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Summary In Philosophy of Science, 'scientific practice' refers to activities whose aim is the achievement of scientific goals. More specifically, the category of scientific practice covers everything scientists do when they engage in the production of scientific knowledge. These activities include discovering, experimenting, measuring, modeling, observing, predicting, simulating, and so on, as well as using instruments in the pursuit of scientific goals. In recent years, there has been a shift in Philosophy of Science from an emphasis on scientific theories to an emphasis on actual scientific practices (see, for example, the mission statement of the Society for Philosophy of Science in Practice at http://www.philosophy-science-practice.org/en/).
Key works Some key works include Kuhn 1962, Hacking 1983, Longino 1990, Solomon 2001, Wylie 2002, Baird 2002, Chang 2004, and Douglas 2009.
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  1. Peter Achinstein & Owen Hannaway (1985). Observation, Experiment, and Hypothesis in Modern Physical Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  2. Russel L. Ackoff (1954). Book Review:An Introduction to Scientific Research E. Bright Wilson, Jr. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 21 (4):354-.
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  3. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora (1999). Editorial: Formal and Informal Representations of Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (1):1-2.
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  4. Joseph Agassi (1984). III. The Cheapening of Science∗. Inquiry 27 (1-4):166-172.
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  5. Joseph Agassi (1980). Between Science and Technology. Philosophy of Science 47 (1):82-99.
    Basic research or fundamental research is distinct from both pure and applied research, in that it is pure research with expected useful results. The existence of basic or fundamental research is problematic, at least for both inductivists and instrumentalists, but also for Popper. Assuming scientific research to be the search for explanatory conjectures and for refutations, and assuming technology to be the search of conjectures and some corroborations, we can easily place basic or fundamental research between science and technology as (...)
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  6. Evandro Agazzi (2012). Rethinking Philosophy of Science Today. Journal of Philosophical Research 37 (Supplement):85-101.
    Modern philosophy of science was, initially, an epistemology of science based on the logical analysis of the language of science. It was superseded by a “sociological epistemology,” according to which the acceptance of scientific statements and theories depends on conditioningscoming from the social context and powers, and this view has fueled anti-scientific attitudes.This happened because the sociological turn still expressed an epistemology of science. Science, however, is not only a system of knowledge, but also a complex human activity. Hence, ethical, (...)
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  7. Philip W. Anderson (1997). Is Measurement Itself an Emergent Property? Complexity 3 (1):14-16.
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  8. Jacques Arsac & Académie D'éducation Et D'études Sociales (2000). Au Risque de la Science les Conséquences Éducatives Et Sociales du Développement Scientifique Et Technique. Annales 1999-2000. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  9. Lawrence Badash (2000). Science and McCarthyism. Minerva 38 (1):53-80.
    Students of the `long' McCarthy period in the United States – fromthe late 1940s through the 1950s – have paid inadequate attentionto the effects of this oppressive time upon science. Visa andpassport denials, loyalty oaths, security investigations, andother problems placed in the paths of scientists no doubthindered science. But they also increased the political maturityof its practitioners, a fact of which recent events make usparticularly aware.
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  10. D. Baird (2004). The End of Pure Science: Science Policy From Bayh-Dole to the NNI. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios 217.
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  11. Anouk Barberousse, Henri Galinon & Marion Vorms, Collaborative Computer Simulations in Climate Science.
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  12. Ditta Bartels (1985). Science in Society. Metascience 3:3.
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  13. Ruth Barton (1998). Just Before Nature: The Purposes of Science and the Purposes of Popularization in Some English Popular Science Journals of the 1860s. Annals of Science 55 (1):1-33.
    Summary Popular science journalism flourished in the 1860s in England, with many new journals being projected. The time was ripe, Victorian men of science believed, for an ?organ of science? to provide a means of communication between specialties, and between men of science and the public. New formats were tried as new purposes emerged. Popular science journalism became less recreational and educational. Editorial commentary and reviewing the progress of science became more important. The analysis here emphasizes those aspects of popular (...)
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  14. Diderik Batens, Jean Paul van Bendegem & International Union of the History and Philosophy of Science (1988). Theory and Experiment Recent Insights and New Perspectives on Their Relation. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  15. Claus Beisbart (2012). How Can Computer Simulations Produce New Knowledge? European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):395-434.
    It is often claimed that scientists can obtain new knowledge about nature by running computer simulations. How is this possible? I answer this question by arguing that computer simulations are arguments. This view parallels Norton’s argument view about thought experiments. I show that computer simulations can be reconstructed as arguments that fully capture the epistemic power of the simulations. Assuming the extended mind hypothesis, I furthermore argue that running the computer simulation is to execute the reconstructing argument. I discuss some (...)
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  16. Mara Beller (2003). Inevitability, Inseparability and Gedanken Measurement. In A. Ashtekar (ed.), Revisiting the Foundations of Relativistic Physics. 439--450.
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  17. Andrew Belsey (1987). Objectivity, Science and Society: Interpreting Nature and Society in the Age of the Crisis of Science. Philosophical Books 28 (3):188-189.
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  18. Mieke Boon (2004). Technological Instruments in Scientific Experimentation. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):221 – 230.
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  19. Georgina Born & Andrew Barry (2013). To Public Experiment. In Andrew Barry & Georgina Born (eds.), Interdisciplinarity: Reconfigurations of the Social and Natural Sciences. Routledge 247.
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  20. Marcel Boumans, Giora Hon & Arthur Petersen (eds.) (forthcoming). Error and Uncertainty in Scientific Practice. Pickering & Chatto.
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  21. David Braddon‐Mitchell (1991). Nature's Capacities and Their Measurement. Philosophical Books 32 (4):201-209.
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  22. Walter Brinke, David Squire & John Bigelow, Similarity: Measurement, Ordering and Betweenness.
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  23. Harcourt Brown, Karl Wolfgagng Deutsch & American Council of Learned Societies Devoted to Humanistic Studies (1958). Science and the Creative Spirit Essays on Humanistic Aspects of Science. University of Toronto Press.
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  24. Anna Brozek & Jacek Jadacki (2012). Thought Experiments in Science. Filozofia Nauki 20 (1).
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  25. D. J. Bryden (1992). Scientific Instruments and Experimental Philosophy, 1550–1850. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 25 (3):383-383.
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  26. D. J. Bryden (1976). Van Marum's Scientific Instruments in Teyler's Museum. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 9 (1):69-70.
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  27. David Bryden (1977). Scientific Instruments by Harriet Wynter and Anthony Turner. History of Science 15:297-298.
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  28. Rudolf Carnap (2009). Theory and Observation. In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell 329.
  29. Martin Carrier & Alfred Nordmann (2011). Science in the Context of Application: Methodological Change, Conceptual Transformation, Cultural Reorientation. In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer 1--7.
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  30. Nancy Cartwright (1993). How We Relate Theory to Observation. In Paul Horwich (ed.), World Changes. Thomas Kuhn and the Nature of Science. MIT Press 259--273.
  31. Suresh Chandra (1979). Identity and Thought Experiment. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (3):444-446.
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  32. John J. Compton (1962). Understanding Science. Dialectica 16 (2):155-176.
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  33. Richard J. Connell (2000). From Observables to Unobservables in Science and Philosophy. Upa.
    From Observables to Unobservables in Science and Philosophy focuses on knowing unobservable real things or attributes by means of observing real things or attributes, a topic central to twentieth-century scientific philosophy. Engaging both current and perennial issues in metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of nature and of science, Connell writes from a realist perspective. He adds a cogent, well written, and much needed voice to the current debate over foundationalism from the perspective of the undersubscribed quarter of empirical realism. Principal audiences for (...)
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  34. D. P. Dash (2009). Science as Reflective Practice: A Review of Frederick Grinnell's Book, Everyday Practice of Science. [REVIEW] Journal of Research Practice 5 (1):Article R1.
    Review of "Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic." Book by Frederick Grinnell.
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  35. Stevan Dedijer & Guy Hunter (1964). The Unity of Scientific Policy ДВАЖЦЫ ДВА = Two Times Two = = 2×2. Minerva 3 (1):126-130.
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  36. Ivano Dionigi (ed.) (2007). I Classici E la Scienza: Gli Antichi, I Moderni, Noi. Biblioteca Universale Rizzoli.
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  37. Alex Dolby (2004). Fabulous Science: Fact and Fiction in the History of Scientific Discovery. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 37 (2):236-237.
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  38. H. Drubba & H. H. Rust (1954). On the First Echo-Sounding Experiment. Annals of Science 10 (1):28-32.
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  39. Pierre Duhem (2009). Against Crucial Experiments. In Timothy J. McGrew, Marc Alspector-Kelly & Fritz Allhoff (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Historical Anthology. Wiley-Blackwell 292.
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  40. K. Dunbar (1994). Scientific Discovery Heuristics: How Current Day Scientists Generate New Hypotheses and Make Scientific Discoveries. In Ashwin Ram & Kurt Eiselt (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Erlbaum 985--986.
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  41. Kevin Dunbar (2003). Scientific Thought. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group
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  42. Otis Duncan & Lisa Parmelee (2005). Dr. Franklin’s Other Experiment. Free Inquiry 25.
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  43. Richard Dunn (2008). Making Scientific Instruments in the Industrial Revolution. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 41 (3):459-460.
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  44. N. F. Dupuis (1980). An Address Delivered at the Opening of the Thirty-First Session of Queen's College, Oct. 2, 1872.
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  45. Ronald Edari (1992). “Underclass”: Problems Of Conceptualization And Measurement. Nature, Society, and Thought 5 (1):7-22.
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  46. Rawad El Skaf & Cyrille Imbert (2013). Unfolding in the Empirical Sciences: Experiments, Thought Experiments and Computer Simulations. Synthese 190 (16):3451-3474.
    Experiments (E), computer simulations (CS) and thought experiments (TE) are usually seen as playing different roles in science and as having different epistemologies. Accordingly, they are usually analyzed separately. We argue in this paper that these activities can contribute to answering the same questions by playing the same epistemic role when they are used to unfold the content of a well-described scenario. We emphasize that in such cases, these three activities can be described by means of the same conceptual framework—even (...)
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  47. Rolf Elberfeld (2013). FILOZOFIA A UMELECKÁ PRAX Filozoílcko-interkultúrny experiment, leto 2012, Univerzita v Hildesheime. Filozofia 68 (5).
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  48. Anna Estany (forthcoming). The Stabilizing Role of Material Structure in Scientific Practice. Philosophy Study.
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  49. Charles Carroll Everett (1890). The Science of Thought. The Monist 1:287.
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  50. Horace L. Fairlamb (2008). Experiments in Ethics (Review). Symploke 16 (1):324-327.
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