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Summary

Feminist philosophical work focused on non-human animals considers the status of non-human animals themselves as well as the moral, epistemological, metaphysical, and phenomenological dimensions of human/non-human animal relationships.  Theoretical work in this area often focuses on the intersections of gender, race, class, and species, noticing the ways in which the exploitation of non-humans is linked to the exploitation of marginalized humans.  There is considerable overlap between feminist work on non-human animals and ecofeminism, though not all ecofeminism has been inclusive of non-human animals.

Key works  One of the earlier works connecting feminism and animals is Adams 2000.  Other key works in this area include volumes edited by Adams and Donovan including Animals and Women and The Feminist Care Tradition in Animal Ethics as well as Greta Gaard's volume entitled Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature.  There is  a rich literature on feminism and non-human animals, some journal articles of note include, Gruen 2011, Gruen et al 2012, Gaard 2001, McKenna 1994, Kheel 1985, and Slicer 1991.
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  1. Carol J. Adams (2000). The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Continuum.
    New Tenth Anniversary edition of this classic text with a new preface by the author, compares myths about meat-eating with myths about manliness, and seeks to ...
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  2. Carol J. Adams (1994). Neither Man nor Beast: Feminism and the Defense of Animals. Continuum.
    In just a few years, the book became an underground classic. Neither Man Nor Beast takes Adams' thought one step further.
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  3. Carol J. Adams (1991). Ecofeminism and the Eating of Animals. Hypatia 6 (1):125 - 145.
    In this essay, I will argue that contemporary ecofeminist discourse, while potentially adequate to deal with the issue of animals, is now inadequate because it fails to give consistent conceptual place to the domination of animals as a significant aspect of the domination of nature. I will examine six answers ecofeminists could give for not including animals explicitly in ecofeminist analyses and show how a persistent patriarchal ideology regarding animals as instruments has kept the experience of animals from being fully (...)
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  4. Irina Aristarkhova (2012). Thou Shall Not Harm All Living Beings: Feminism, Jainism, and Animals. Hypatia 27 (3):636-650.
  5. Cathryn Bailey (2007). We Are What We Eat: Feminist Vegetarianism and the Reproduction of Racial Identity. Hypatia 22 (2):39-59.
    : In this article, Bailey analyzes the relationship between ethical vegetarianism (or the claim that ethical vegetarianism is morally right for all people) and white racism (the claim that white solipsistic and possibly white privileged ethical claims are imperialistically or insensitively universalized over less privileged human lives). This plays out in the dreaded comparison of animals with people of color and Jews as exemplified in the PETA campaign and the need for human identification (or solidarity) with animals in ethical vegetarianism. (...)
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  6. Frances Bartkowski (2012). Loving Animals: Toward a New Animal Advocacy. By Kathy Rudy. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2011. [REVIEW] Hypatia 27 (3):675-678.
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  7. Lynda I. A. Birke (1994). Feminism, Animals, and Science: The Naming of the Shrew. Open University Press.
  8. David Boonin (2002). Animal, Vegetable, or Woman?: A Feminist Critique of Ethical Vegetarianism. Environmental Ethics 24 (4):429-432.
  9. Nadine Brummer (1995). Feminism, Animals and Science: The Naming of the Shrew. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):316-317.
  10. Emily Clark (2012). “The Animal” and “The Feminist”. Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
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  11. Vrinda Dalmiya (2002). Cows and Others: Toward Constructing Ecofeminist Selves. Environmental Ethics 24 (2):149-168.
    I examine the kind of alliances and ironic crossing of borders that constitute an ecofeminist subjectivity by appeal to a postcolonial literary imagination and ahistorical philosophical argumentation. I link the theoretical insights of a modern short story “Bestiality” with a concept of “congenital debt” found in the ancient Vedic corpus to suggest a notion of ecological selfhood that transforms into the idea of a “gift community” to encompass nonhumans as well as people on the fringes of society, but without the (...)
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  12. Maneesha Deckha (2012). Toward a Postcolonial, Posthumanist Feminist Theory: Centralizing Race and Culture in Feminist Work on Nonhuman Animals. Hypatia 27 (3):527-545.
    Posthumanist feminist theory has been instrumental in demonstrating the salience of gender and sexism in structuring human–animal relationships and in revealing the connections between the oppression of women and of nonhuman animals. Despite the richness of feminist posthumanist theorizations it has been suggested that their influence in contemporary animal ethics has been muted. This marginalization of feminist work—here, in its posthumanist version—is a systemic issue within theory and needs to be remedied. At the same time, the limits of posthumanist feminist (...)
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  13. Josephine Donovan (2008). Feminism and the Treatment of Animals : From Care to Dialogue. In Susan J. Armstrong & Richard George Botzler (eds.), The Animal Ethics Reader. Routledge.
  14. Josephine Donovan & Carol J. Adams (eds.) (1996). Beyond Animal Rights: A Feminist Caring Ethic for the Treatment of Animals. Continuum.
  15. Karen S. Emmerman (2012). Sister Species: Women, Animals, and Social Justice. Edited by Lisa Kemmerer. Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield: University of Illinois Press, 2011. [REVIEW] Hypatia 27 (3):670-672.
  16. Greta Gaard (2012). Speaking of Animal Bodies. Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
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  17. Greta Gaard (1996). Women, Animals, and Ecofeminist Critique. Environmental Ethics 18 (4):439-441.
  18. Greta Claire Gaard (2001). Tools for a Cross-Cultural Feminist Ethics: Exploring Ethical Contexts and Contents in the Makah Whale Hunt. Hypatia 16 (1):1-26.
    : Antiracist white feminists and ecofeminists have the tools but lack the strategies for responding to issues of social and environmental justice cross-culturally, particularly in matters as complex as the Makah whale hunt. Distinguishing between ethical contexts and contents, I draw on feminist critiques of cultural essentialism, ecofeminist critiques of hunting and food consumption, and socialist feminist analyses of colonialism to develop antiracist feminist and ecofeminist strategies for cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural feminist ethics.
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  19. Lori Gruen (2012). Marti Kheel Remembered (1948–2011). Hypatia 27 (3):488-491.
  20. Lori Gruen & Kari Weil (2012). Animal Others—Editors' Introduction. Hypatia 27 (3):477-487.
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  21. Lori Gruen & Kari Weil (2012). Introduction: Feminists Encountering Animals. Hypatia 27 (2):492-526.
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  22. Lori Gruen, Kari Weil, Kelly Oliver, Traci Warkentin, Stephanie Jenkins, Carrie Rohman, Emily Clark & Greta Gaard (2012). Introduction. Hypatia 27 (3):492-526.
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  23. Jean O'Malley Halley (2012). The Parallel Lives of Women and Cows: Meat Markets. Palgrave Macmillan.
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  24. Stephanie Jenkins (2012). Returning the Ethical and Political to Animal Studies. Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  25. Roger J. H. King (1991). Environmental Ethics and the Case for Hunting. Environmental Ethics 13 (1):59-85.
    Hunting is a complex phenomenon. l examine it from four different perspectives-animal liberation, the land ethic, primitivism, and ecofeminism-and find no moral justification for sport hunting in any of them. At the same time, however, I argue that there are theoretical flaws in each of these approaches. Animal liberationists focus too much on the individual animal and ignore the difference between domestic and wild animals. Leopold’s land ethic fails to come to terms with the self-domestication of humans. I argue that (...)
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  26. Alexandra Koelle (2012). Intimate Bureaucracies: Roadkill, Policy, and Fieldwork on the Shoulder. Hypatia 27 (3):651-669.
    Over the last twenty years, wildlife biologists and transportation planners have worked with environmental groups and state and tribal governments to mitigate the effects of human transportation arteries on animal habitats and movements. This paper draws connections between this growing field of road ecology and feminist science studies in order to accomplish two things. First, it aims to highlight the often unacknowledged roots that the interdisciplinary field of animal studies has in feminist theory. Second, it seeks to contribute to conversations (...)
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  27. Wendy Lee-Lampshire (1995). Women-Animals-Machines: A Grammar for a Wittgensteinian Ecofeminism. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 29 (1):89-101.
  28. Sheri Lucas (2005). A Defense of the Feminist-Vegetarian Connection. Hypatia 20 (1):150-177.
    : Kathryn Paxton George's recent publication, Animal, Vegetable, or Woman? (2000), is the culmination of more than a decade's work and encompasses standard and original arguments against the feminist-vegetarian connection. This paper demonstrates that George's key arguments are deeply flawed, antithetical to basic feminist commitments, and beg the question against fundamental aspects of the debate. Those who do not accept the feminist-vegetarian connection should rethink their position or offer a non-question-begging defense of it.
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  29. Ann Reed Mangels & Suzanne Havala (1994). Vegan Diets for Women, Infants, and Children. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (1):111-122.
    Infants, children, adolescents, and pregnant and lactating women have been described as groups with special needs. Regardless of diet chosen, these groups are at higher risk for nutritional deficiencies than adult males. Vegan diets can be safely used by these groups if foods, and in some instances supplements, are selected which provide a healthful and nutritionally adequate diet. Guidelines have been developed for those choosing to follow vegan diets. In many instances vegan diets offer health benefits. Studies of vegans are (...)
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  30. Susan Mchugh (2012). Bitch, Bitch, Bitch: Personal Criticism, Feminist Theory, and Dog-Writing. Hypatia 27 (3):616-635.
    By the turn of the twenty-first century, women writing about electing to share their lives with female canines directly confront a strange sort of backlash. Even as their extensions of the feminist forms of personal criticism contribute to significant developments in theories of sex, gender, and species, they become targets of criticism as “indulgent” for focusing on their dogs. Comparing these elements in and around popular memoirs like Caroline Knapp's Pack of Two: The Intricate Bond between People and Dogs (1998) (...)
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  31. Erin McKenna (1996). Women, Power, and Meat: Comparing the Sexual Contract and the Sexual Politics of Meat. Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):47-64.
  32. Erin McKenna (1994). Feminism and Vegetarianism. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (3):28-35.
    Singer’s ethics assume an autonomous, impartial, abstract reasoner. Nonhuman animals, like human animals, have an interest in not suffering; so we all agree on an impartial, rational, consistent minimum standard of treatment that we see must extend to nonhuman animals. While I think this kind of argument works well in the “liberal” context of countries based on social contract reasoning, I am not convinced it goes far enough in achieving the desired attitude shift. We are still encouraged to think in (...)
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  33. Kelly Oliver (2012). Ambivalence Toward Animals and the Moral Community. Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  34. Kelly Oliver (2009). Animal Lessons: How They Teach Us to Be Human. Columbia University Press.
    Introduction: The role of animals in philosophies of man -- Part I: What's wrong with animal rights? -- The right to remain silent -- Part II: Animal pedagogy -- You are what you eat : Rousseau's cat -- Say the human responded : Herder's sheep -- Part III: Difference worthy of its name -- Hair of the dog : Derrida's and Rousseau's good taste -- Sexual difference, animal difference : Derrida's sexy silkworm -- Part IV: It's our fault -- The (...)
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  35. Colette R. Palamar (2007). Wild, Women, and Wolves: An Ecological Feminist Examination of Wolf Introduction. Environmental Ethics 29 (1):63-75.
    Despite the successes, and the considerable and continuing ethical disputes regarding wolf reintroduction in the United States, no clear, cogent, theoretically based ethical examination of the wolf reintroductions has yet been completed. Ecological feminist thought, particularly as articulated by Karen J. Warren, presents one way to create such an ethical assessment. Applying ecological feminist theories to wolf reintroduction also generates an intriguing instance of theoretical application in the “real world” and sheds insight on the pragmatic value of ecological feminist thought. (...)
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  36. Carole Pateman (1996). The Sexual Contract and the Animals. Journal of Social Philosophy 27 (1):65-80.
  37. Carrie Rohman (2012). Disciplinary Becomings: Horizons of Knowledge in Animal Studies. Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  38. Peter Singer (1994). Feminism and Vegetarianism. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 1 (3):36-38.
    Erin McKenna is correct to question the relative weight that I give to emotions and reason in Animal Liberation. In 1975 when the first edition was published, emotion played a key role in the campaigns of animal societies, and I wished to make an appeal to reason that would have ethical and political impact. I disagree with McKenna’s conclusion that an impartial, objective stance is either impossible or undesirable. I argue that we should not abandon the attempt to reach an (...)
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  39. Deborah Slicer (1994). Ecofeminism: Women, Animals, Nature. Environmental Ethics 16 (3):315-319.
  40. Deborah Slicer (1992). The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory. Environmental Ethics 14 (4):365-369.
  41. James Stanescu (2012). Species Trouble: Judith Butler, Mourning, and the Precarious Lives of Animals. Hypatia 27 (3):567-582.
    This article utilizes the work of Judith Butler in order to chart a queer and feminist animal studies, an animal studies that celebrates our shared embodied finitude. Butler's commentary on other animals remains dispersed and fragmented throughout books, lectures, and interviews over the course of the last several years. This work is critically synthesized in conjunction with her work on mourning and precarious lives. By developing an anti-anthropocentric understanding of mourning and precarious lives, this article hopes to create ontological, ethical, (...)
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  42. Noël Sturgeon (2009). Considering Animals: Kheel's Nature Ethics and Animal Debates in Ecofeminism. Ethics and the Environment 14 (2):pp. 153-162.
  43. Chloë Taylor (2012). Animal Lessons: How They Teach Us to Be Human. By Kelly Oliver. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. Hypatia 27 (3):672-675.
  44. Traci Warkentin (2012). Must Every Animal Studies Scholar Be Vegan? Hypatia 27 (2):n/a-n/a.
  45. Karen J. Warren (1990). The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism. Environmental Ethics 12 (2):125-146.
    Ecological feminism is the position that there are important connections-historical, symbolic, theoretical-between the domination of women and the domination of nonhuman nature. I argue that because the conceptual connections between the dual dominations of women and nature are located in an oppressive patriarchal conceptual framework characterized by a logic of domination, (1) the logic of traditional feminism requires the expansion of feminism to include ecological feminism and (2) ecological feminism provides a framework for developing a distinctively feminist environmental ethic. I (...)
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