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Summary The topics of imaging and localization include both epistemological and ontological issues in the philosophy of neuroscience. How can imaging techniques such as fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) support inferences about which brain areas perform which cognitive functions? To what degree is the very idea that cognitive functions are localized to discrete brain areas supported by current work in the neurosciences?
Key works For key works on localization, see Bechtel & Mundale 1999 and Mundale 2001. Regarding philosophical issues in neuroimaging, see Bechtel forthcoming and Klein 2010.
Introductions For a recent overview of philosophical issues concerning neuroimaging and localization, see Klein 2010.
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  1. John R. Anderson (2007). How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe? OUP USA.
    "The question for me is how can the human mind occur in the physical universe? We now know that the world is governed by physics. We now understand the way biology nestles comfortably within that. The issue is how will the mind do that as well?" Alan Newell, 4 December 1991, Carnegie Mellon University -/- The argument John Anderson gives in this book was inspired by the passage above, from the last lecture by one of the pioneers of cognitive science. (...)
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  2. Michael L. Anderson (2007). The Massive Redeployment Hypothesis and the Functional Topography of the Brain. Philosophical Psychology 21 (2):143-174.
    This essay introduces the massive redeployment hypothesis, an account of the functional organization of the brain that centrally features the fact that brain areas are typically employed to support numerous functions. The central contribution of the essay is to outline a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other, in such a way as to account for the supporting data on both sides of the argument. The massive redeployment hypothesis is supported by case studies (...)
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  3. Michael L. Anderson (2007). Massive Redeployment, Exaptation, and the Functional Integration of Cognitive Operations. Synthese 159 (3):329 - 345.
    Abstract: The massive redeployment hypothesis (MRH) is a theory about the functional topography of the human brain, offering a middle course between strict localization on the one hand, and holism on the other. Central to MRH is the claim that cognitive evolution proceeded in a way analogous to component reuse in software engineering, whereby existing components-originally developed to serve some specific purpose-were used for new purposes and combined to support new capacities, without disrupting their participation in existing programs. If the (...)
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  4. Michael A. Arbib & Peter Érdi (2000). Organizing the Brain's Diversities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):551-565.
    We clarify the arguments in Neural organization: Structure, function, and dynamics, acknowledge important contributions cited by our critics, and respond to their criticisms by charting directions for further development of our integrated approach to theoretical and empirical studies of neural organization. We first discuss functional organization in general (behavior versus cognitive functioning, the need to study body and brain together, function in ontogeny and phylogeny) and then focus on schema theory (noting that schema theory is not just a top-down theory (...)
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  5. Michael A. Arbib & Péter Érdi (2000). Précis of Neural Organization: Structure, Function, and Dynamics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):513-533.
    Neural organization: Structure, function, and dynamics shows how theory and experiment can supplement each other in an integrated, evolving account of the brain's structure, function, and dynamics. (1) Structure: Studies of brain function and dynamics build on and contribute to an understanding of many brain regions, the neural circuits that constitute them, and their spatial relations. We emphasize Szentágothai's modular architectonics principle, but also stress the importance of the microcomplexes of cerebellar circuitry and the lamellae of hippocampus. (2) Function: Control (...)
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  6. Gardar Árnason (2010). Neuroimaging, Uncertainty, and the Problem of Dispositions. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (02):188-.
    Brain research in neuroscience and related fields is changing our understanding of the brain and its relation to the mind and to human behavior, giving a new impetus to the problem of free will and moral responsibility. The reactions have covered the entire range, from claims to the effect that neuroscientific research is showing that our folkrnason, Ph.D., is Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Department of Social and Moral Philosophy, University of Helsinki, Finland. His research interests include bioethics, neuroethics, and (...)
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  7. Mitchell G. Ash & Thomas Sturm (eds.) (2007). Psychology’s Territories: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives From Different Disciplines. Erlbaum.
    This is an interdisciplinary collection of new essays by philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists and historians on the question: What has determined and what should determine the territory or the boundaries of the discipline named "psychology"? Both the contents - in terms of concepts - and the methods - in terms of instruments - are analyzed. Among the contributors are Mitchell Ash, Paul Baltes, Jochen Brandtstädter, Gerd Gigerenzer, Michael Heidelberger, Gerhard Roth, and Thomas Sturm.
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  8. Harald Atmanspacher, Mental States as Macrostates Emerging From Brain Electrical Dynamics.
    Psychophysiological correlations form the basis for different medical and scientific disciplines, but the nature of this relation has not yet been fully understood. One conceptual option is to understand the mental as “emerging” from neural processes in the specific sense that psychology and physiology provide two different descriptions of the same system. Stating these descriptions in terms of coarser- and finer-grained system states macro- and microstates , the two descriptions may be equally adequate if the coarse-graining preserves the possibility to (...)
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  9. M. J. Avison (2002). Functional Brain Mapping: What is It Good For? Absolutely Nothing. Brain and Mind 3 (3):367-73.
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  10. Malcolm J. Avison (2002). Functional Brain Mapping – What is It Good For? Absolutely Nothing? (Comments on the New Phrenology, by William R. Uttal). Brain and Mind 3 (3):367-373.
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  11. Tim Bayne (2012). How to Read Minds. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. 41.
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  12. William P. Bechtel (2002). Decomposing the Brain: A Long Term Pursuit. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (1):229-242.
    This paper defends cognitive neuroscience’s project of developing mechanistic explan- ations of cognitive processes through decomposition and localization against objections raised by William Uttal in The New Phrenology. The key issue between Uttal and researchers pursuing cognitive neuroscience is that Uttal bets against the possibility of decomposing mental operations into component elementary operations which are localized in distinct brain regions. The paper argues that it is through advancing and revising what are likely to be overly simplistic and incorrect decompositions that (...)
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  13. William P. Bechtel (2001). Decomposing and Localizing Vision: An Exemplar for Cognitive Neuroscience. In William P. Bechtel, Pete Mandik, Jennifer Mundale & Robert S. Stufflebeam (eds.), Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Blackwell. 225--249.
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  14. William P. Bechtel, Pete Mandik, Jennifer Mundale & Robert S. Stufflebeam (eds.) (2001). Philosophy and the Neurosciences: A Reader. Blackwell.
    2. Daugman, J. G. Brain metaphor and brain theory 3. Mundale, J. Neuroanatomical Foundations of Cognition: Connecting the Neuronal Level with the Study of Higher Brain Areas.
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  15. William P. Bechtel & Robert S. Stufflebeam (1997). PET: Exploring the Myth and the Method. Philosophy Of Science 64 (4):S95 - S106.
    New research tools such as PET can produce dramatic results. But they can also produce dramatic artifacts. Why is PET to be trusted? We examine both the rationale that justifies interpreting PET as measuring brain activity and the strategies for interpreting PET results functionally. We show that functional ascriptions with PET make important assumptions and depend critically on relating PET results to those secured through other research techniques.
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  16. Gregory S. Berns (2003). Neural Game Theory and the Search for Rational Agents in the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):155-156.
    The advent of functional brain imaging has revolutionized the ability to understand the biological mechanisms underlying decision-making. Although it has been amply demonstrated that assumptions of rationality often break down in experimental games, there has not been an overarching theory of why this happens. I describe recent advances in functional brain imaging and suggest a framework for considering the function of the human reward system as a discrete agent.
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  17. Horst Bischof (1997). Locality, Modularity, and Computational Neural Networks. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):516-517.
    There is a distinction between locality and modularity. These two terms have often been used interchangeably in the target article and commentary. Using this distinction we argue in favor of a modularity. In addition we also argue that both PDP-type networks and box-and-arrow models have their own strengths and pitfalls.
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  18. James R. Blair & Karina S. Perschardt (2001). Empathy: A Unitary Circuit or a Set of Dissociable Neuro-Cognitive Systems? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):27-28.
    We question whether empathy is mediated by a unitary circuit. We argue that recent neuroimaging data indicate dissociable neural responses for different facial expressions as well as for representing others' mental states (Theory of Mind, TOM). We also argue that the general empathy disorder considered characteristic of autism and psychopathy is not general but specific for each disorder.
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  19. Robyn Bluhm (2013). New Research, Old Problems: Methodological and Ethical Issues in fMRI Research Examining Sex/Gender Differences in Emotion Processing. Neuroethics 6 (2):319-330.
    Neuroscience research examining sex/gender differences aims to explain behavioral differences between men and women in terms of differences in their brains. Historically, this research has used ad hoc methods and has been conducted explicitly in order to show that prevailing gender roles were dictated by biology. I examine contemporary fMRI research on sex/gender differences in emotion processing and argue that it, too, both uses problematic methods and, in doing so, reinforces gender stereotypes.
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  20. Simon Boag (2007). 'Real Processes' and the Explanatory Status of Repression and Inhibition. Philosophical Psychology 20 (3):375 – 392.
    The recent interest in neuroscientific psychodynamic research ('neuropsychoanalysis') has meant that empirical findings are emerging which allow greater public scrutiny of psychodynamic concepts. However, Malcolm Macmillan has claimed that the psychoanalytic cornerstone, repression, is a circular explanatory concept and incapable of referring to a "real process." This paper discusses Macmillan's criticism and finds that repression is a coherent explanatory term and is not precluded from referring to real processes. Specifically, 'neural inhibition,' triggered by social factors, can account for Freudian repression, (...)
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  21. James Bogen (2002). Experiment and Observation. In Peter K. Machamer & Michael Silberstein (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Blackwell. 128--148.
  22. James Bogen (2002). Epistemological Custard Pies From Functional Brain Imaging. Philosophy of Science 69 (3):S59-S71.
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  23. James Bogen (2002). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Science. Cambridge: Blackwell.
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  24. James Bogen (2001). Functional Imaging Evidence: Some Epistemic Hotspots. In Peter K. Machamer, Peter McLaughlin & Rick Grush (eds.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. University of Pittsburgh Press. 173--199.
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  25. Emily Borgelt, Daniel Buchman & Judy Illes (2012). Practicioners' Views on Neuroimaging : Mental Health, Patient Consent, and Choice. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press.
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  26. Emily Borgelt, Daniel Buchman & Judy Illes (2011). Erratum: “ This is Why You've Been Suffering”: Reflections of Providers on Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 8 (1):107-107.
    Erratum: “ This is Why you’ve Been Suffering”: Reflections of Providers on Neuroimaging in Mental Health Care Content Type Journal Article Pages 107-107 DOI 10.1007/s11673-011-9284-4 Authors Emily Borgelt, National Core for Neuroethics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Daniel Z. Buchman, National Core for Neuroethics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Judy Illes, National Core for Neuroethics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada Journal Journal of Bioethical Inquiry Online ISSN 1872-4353 Print ISSN 1176-7529 Journal Volume Volume 8 Journal Issue Volume (...)
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  27. Andrew Brook & Kathleen Akins (eds.) (2005). Cognition and the Brain: The Philosophy and Neuroscience Movement. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume provides an up to date and comprehensive overview of the philosophy and neuroscience movement, which applies the methods of neuroscience to traditional philosophical problems and uses philosophical methods to illuminate issues in neuroscience. At the heart of the movement is the conviction that basic questions about human cognition, many of which have been studied for millennia, can be answered only by a philosophically sophisticated grasp of neuroscience's insights into the processing of information by the human brain. Essays in (...)
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  28. Roger Brownsword (2012). Regulating Brain Imaging : Questions of Privacy, Informed Consent, and Human Dignity. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. 223.
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  29. David J. Buller & Valerie Gray Hardcastle (2000). Evolutionary Psychology, Meet Developmental Neurobiology: Against Promiscuous Modularity. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 1 (3):307-25.
    Evolutionary psychologists claim that the mind contains “hundreds or thousands” of “genetically specified” modules, which are evolutionary adaptations for their cognitive functions. We argue that, while the adult human mind/brain typically contains a degree of modularization, its “modules” are neither genetically specified nor evolutionary adaptations. Rather, they result from the brain’s developmental plasticity, which allows environmental task demands a large role in shaping the brain’s information-processing structures. The brain’s developmental plasticity is our fundamental psychological adaptation, and the “modules” that result (...)
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  30. Lisa J. Burklund & Matthew D. Lieberman (2012). Advances in Functional Neuroimaging of Psychopathology. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):333-337.
    In their paper "Conceptual Challenges in the Neuroimaging of Psychiatric Disorders," Kanaan and McGuire (2011) review a number of methodological and analytical obstacles associated with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study psychiatric disorders. Although we agree that there are challenges and limitations to this end, it would be a shame for those without a background in neuroimaging to walk away from this article with the impression that such work is too daunting, and thus not worth pursuing. (...)
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  31. Colin Campbell & Nigel Eastman (2012). The Neurobiology of Violence : Science and Law. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. 139.
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  32. Stefano F. Cappa, Andrea Moro, Daniela Perani & Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini (2000). Broca's Aphasia, Broca's Area, and Syntax: A Complex Relationship. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (1):27-28.
    Three types of problems are raised in this commentary: On the linguistic side, we emphasize the importance of an appropriate definition of the different domains of linguistics. This is needed to define the domains (lexicon-syntax-semantics) to which transformational relations apply. We then question the concept of Broca's aphasia as a “functional” syndrome, associated with a specific lesion. Finally, we discuss evidence from functional brain imaging. The breadth and potential impact of such evidence has grown considerably in the last few years, (...)
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  33. Kim Celone & Chantal Stern (2009). A Neuroimaging Perspective on the Use of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Fmri) in Educational and Legal Systems. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (1):28 – 29.
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  34. Thierry Chaminade & Jean Decety (2001). A Common Framework for Perception and Action: Neuroimaging Evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (5):879-882.
    In recent years, neurophysiological evidence has accumulated in favor of a common coding between perception and execution of action. We review findings from recent neuroimaging experiments in the action domain with three complementary perspectives: perception of action, covert action triggered by perception, and reproduction of perceived action (imitation). All studies point to the parietal cortex as a key region for body movement representation, both observed and performed.
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  35. François Chapeau-Blondeau (1995). Information Processing in Neural Networks by Means of Controlled Dynamic Regimes. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2).
    This paper is concerned with the modeling of neural systems regarded as information processing entities. I investigate the various dynamic regimes that are accessible in neural networks considered as nonlinear adaptive dynamic systems. The possibilities of obtaining steady, oscillatory or chaotic regimes are illustrated with different neural network models. Some aspects of the dependence of the dynamic regimes upon the synaptic couplings are examined. I emphasize the role that the various regimes may play to support information processing abilities. I present (...)
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  36. Wayne Christensen & John Michael (2013). Ian Apperly, Mindreaders: The Cognitive Basis of Theory of Mind. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):907-914.
  37. Axel Cleeremans (2006). Computational Correlates of Consciousness. In Steven Laureys (ed.), The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology: Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier.
    Over the past few years numerous proposals have appeared that attempt to characterize consciousness in terms of what could be called its computational correlates: Principles of information processing with which to characterize the differences between conscious and unconscious processing. Proposed computational correlates include architectural specialization (such as the involvement of specific regions of the brain in conscious processing), properties of representations (such as their stability in time or their strength), and properties of specific processes (such as resonance, synchrony, interactivity, or (...)
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  38. Axel Cleeremans & Tiago V. Maia (2005). Consciousness: Converging Insights From Connectionist Modeling and Neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):397-404.
    Over the past decade, many findings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
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  39. Colin W. G. Clifford & Gillian Rhodes (eds.) (2005). Fitting the Mind to the World: Adaptation and After-Effects in High-Level Vision. OUP Oxford.
    Adaptation phenomena provide striking examples of perceptual plasticity and offer valuable insight into the mechanisms of visual coding. The technique of psychophysical adaptation has aptly been termed the psychologist's microelectrode because of its usefulness in investigating the coding of sensory information in the human brain. Its broader relevance though is illustrated by the increasing use of adaptation to study more cognitive aspects of vision such as the mechanisms of face perception and the neural substrates of visual awareness. -/- This book (...)
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  40. Moreno I. Coco & Frank Keller (2012). Scan Patterns Predict Sentence Production in the Cross-Modal Processing of Visual Scenes. Cognitive Science 36 (7):1204-1223.
    Most everyday tasks involve multiple modalities, which raises the question of how the processing of these modalities is coordinated by the cognitive system. In this paper, we focus on the coordination of visual attention and linguistic processing during speaking. Previous research has shown that objects in a visual scene are fixated before they are mentioned, leading us to hypothesize that the scan pattern of a participant can be used to predict what he or she will say. We test this hypothesis (...)
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  41. Sergi G. Costafreda (2012). Meta-Analysis, Mega-Analysis, and Task Analysis in fMRI Research. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (4):275-277.
    Lloyd (2011) presents highly suggestive results regarding the specificity of the link between particular brain areas and cognitive tasks. Some of his evidence is derived from the analysis of data from the BrainMap database (available: www.brainmap.org), which has become a fundamental resource for the conduct of functional neuroimaging meta-analysis. In the present note, some observations regarding the possibilities and pitfalls of meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging data are given as a complement to Lloyd's excellent exposition of the topic. Additionally, some comments (...)
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  42. Ronald E. Cranford & Barbara Killpatrick (1981). Tests in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: The Role of the Radioisotope Brain Scan. Bioethics Quarterly 3:67-72.
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  43. Wim E. Crusio (1997). Neuropsychological Inference Using a Microphrenological Approach Does Not Need a Locality Assumption. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):517-518.
    Although Farah makes a convincing case against the tenability of the locality assumption, she does not propose alternative research strategies that do not rest on this assumption. It is proposed here that we may profitably exploit individual differences in neuroanatomy and behavior. In combination with the use of adequate genetic methods, this approach does not need a locality assumption.
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  44. Thanh Dang-Vu & Martin Desseilles, Human Cognition During REM Sleep and the Activity Profile Within Frontal and Parietal Cortices: A Reappraisal of Functional Neuroimaging Data.
    In this chapter, we aimed at further characterizing the functional neuroanatomy of the human rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at the population level. We carried out a meta-analysis of a large dataset of positron emission tomography (PET) scans acquired during wakefulness, slow wave sleep and REM sleep, and focused especially on the brain areas in which the activity diminishes during REM sleep. Results show that quiescent regions are confined to the inferior and middle frontal cortex and to the inferior parietal (...)
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  45. H. Looren de Jong (1996). Brain Waves and Bridges: Comments on Hardcastle's “Discovering the Moment of Consciousness?“. Philosophical Psychology 9 (2):197 – 209.
    In this comment, a picture of ERP research is sketched that is slightly different from Hardcastle's account, in that it emphasises the functional characterisation of ERP components rather than the neurophysiological connections. It is suggested that selection pressure of ERP work on cognitive and neurophysiological theories and vice versa is a more apt metaphor for intertheoretical relations in this field than explanatory extension. Secondly, it is argued that the temporal characteristics of ERP components do not support Hardcastle's claim that they (...)
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  46. Guillermo Del Pinal & Marco J. Nathan (2013). There and Up Again: On the Uses and Misuses of Neuroimaging in Psychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology 30 (4):233-252.
    The aim of this article is to discuss the conditions under which functional neuroimaging can contribute to the study of higher cognition. We begin by presenting two case studies—on moral and economic decision making—which will help us identify and examine one of the main ways in which neuroimaging can help advance the study of higher cognition. We agree with critics that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies seldom “refine” or “confirm” particular psychological hypotheses, or even provide details of the neural (...)
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  47. Athena Demertzi & Steven Laureys (2012). Where in the Brain is Pain? : Evaluating Painful Experiences in Non-Communicative Patients. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press. 89.
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  48. Jocelyn Downie & Michael Hadskis (2005). Finding the Right Compass for Issue-Mapping in Neuroimaging. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (2):27 – 29.
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  49. Gerald M. Edelman (2006). Synthetic Neural Modeling and Brain-Based Devices. Biological Theory 1 (1):8-9.
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  50. Sarah J. L. Edwards (2012). Protecting Privacy Interests in Brain Images : The Limits of Consent. In Sarah Richmond, Geraint Rees & Sarah J. L. Edwards (eds.), I Know What You're Thinking: Brain Imaging and Mental Privacy. Oxford University Press.
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