioned a Report on ‘Concepts of Public Good and Pubic Interest in Access Policies’. This study considered the Biobank’s role as a ‘public good’ in respect to supporting and promoting health throughout society. However, the conditions under which access by third parties to UK Biobank are justified in the public interest have not been well considered. In this article, I propose to analyse the conditions that should (...)
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  26.  41
    Public Goods.Garrett Cullity - 2007 - In Lawrence C. Becker Charlotte B. Becker (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ethics, Vol. III. New York: Routledge. pp. 1413-16.
  27.  50
    The Experimetrics of Public Goods: Inferring Motivations From Contributions. [REVIEW]Nicholas Bardsley & Peter G. Moffatt - 2007 - Theory and Decision 62 (2):161-193.
    In public goods experiments, stochastic choice, censoring and motivational heterogeneity give scope for disagreement over the extent of unselfishness, and whether it is reciprocal or altruistic. We show that these problems can be addressed econometrically, by estimating a finite mixture model to isolate types, incorporating double censoring and a tremble term. Most subjects act selfishly, but a substantial proportion are reciprocal with altruism playing only a marginal role. Isolating reciprocators enables a test of Sugden’s model of voluntary contributions. (...)
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  28.  32
    Language as a Global Public Good.Isaac Taylor - 2014 - Res Publica 20 (4):377-394.
    Language use is a public good. Those using a common language receive benefits that are non-excludable and non-rival. And as more people speak the same language, the greater these benefits are. Sometimes individuals make a conscious decision to learn a language other than their native language in order to receive these benefits, and thereby incur costs. This paper is an attempt to determine how we should share the costs among all beneficiaries. I argue against Van Parijs’s proposal for this, (...)
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  29.  9
    Public Goods and Fair Prices: Balancing Technological Innovation with Social Well‐Being.Baruch Brody - 1996 - Hastings Center Report 26 (2):5-11.
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  30. Herd Protection as a Public Good: Vaccination and Our Obligations to Others.Angus Dawson - 2007 - In Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.), Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health. Clarendon Press.
  31.  85
    The Public Goods Rationale for Government and the Circularity Problem.Tyler Cowen & Gregory Kavka - 2003 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (2):265-277.
    George Mason University, USA It has been suggested that the production of public goods through a government involves a circularity problem. Since government itself is a public good, how can we use government to produce other public goods? Several solutions to this supposed circularity are offered. Government is a unique kind of public good with some potentially self-generating and self-supporting features. The public goods theory of government remains intact, and this enterprise helps (...)
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  32.  33
    A Global Public Goods Approach to the Health of Migrants.Heather Widdows & Herjeet Marway - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (2):121-129.
    This paper explores a global public goods approach to the health of migrants. It suggests that this approach establishes that there are a number of health goods which must be provided to migrants not because these are theirs by right, but because these goods are primary goods which fit the threefold criteria of global public goods. There are two key advantages to this approach: first, it is non-confrontational and non-oppositional, and second, it provides (...)
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  33.  24
    God’s Punishment and Public Goods.Dominic D. P. Johnson - 2005 - Human Nature 16 (4):410-446.
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  34.  1
    Is Science a Public Good? Fifth Mullins Lecture, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, 23 March 1993.Michel Callon - 1994 - Science, Technology and Human Values 19 (4):395-424.
    Should governments accept the principle of devoting a proportion of their resources to funding basic research? From the standpoint of economics, science should be considered as a public good and for that reason it should be protected from market forces. This article tries to show that this result can only be maintained at the price of abandoning arguments traditionally deployed by economists themselves. It entails a complete reversal of our habitual ways of thinking about public goods. In (...)
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  35. The Theory of Externalities, Public Goods, and Club Goods.Richard Cornes & Todd Sandler - 1996 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a theoretical treatment of externalities, public goods, and club goods. The new edition updates and expands the discussion of externalities and their implications, coverage of asymmetric information, underlying game-theoretic formulations, and intuitive and graphical presentations. Aimed at well-prepared undergraduates and graduate students making a serious foray into this branch of economics, the analysis should also interest professional economists wishing to survey recent advances in the field. No other single source for the range of materials (...)
     
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  36.  8
    Public Goods With Punishment and Abstaining in Finite and Infinite Populations.Christoph Hauert, Arne Traulsen, Hannelore De Silva née Brandt, Martin A. Nowak & Karl Sigmund - 2008 - Biological Theory 3 (2):114-122.
    The evolution and maintenance of cooperation in human and animal societies challenge various disciplines ranging from evolutionary biology to anthropology, social sciences, and economics. In social interactions, cooperators increase the welfare of the group at some cost to themselves whereas defectors attempt to free ride and neither provide benefits nor incur costs. The problem of cooperation becomes even more pronounced when increasing the number of interacting individuals. Punishment and voluntary participation have been identified as possible factors to support cooperation and (...)
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  37. Law as a Public Good: The Economics of Anarchy: Tyler Cowen.Tyler Cowen - 1992 - Economics and Philosophy 8 (2):249-267.
    Various writers in the Western liberal and libertarian tradition have challenged the argument that enforcement of law and protection of property rights are public goods that must be provided by governments. Many of these writers argue explicitly for the provision of law enforcement services through private market relations.
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  38. The University and the Public Good.Craig Calhoun - 2006 - Thesis Eleven 84 (1):7-43.
    Universities have flourished in the modern era as central public institutions and bases for critical thought. They are currently challenged by a variety of social forces and undergoing a deep transformation in both their internal structure and their relationship to the rest of society. Critical theorists need to assess this both in order to grasp adequately the social conditions of their own work and because the transformation of universities is central to a more general intensification of social inequality, privatization (...)
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  39.  22
    Whose Ethos for Public Goods in the Global Economy?: An Exploration in International Business Ethics.Georges Enderle - 2000 - Business Ethics Quarterly 10 (1):131-144.
    The discussion of the global economy and worldwide expansion of the capitalist and market economic system barely deals with the topic of public goods, although they are of paramount importance precisely in this international setting. Fortunately, the theory of public economics systematically developed the central concept of the public good with its far-reaching implications so that this knowledge can be applied also to global issues. In order to treat these often vaguely discussed issues, a typology of (...)
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  40.  45
    Why Geoengineering is a Public Good, Even If It is Bad.David R. Morrow - 2014 - Climatic Change.
    Stephen Gardiner argues that geoengineering does not meet the “canonical technical definition” of a global public good, and that it is misleading to frame geoengineering as a public good. A public good is something that is nonrival and nonexcludable. Contrary to Gardiner’s claims, geoengineering meets both of these criteria. Framing geoengineering as a public good is useful because it allows commentators to draw on the existing economic, philosophical, and social scientific literature on the governance of (...) goods. (shrink)
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  41.  31
    Why ‘Global Public Good’ is a Treacherous Term, Especially for Geoengineering.Stephen M. Gardiner - 2014 - Climatic Change.
    Recently, I argued against framing geoengineering—understood here in terms of the paradigm example of stratospheric sulfate injection ('SSI')—as a global public good. My main claim was that this framing is seriously misleading because of its neglect of central ethical concerns. I also suggested that 'global public good' is best understood as an umbrella term covering a cluster of distinct, but interrelated ideas. In an effort to be charitable, I adopted an inclusive approach, considering two general attitudes to the (...)
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  42.  23
    Can Priming Cooperation Increase Public Good Contributions?Michalis Drouvelis, Robert Metcalfe & Nattavudh Powdthavee - 2015 - Theory and Decision 79 (3):479-492.
    We investigate the effect of priming on pro-social behaviour in a setting where there is a clear financial incentive to free ride. By activating the concept of cooperation among randomly selected individuals, we explore whether it is possible to positively influence people’s voluntary contributions to the public good. Our findings indicate that cooperative priming increases contributions in a one-shot public goods game from approximately 25–36 % compared with the non-primed group. The results call for further explorations of (...)
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  43. Prisoner's Dilemma and Public Goods Games in Different Geometries: Compulsory Versus Voluntary Interactions.Christoph Hauert & György Szabó - 2003 - Complexity 8 (4):31-38.
  44. Why Democracy Needs Public Goods.Angela Kallhoff - 2011 - Lexington Books.
    Why Democracy Needs Public Goods provides arguments for a new theoretical perspective in favor of public goods. Kallhoff details the benefits of public goods for any democratic state: they contribute to social inclusion, help generate the public forum, and foster national identity. These arguments are supplemented by reconsidering major counter-arguments against this approach, both from political theory and from theories on public finance. Political philosophers, political theorists, and political economists will benefit most (...)
     
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  45.  22
    Inquiry for the Public Good: Democratic Participation in Agricultural Research.Gerad Middendorf & Lawrence Busch - 1997 - Agriculture and Human Values 14 (1):45-57.
    In recent decades, constituenciesserved by land-grant agricultural research haveexperienced significant demographic and politicalchanges, yet most research institutions have not fullyresponded to address the concerns of a changingclientele base. Thus, we have seen continuingcontroversies over technologies produced by land-grantagricultural research. While a number of scholars havecalled for a more participatory agricultural scienceestablishment, we understand little about the processof enhancing and institutionalizing participation inthe US agricultural research enterprise. We firstexamine some of the important issues surroundingcitizen participation in science and technologypolicy. We then (...)
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  46.  47
    Moral Rules as Public Goods.Edward F. Mcclennen - 1999 - Business Ethics Quarterly 9 (1):103-126.
    The kind of commitment to moral rules that characterizes effective interaction between persons in, among others places,manufacturing and commercial settings is characteristically treated by economists and game theorists as a public good, the securing ofwhich requires the expenditure of scarce resources on surveillance and enforcement mechanisms. Alternatively put, the view is that,characteristically, rational persons cannot voluntarily guide their choices by rules, but can only be goaded into acting in accordancewith such rules by the fear of social and formal sanctions. (...)
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  47.  28
    8 Justice, Democracy and Public Goods.David Miller - 2004 - In Keith M. Dowding, Robert E. Goodin, Carole Pateman & Brian Barry (eds.), Justice and Democracy: Essays for Brian Barry. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127.
  48.  44
    Sort Out Your Neighbourhood: Public Good Games on Dynamic Networks.Kai P. Spiekermann - 2009 - Synthese 168 (2):273 - 294.
    Axelrod (The evolution of cooperation, 1984) and others explain how cooperation can emerge in repeated 2-person prisoner’s dilemmas. But in public good games with anonymous contributions, we expect a breakdown of cooperation because direct reciprocity fails. However, if agents are situated in a social network determining which agents interact, and if they can influence the network, then cooperation can be a viable strategy. Social networks are modelled as graphs. Agents play public good games with their neighbours. After each (...)
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  49.  39
    Public Goods Theory and Public Policy.Randall G. Holcombe - 2000 - Journal of Value Inquiry 34 (2/3):273-286.
  50.  18
    Auctioning a Discrete Public Good Under Incomplete Information.Murat Yılmaz - 2015 - Theory and Decision 78 (3):471-500.
    We study a dynamic auction mechanism in the context of private provision of a discrete public good under incomplete information. The bidders have private valuations, and the cost of the public good is common knowledge. No bidder is willing to provide the good on her own. We show that a natural application of open ascending auctions in such environments fails dramatically: The probability of provision is zero in any equilibrium. The mechanism effectively auctions off the ‘right’ to be (...)
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